Airway Evaluation Using Ultrasound for Predicting Difficult Intubation
Dr Vishma K*1, Dr Nagesh B2, Dr Prithi J3, Dr Sunil B V4*
Difficult intubation is one of the main challenges in anaesthesiology . There are many clinical criteria that were introduced with regard to evaluation of the patient’s airway before induction of anaesthesia, including Mallampati classification, mouth-opening, thyromental distance, neck extension, jaw protrusion, upper-lip bite test etc. Prospective Observational study conducted with 84 patients posted for elective surgical procedure. Airway was examined by both clinical and ultrasound. This study found that the correlation between the ultrasonographic parameters and Cormack-Lehane grade were weak or very weak, and can be assumed to have limited clinical significance.
Macroeconomic Dynamics and Unemployment in Nigeria: The Moderating Role of Government Expenditure
Eunice O. Akhigbe1, Ese Urhie2, Ebenezer I. Bowale3
This study examines the interactive effect of government expenditure and credit to the private sector as well as inflation and economic growth on unemployment rate in Nigeria. It employed ARDL and annual data from 1991 to 2021. The bounds test of the ARDL specification suggests the presence of cointegration among the variables. Which include unemployment, inflation, economic growth, credit to the private sector and government expenditure. Thus, there is a significant long run relationship between unemployment and the explanatory variables. The long run ARDL shows that economic growth government expenditure (both capital and recurrent) as well as the interaction between government recurrent expenditure and credit to the private sector have negative impact on unemployment. The result confirms the Okun’s law nexus. It also shows that increase in government spending and its interaction with credit to the private sector holds prospects for reducing unemployment rate in Nigeria. On the other hand, inflation, credit to the private sector and its interaction with government capital expenditure have a positive impact on unemployment in Nigeria. Thus, the findings failed to support the Phillips curve hypothesis in Nigeria. The study recommends thatdevelopment financial institutions such as the Bank of Industry (BOI) should be mandated to allocate a higher proportion of their credit to job-creating ventures. Also, the problem of corruption should be addressed in order to enhance the efficiency of government spending.
An Exploratory Study on Trade Credit Management and Firm Profitability
Babajimi-Joseph Adekemi, Ogunnaike Olaleke, Kehinde Oladele, Perez Ayorinde
Small and Medium Enterprises play a vital role in the growth of an economy by providing employment, contributing to GDP, and promoting entrepreneurship and innovation. Trade credit, in the form of extended payment terms offered by suppliers, can help SMEs access necessary goods and services to run their operations, improve cash flow, and increase profitability. However, there is currently a dearth of empirical research on the connection between Trade credit and SMEs' profitability, highlighting the need for more research in this field. The purpose of the study is to analyze the approach taken by SME businesses to managing their customer receivables and to look into the connection between Trade credit and business profitability. Secondary data from Scopus was reviewed and findings show that trade credit can positively impact the organization's profitability, but poor management can result in decreased profitability. Credit management technique that balances liquidity and profitability is needed for high-level account receivables management.
Clinical Significance of FNAC in Diagnosis of Pediatric Cervical Lymphadenopathy
Suganya R1*& Sivaprasath P2
Problem: Cervical lymphadenopathy is common in pediatric age group by which the presence of one or more lymph nodes with or without abnormalities. Due to higher observation of congenital abnormalities, infections and malignancy, differential diagnosis of persistent nodular change in the neck is different among childhood. The objective of this study is to analyze the clinical and pathological diagnoses of cervical lymphadenopathy with special emphasize to Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Methodology: A detailed clinical examination and history is the initial approach to these children presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy. Majority of the children had focus in draining areas in throat, ear and scalp on clinical examination. These children were treated with appropriate antibiotics for 4 weeks. Non responders were subjected to FNAC for further evaluation. Children with strong suspicion of systemic illness like tuberculosis having positive contact history, Mantoux positivity, chest Xray abnormality and constitutional symptoms were subjected to FNAC. Based on cytological findings, granulomatous and caseating adenitis was treated with ATT under RNTCP guidelines. Findings: In this study, the age group from 5 to 8 recorded more (46.7%) and male predominated (53.3%). Swelling neck and fever are the prime clinical symptoms noted with 80% each followed by cough (72%). While comparing various groups of cervical lymphnodes, anterior cervical dominated with 41.3% followed by sub-mandibular (33.3%) and posterior cervical (12%). The FNAC findings of lymphnodes determined reactive hyperplasia (74.7%) among maximum patients followed by granulomatous lymphadenitis (13.3%). Overall, 88% of clinical diagnosis was correlated well with FNAC. Conclusion: Although FNAC is a reliable diagnostic tool with minimum complications when compared to other tests, its specificity remains high when it is correlated with other investigations in detecting granulomatous lesions especially tuberculosis.
Influence of Media Reportage of Flood Management on the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Residents of South-South Nigeria
1Boniface Ossai Onyedi, 2Joseph Oluchukwu Wogu
This research which examined Influence of Media Reportage of Flood Management on the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Residents of South-South, Nigeria was aimed at filling the gap in existing literature on disaster mitigation and management in Nigeria. Five objectives wereraised in the study.The agenda setting theory and the theory of reasoned action and planned behavior served as the theoretical basis for the study, while survey and in-depth interview methods were used.A total of 479respondents from the selected flood impacted states of Rivers, Bayelsa and Delta in addition to sampled opinions of 15 respondents in an in depth interviews were gathered. Findings revealed that the level of exposure was occasional (66.3%), with radio being the major source (88.2%) and most of the responses on attitude towards media reports of flood management were found more on positive attitude towards the media messages. The study reveals and concludes that there is a connection between exposure to media messages and its believability over time in what is understood in the media message as well as the positive attitude developed as a result of what is believed about the media message. The study thenrecommends among other things that media campaigns on issues of public interest should be reported more frequently for the audience to attach more importance to it and give the needed attention to such messages.
The Role of Government Policies on Industrial Growth and Performance in India for Public Sector Enterprises
Roshan Baa, Dr. A.K. Chattoraj
Government policies are needed for public sector enterprises to develop its industrial growth and performance in the Indian market. Occupational safety and industrial relations codes are essential policies to develop the financial conditions successfully. This is beneficial for public sector enterprises for providing workplace safety to employees by which these individuals feel safe at the time of working. The aim of this study is to understand the roles of government policies on industrial growth and performance in India for public sector enterprises. In this study, secondary quantitative data have been collected to interpret the study successfully. Market size of public sector enterprises is enhanced by government policies in the Indian market. This is immensely essential to maintain industrial growth and development successfully. The highest market size was gained in the year 2020 to enhance profitability and productivity of public sector enterprises. Import and export value to GDP ratio is improved by the roles of government policies.
Health Outcomes, Poverty and Economic Growth In Sub-Saharan Africa: A Cross-Sectional Augmented Autoregressive Distributed Lag Approach
Chukwuedo S. Oburota1, Felix A. Eke1, Friday B. Agala1& Ihuoma C. Eke1
The relationship between health outcomes and economic growth, though widely debated is far from being settled, and this inconclusiveness may be partly explained by the high levels of poverty and low living standards which is pervasive in the continent. Studies have proposed that the presence of poverty could serve to moderate the impact of improved health outcomes on economic growth. This study seeks to investigate how health outcomes and poverty influence economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa. Cross-sectional augmented autoregressive distributed lag (CS-ARDL) approach is utilized to ascertain the short and long-run impact of life expectancy, infant mortality, and economic discomfort index on the growth of per capita GDP in SSA countries in the presence of cross-sectional dependence. A robustness and consistency analysis of the CS-ARDL estimates also employs a complementary framework, the cross-sectional augmented distributed Lag (CS-DL) technique. The results of the study indicate that the combined influence of infant mortality and poverty causes economic growth to deteriorate in the region. Interestingly, the interaction of life expectancy and economic discomfort index is shown to be positively and significantly related to economic growth in the short run, but in the long run, it becomes negatively related to economic growth. This study concludes that over time the persistence of poverty in SSA countries erodes the benefits of improved life expectancy, and invariably exerts an adverse effect on economic growth. Thus, there is an urgent need to address the menace of widespread poverty and poor health outcomes in the region.
Corporate Governance and Economic Growth in Nigeria: The Role of Monetary Policy
Jude U. Nwafor*, Felix Awara Eke**,IhuomaChikulirim Eke**, Chukwuedo Susan Oburota**,Margaret OnwanyiOnoyom**, and Frances Ngozi Obafemi
Thisstudy investigated the impact of monetary policy and corporate governance on economic growth in Nigeria. The study employed time series data obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin, World Development Indicators, and the National Bureau of Statistics. Per capita GDP growthwas used to proxy economicgrowth andcorporate governance was proxied by variables such as the number of contraventions/sanctions reported in audit activities; policy on insider trading/market abuse; risk management committee; disclosure and transparency; and shareholders right.Monetary policy was captured by broad money supplyand exchange rate. Autoregressive Distributive Lag (ARDL) technique was used for estimation. The result revealed a long-run relationship among the estimated variables. The result of the Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) shows that monetary policy and corporate governance variables significantly impacted economic growth, but corporate governance hada more significant impact on economic growth than monetary policy. The study made the following recommendations:that effective monetary policy framework which impacts positively on the real variable to promote economic growth and development should be implemented in the country; efficient management of the monetary system through ensuring a well-developed financial and strict adherence to code of corporate governance in order toboost theconfidence of investors to make informed decisions about their investments.
Assessment of Housing Infrastructure on the Residents Well-being in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria
Odekunle Folasade Jokotade, Adewole,Hakeem.A, Adebayo Gabriel Olabisi, Owolabi Muhydeen
Housing is often viewed as a bedrock for measuring viable economy in any country of the world. Its quality is one of the major factors that contribute to the well-being of the citizens. This paper identified the levels of residents' satisfaction with housing components, and assessed the relationship between their socio-economic characteristics and housing satisfaction. Primary and secondary sources were used. Questionnaire, direct interview and observation were used. The study area was delineated, accordingly, into ten wards, which are classified into three categories, one ward is selected under each category as the sampling frame for the research study. 236 houses were selected across the categories of wards in the study area using a random sampling method, from which 232 copies of the questionnaire were retrieved for analysis. The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings revealed that the level of dissatisfaction with quality-of-life correlates significantly with that of housing components as p = 0.02 (p < 0.05). The result shows that much of the variance in the quality-of-life is explained by the regression model (R= 0.732), and coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.536); which implies that the regression model explains 53.6% of the residual variation in the level of dissatisfaction with the quality of life of the residents' socio-economic status. The remaining percentage could be explained by other factors, which are beyond the scope of this study. It is therefore recommended that government at all levels should see to the provision of housing infrastructural facilities, particularly in the low and medium income-earners residential areas, to forestall a low level of satisfaction by the residents; thus, improving the well-being of the citizens/residents and enhancing their productivity.
Determination of the Funding Options for Real Estate Project Delivery in Nigeria
1Echeme Ibeawuchi Ifeanyi and 2Moneke Uchenna Ugochi
The essence of this study is to determine the funding options for real estate project delivery in Nigeria.The goals include determining the funding choices for real estate project delivery in Nigeria and determining the degree of association between funding options and real estate project delivery. 183 respondents were used as the data collection method in a questionnaire.Using Kendall's test of concordance and the relative significance index, the data were examined. The results of Kendall's test reveal a substantial association between the delivery of real estate projects and each of the 10 indicated funding choices. According to the RII report, trade credits are the most significant source of funding for the execution of real estate projects in Nigeria. The study comes to the conclusion that trade credits made possible by off-plan advance payments (brand equity) are the best financing choices for Nigerian real estate project developers.