Innovations is internationally peer-reviewed journal. Innovations aim to publish original research articles and review articles in diverse fields of Social Sciences and related. This is non-profit, non-stock refereed scientific journal in the world. Innovations is quarterly publication with non-commercial purpose. Innovations Journal has been indexed in the well-known world databases such as Scopus and Cosmos . Innovations recognized as a primary instrument for projecting and supporting the goals and objectives, which include scholarly research and the free exchange of ideas. Innovations appreciate systematic reviews, original papers, and peer-reviewed research on all aspects of social science and some field of Science.

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➡ Papers are invite for publication in 72 Number (March 2023) ➡ Wish all Researcher and Editor, Reviewer HAPPY NEW YEAR 2023➡ Innovations is active Scopus indexed journal➡ Scopus Cite score (2022) 00.90 and Scientific Journal Ranking (2022) 0.228➡ Journal update make in every 15 days
Current Issue

Determinants of non-performing loans in Nigerian deposit money banks

Saliu Hakeem Tomi, Nwankwo Odi, Emmanuel OgwuIdih


This study focused on the NPLs in Nigerian DMB with reference to salient determinants. The study aimed at determining the effect of loan to total asset ratio on the NPL of Nigerian DMB, and finding out the effect of capital adequacy ratio on the NPL of Nigerian DMB. Cross-sectional research design was used. The study considered the fourteen (14) DMB that are listed on the NSE as at 2019. This study used panel data analysis. It is estimated through either fixed effect or random effect models. Descriptive Statistics, Correlation Matrix and Regression (Pooled, FEM and REM) were employed.Findings revealed that loan-to-total asset significantly influence NPLs of DMB in Nigeria. Finding further showed that CAR has a positive but insignificant influence on NPLs. The study recommended that Loan to Total Asset Ratio should be reduced, and that the CBN should encourage bank managers to invest more on less risky investments with fixed interest income such as government bonds, this will enable the bank to minimize the level of the bank risky assets and losses that may arise from NPL.  

An Empirical Study on the Determinants of Service quality in Telecom Industry-A Case Study on BSNL

Dr. U. Kanaka Rao, Dr. Danda Udaya Shekhar, Dr. A. Yashoda,


The present paper addresses services quality determinants in Telecom sector with special reference to  BSNL mobile users. Service quality is the global evaluation or attitude of overall excellence of service. Whether an organization provides quality services or not will depend on the customers’ feedback on the satisfaction they get from consuming the products, since higher levels of service quality lead to higher levels of customer satisfaction.  Service quality was found to have significant impact on customer satisfaction and value perceptions. In recent years the BSNL revenue and market share plunged into heavy losses due to intense competition in the Indian telecommunications sector. In this connection it is very important to analyze how BSNL is providing quality of services with that how BSNL customers are satisfied. A sample of 1000 respondents on the basis of stratified random sampling has been chosen for the study. The data collected were processed, analyzed and interpreted by applying statistical tools like descriptive statistics (mean, mode, median) were used to measure the SERVQUAL dimensions which are reliability, responsiveness, empathy, assurance and tangibility.  

An empirical study on staffs perceptions of transactional leadership behaviours among departmental heads at Malaysian tertiary institutions

Yuk Fong Chin, Fung Lan Yong & Ming Ha Lee


The purpose of this study was to examine staff’s perceptions of the cruciality of transactional leadership behaviours among department heads at private tertiary institutions. The study was limited to 56 administrative and teaching staff from three private colleges in Sabah and Sarawak as well as an Australian-based university in Sarawak.  The Transactional Scale/Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) was administered online to collect data that were subsequently analysed at 0.05 significant level using SPSS 26.0.  The p-values of a Mann-Whitney U test indicated no significant gender differences in staff’s perceptions of transactional leadership, except for “making changes when necessary” with male staff scoring higher than their female counterparts.  Additionally, the p-values of a Kruskal-Wallis H test revealed no significant differences for all the transactional items in terms of age and qualifications.  However, a one-sample Wilcoxon test revealed that the p-values for all the items were less than 0.05 significant level, where the median value for each of the items was significantly greater than the hypothesised value of 3.5.  

The Cashew Plantation: Green growth for environmental management and sustainable livelihood in Dekina, Nigeria.

Olarewaju Oluseyi Ifatimehin, Emmanuel Onuche Momoh, Patrick Samson Udama Eneche


The last century has suffered significant changes associated with global warming and biodiversity loss; these environmental problems are triggered by man's anthropogenic activities in the form of land use/land cover change, and emission of Green House Gases. This causes the environment and inhabitants to be more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change such as heat waves, flood events, biodiversity loss and loss of livelihood, as unstable climate conditions threaten agricultural activities. However, embracing a strategy that will promote a green economy by reducing the effects of climate change and enhancing food security may secure and boost the livelihood of the inhabitants. This study examined the cashew plantation as a panacea to extreme poverty, a tool for environmental management and sustainable development. To achieve this, the variation in cashew areal extent between 2002 and 2018 was determined using ArcGIS; a structured questionnaire was designed to identify the contribution of cashew farming to food supply, household income and environmental sustainability, among others. Seven hundred twelve cashew farmers were sampled in Dekina LGA of Kogi State. It was revealed that there has been an increase in the areal extent of cashew plantation from 261.9261sq/km in 2002 to 301.7943sq/km in 2018 indicating an annual increase of about 2.5 sq/km. An average of 25 bags of cashew nuts are harvested each season and sold at an average cost of N24,100.00 per bag. Therefore, within a farming season, the sum of N602,500.00 is earned by a cashew farmer. The Nagelkerke R Square result further revealed that 7.1% (0.071) of the variability in livelihood sustainability was explained by cashew farming. The economic viability of cashew farming in Dekina LGA is attracting more investments in expanding cashew farmland. Consequently, cashew farming is increasing the vegetal cover of the study area, which also enhances the ecosystem services and livelihood of the inhabitants. The government is encouraged to invest more in cashew farming as it has proven to be a green strategy for protecting the environment and enhancing local livelihood.  

Strategic intelligence and firm performance in the Nigerian banking industry: a study of selected banks in south-south geo political zone

Dr. Okwuise, U.Young


The study examined strategic intelligence and firm performance of selected banks in geo political zone in south-south Nigeria.  The specific objectives of the study were to; examine the impact of strategic fore-sighting on firm performance in the banking industry, ascertain the influence of strategic visioning on firm performance in the Nigerian banking industry, determine the extent to which competitive intelligence affect firm performance in the Nigerian banking industry and investigate the impact of knowledge management on firm performance in the banking industry. The study adopted descriptive research design method. Primary data was sourced through the administration of structured questionnaire to the employees of selected firms (respondents), while secondary data was gotten through the review of related literature. The study adopted descriptive research design method, which aid the researcher to collect quantitative data used to address the relationship between the dependent and independent variable. A total of 210 copies of questionnaire was administered adopting random sampling techniques, and 198 copies were properly filled and returned with was used for the study analysis. Data collected were analysed using the Pearson’s correlation co-efficient and hypotheses were tested using multiple regression approach. The findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between strategic intelligence factors (strategic fore-sighting, strategic visioning, competitive intelligence and knowledge management) identified in the study and firm performance of selected banks in Nigeria. The study concluded that all variables of strategic intelligence as used in this study were found as having strong positive and significant relationship with banking performance. The study recommended that The banking industry should imbibe the culture of strategic fore-sighting as this would possibly impact the banking industry favorably and employees should be sensitized to have strategic visioning capabilities as it helps to unify the organisational system in the alignment of all the parts of the organisation (values, systems, people, leadership, organisational structures, core competencies, etc.) necessary to achieve their vision and mission.    

Victimization of the Unorganized Sector in India: Issues and Challenges Faced by the Unorganized Workers



: In the present times the unorganised workers working under the Informal Sector consists of 92.3% of the total economy of India. The Unorganised Sector despite of being a large section in the total workforce only 0.4% of the total are provided with the social security benefits. The unorganised although is one of the largest contributors in the economy as well as development of the country is still the victim of the problems like comprising for the basic necessities of the livelihood to the problem of adversity. The workforce which is working at the grass root in the unorganised sector always become the victims of wage insecurity which includes low or poor wages as well as uncertain wages and have always been the victims of the invisibility and are never given priority or paid attention too. Despite of playing a very crucial role in the country’s economy the unorganised sector is the most neglected and victimized. The paper discusses all the problems and issues faced by the workers working in the unorganised sector and will further discuss the role of legislations and judiciary in providing Social Security to the Unorganised Sector.  

Enabling the enablers: Effect of peer tutoring approach on scholarly learning outcomes of French language undergraduates in Delta State University, Abraka

Dr. Emmanuel Ufuoma Tonukari


The study explored enable the enablers: effect of peer tutoring approach on the scholarly learning outcomes of French language undergraduates in Delta State University, Abraka. The study, an experimental study employed twenty-six (26) French language undergraduates. The instrument utilised for this study was a test instrument named “French Scholarly Learning Outcomes Test (FSLOT). Data were analysed utilising mean statistics and ANOVA. The result of the study proved that peer tutoring approach boosted the scholarly learning outcomes of undergraduates in French language; peer tutoring approach enhanced the scholarly learning outcomes of undergraduates of French language notwithstanding their sex. In conclusion, the study established that peer tutoring approach boosted the scholarly learning outcomes of undergraduates in French language, if applied in French language instruction, would increase undergraduates scholarly learning outcomes; the use and adoption of peer tutoring approach for instruction in French language would enhance the scholarly learning outcomes of French language undergraduates notwithstanding their sex. It was recommended that activity-based approaches should be integrated for instruction into the French language curriculum in tertiary institutions, French teachers/lecturers should instruct undergraduates with peer tutoring approach to aid the development and improvement in French language; peer tutoring approach should be utilised in French language instruction and learning regardless of their sex.  

Analysis of Customers Purchasing Behavior with RFM Model Using Machine Learning

Kavitha and Dr. S. Manikandan


Customers buying behavior has been predicted in modern techniques such as predictive analytics such as the RFM model and clustering algorithms have helped a lot to entice a customer.  In the competitive world, business people need to predict the pulse of customer shopping behavior with predictive analytics it is possible to see what a customer like more and shows interest in a particular product. The objective of this research paper is to retain loyal customers and attract new customers. In this paper, the implementation of a clustering algorithm to find the frequently purchased products has been conducted to analyze the purchases of a customer. Initially, the purchases have been studied by grouping the customer based on their country, name of products, and quantity of products on their past purchases, after that we get loyal customers for improving sales and profit.  


➡ Papers are invite for publication in 72 Number (March 2023)

➡ Wish all Researcher and Editor, Reviewer HAPPY NEW YEAR 2023

➡ Innovations is active Scopus indexed journal

➡ Scopus Cite score (2022) 00.90 and Scientific Journal Ranking (2022) 0.228

➡ Journal update make in every 15 days