Innovations is internationally peer-reviewed journal. Innovations aim to publish original research articles and review articles in diverse fields of Social Sciences and related. This is non-profit, non-stock refereed scientific journal in the world. Innovations is quarterly publication with non-commercial purpose. Innovations Journal has been indexed in the well-known world databases such as Scopus and Cosmos . Innovations recognized as a primary instrument for projecting and supporting the goals and objectives, which include scholarly research and the free exchange of ideas. Innovations appreciate systematic reviews, original papers, and peer-reviewed research on all aspects of social science and some field of Science.

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➡ Papers are invite for publication in 73 Number (June 2023) ➡ Innovations is active Scopus and Scimago indexed journal➡ Scopus Cite score (2022) 00.90 and Scientific Journal Ranking (2022) 0.228➡ Journal update make in every 15 days
Current Issue

Application of Monte Carlo Simulation in Risk Analysis of Combustion Inspection Project Cost

Dr. Enyinna Gregory. C Dr. Uche. U. Moneke Dr. Uche, Ijioma & Uba Akadike


This study applied Monte Carlo Simulation in carrying out risk analysis of general electric (GE) Frame 9E Gas Turbine Prepared for Combustion Inspection at Transcop power Limited (TPL) with the aim of modelling the company’s combustion inspection project cost. Secondary data was acquired from the company for simulation using MATLAB®, Python®, @Risk® of Palisade Corporation which is an add-in program for Microsoft® Office Excel, and the Crystal Ball of Oracle®. That made it possible to define probability of continuous stochastic variable as variable value that is included in a specified interval using Monte Carlo Simulation principles. Data were acquired on monthly basis for the years 2014 to 2020 which made it possible for us to ascertain these facts, from Simulation result indicated that it is possible to carry out any of the three turnaround projects on GT4 to GT13 with a project cost of 255 million naira when adequately managed, while 580 million would be sufficient for GT15 to GT20. Thus, risk analysis on combustion inspection project cost helped facilitate efficient process of turnaround maintenance project without delaying the process which can eventually affect the efficiency of the mode of operations of the Turbine or create a possible condition of equipment breakdown. This process through the aid of Monte Carlo risk simulation created high accuracy for risk management of combustion inspection project cost at Trancop power Limited.  

An Investigation into Students Argumentative Essay through Question-based Writing Instruction

Wubante Mekonnen Seyoum, Abiy Yigzaw, Haile Kassahun Bewuketu,


The main aim of this study was to examine the effects of questioning on students’ argumentative essay writing skills. To this effect, the pretest-posttest comparison group design was employed. The data were collected from sixty undergraduate management second year students using text analysis. Based on this, the data from texts were analyzed thematically. The qualitative finding obtained through text analysis of the students’ argumentative essay writing showed that the treatment group produced better than that of the comparison group. Based on the finding of the study, it was concluded that questioning method helped students improve their argumentative writing skills. The implications drawn from the finding of this research suggest that promoting argumentative essay writing skills through questioning would work best in the Ethiopian context if the classroom teacher is given further training on it.  

Effects of sample size and dispersion on quantile based plots for detecting normality

Isaac O. Ajao, Awogbemi C. Adeyeye and Urama Kenneth Ugochukwu


A lot of researchers handling data want their data tested for normality before proceeding to further statistical analysis. The classical tests for the assessment of normality among others are Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test, Lilliefors corrected K-S test, Shapiro-Wilk test, Shapiro-Francia test, Anderson-Darling test, Cramer-von Mises test, D’Agostinoskewness test, Anscombe-Glynn kurtosis test, D’Agostino-Pearson omnibus test, and the Jarque-Bera test. The visual methods commonly used are the histogram, boxplot, pp-plot, qqplot, and the stem-and-leaf plot. This paper seeks to find out the effect of sample and dispersion on quantile based plots for detecting normality in montecarlo simulated and the transformed data. It was observed that as the sample size increases the data approaches normality, while it suffers departure as standard deviation increases. It is therefore recommended that the visual methods, especially the qq-plot be used for detecting normality only when the sample size is low and the standard deviation is high.  

Evolution of commodity market: effect of Covid 19 era

Dr. Veronica N. Ndubuisi


Evolution of commodity trading can be traced to the agricultural revolution of 8500 BC during which farmers and traders fashioned a means to secure prices of commodities against price fluctuations caused by weather, conflict, demand and supply gap. While the Egyptian Exchange was established in 1861, the Nigerian Commodity Market came on board not until 1990s. Nigeria has been the suppliers of raw materials to Western Europe and prices and conditions of trade dictated by them. The Covid-19 postmortem era has brought in new dimensions in Nigeria commodity marketing with global consequences of demand and supply shock, global energy crisis and US Dollar acceleration and squeeze. Consequently, the functioning system of Nigeria commodity marketing is bound to have several prongs, such as inadequate transport system, storage facilities and support ancilliary base. Hence, it is recommended for rejuvenation of the commodity market in general and agricultural sector in particular.  

Empirical Investigation of the Political Determinants of Defense Expenditure: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

Anthony Orji , Anthony Edache Eyimoga, Jonathan E. Ogbuabor, Peter N. Mba, Ikubor. O. Jude, Onyinye I. Anthony-Orji. Ndubuisi Isaac


Problem: Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) is a region that is very young in terms of democratic practices. This is due to the fact that most SSA countries fought for their independence which was given to the countries in the region by the Colonialists who are mostly from the United Kingdom, Portugal, France, Belgium etc. This independence was gotten within the period1960 to 1980. As a result, these new nations in SSA started forming political parties in other to form governments that will rule their country. However, SSA started witnessing large scale political instability since the reign of independence. This has led most SSA countries to have authoritarians as heads of state. In view of these problems, this research investigated the impact of political factors on defense expenditure in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Design/Methodology/Approach: The study used data covering for the period 2000 to 2019. Variables used include previous defense expenditure, military in politics, ethnic conflict and external conflict. Descriptive statistics and unit root test were also carried out. The Generalized method of moment by Arrelano and Bond (1991) was used for estimation. Findings: The findings showed that apart from previous defense spending, other political factors determined defense expenditure remotely for the period of study. Conclusion: As a result of this, the study recommends that policy makers should always review previous military spending and their outcomes before carrying out any other expenditure on defense so as to avoid waste of scarce resources. Again, political factors should not be used as the only deciding factor when dealing with spending on defense so as to avoid arms importation which could be used to achieve political aims and for other negative purposes.

An Investigation into the Utilization of Information Resources by Inmates of Correctional Centres in Delta State Nigeria

Obaro, G. O. (Ph.D) and Ekeno Precious Eroboghene


The study probed the utilisation of information resources by inmates of correctional centres in Delta State. The descriptive survey was used, and the multi-sampling techniques were utilised to select the sample size of 341 respondents out of a population of 2,821 respondents. Five correctional centres in Delta State Nigeria were studied namely the correctional centres in Agbor, Kwale, Ogwashi-Uku, Sapele, and Warri. A research-developed instrument was employed for collection of data which was content validated by three experts in the Library and Information Science, and Measurement and Evaluation departments, of Delta State University, Abraka. A test re-test reliability was ascertained with a coefficient of 0.85. Data collected were analysed using mean frequencies and simple percentages. The finding showed that religious books, dictionaries, and inspirational materials were among the resources utilised by inmates, though they were lowly utilised. They were also helpful in building their spiritual lives as they were incarcerated. The study, therefore, recommended that programmes that will help them use the library should be introduced.  

Renewable energy consumption, sustainable development and food security nexus: Insights from Nigeria

Christiana O. Hassan, Eyitemi A. Fasanu, Henry Okodua, Gershon Obindah, Oluwatoyin Matthew


Nigeria is poised to lead Africa in the drive to achieve increased renewable energy consumption and food security. It is also one of the leading fossil fuel and mineral deposit locations in the world, as well as the largest oil producer in Africa. This implied that there are high levels of mineral and fossil fuel depletions, which set the stage for the consideration of adjusted net savings. This study aims to investigate the relationship among renewable energy consumption, food security and Adjusted Net Savings (ANS) in Nigeria. The study will use secondary data from 1990 to 2019 to examine the central, correlation, and dispersion behavior of the variables considered in this study, and provide background information and recommendations for future studies. The findings of this study will provide insights into the effectiveness of Nigeria's policies and programs aimed at promoting sustainable development and improving food security, with potential implications for other developing countries facing similar challenges.  

3d matrices in periodontal regeneration a new vista

Sai suruthi Subramanian, Savithri N.K, Sangeetha S, Gautham Kumar N, Krishnan. C. S, Gowrishankar. N, Jesintha Mary.M


Technology has become an essential part of dentistry in recent years that led to the development of devices and tools to improve treatment methods and teaching in the fields of end odontics, implant, craniofacial, maxillofacial, orthognathic, and periodontal treatments. 3D Bioprinting is an evolving technology in the field of regenerative medicine that allows the fabrication of living tissues using the living cells by the printing process. Since, periodontitis has become more prevailing disease among the population; there is a requirement for increased periodontal regenerative procedures to restore normal healthy periodontium for the patients. The 3D printing technologies have the advantages of high material utilization and the capability to manufacture a single complex geometry; nevertheless, they have the demerits of high cost and time-consuming post processing. The development of new materials and technologies will be the future trend of 3D printing in dentistry, and there is no denying that 3D printing will have a vivid future.  


➡ Papers are invite for publication in 73 Number (June 2023)

➡ Innovations is active Scopus and Scimago indexed journal

➡ Scopus Cite score (2022) 00.90 and Scientific Journal Ranking (2022) 0.228

➡ Journal update make in every 15 days