Innovations is internationally peer-reviewed journal. Innovations aim to publish original research articles and review articles in diverse fields of Social Sciences and related. This is non-profit, non-stock refereed scientific journal in the world. Innovations is quarterly publication with non-commercial purpose. Innovations Journal has been indexed in the well-known world databases such as Scopus and Cosmos . Innovations recognized as a primary instrument for projecting and supporting the goals and objectives, which include scholarly research and the free exchange of ideas. Innovations appreciate systematic reviews, original papers, and peer-reviewed research on all aspects of social science and some field of Science.
Key drivers of capital formation in East Africa: The application of Dynamic Panel Model
Getahun Tolossa Adugna (Msc)
Evidences show that developing countries’ economies are inherent with structural and institutional rigidities and variations of basic economic variables like capital formation are explained beyond macroeconomic determinants. This paper analyzes the capital formation determinants beyond macroeconomic factors and tries to uncover the role of institutional factors on determining size and sign of capital formation function within neoclassical framework. The study is mainly dependent on secondary data obtained from WDI, EFW and PWT which covers panels of 6 East African countries from periods 2003-2020. Dynamic panel model is mainly chosen to estimate the capital formation function. Accordingly, AB- GMM estimation result shows that among Neoclassical’s variables, economic size, economic growth and economic control variables are found to be significant. On the other hand, among institutional variables, business environment, financial development and political stability are found to be significant determinants of capital formation in the region. The simple insight for policy arising from this paper is that in addition to the traditional Macroeconomic policy areas, the capital formation climate in East Africa is explained by the broader structural and institutional environment in which investment functions. Therefore, policy interventions should give emphasis to improvement of such institutional factors to promote the level of capital formation of the region.
Implementing K-Partition Flash Code in Simultaneous Bit Update Framework
Riz Rupert L. Ortiz, Ph.D.
A flash code is a mechanism basically used in encoding and decoding digital information to flash memory devices. Flash codes in literature operates in single bit update framework where a data update equates to a single cell write to the flash memory block. In this study, the K-Partition Flash Code (KPFC) and its variant KPFC-m is implemented in the new framework where multiple bit update is possible. Analytic investigation was conducted to derive the theoretical worst case write deficiency while computer simulations were used to estimate its average case performance. Results show that KPFC and its variant KPFC-m is still competitive with some flash codes in literature using the new framework. More importantly, the implementation of this coding scheme can help extend the lifespan of flash devices.
The Policy of Iraq on the import of waste between recycling and dumping/ A survey study
Nibras Mohammed A. ALsaffar
Waste is a global problem and not a domestic problem confined to one State alone. As technological development increases in all aspects of life, the waste generated increases. The survey found that most of the imported and domestic products studied in the research are recyclable, consisting of refillable glass bottles, aluminium, plastics and cartons, all of which represent national wealth and resources with which to operate stop plants in Iraq, as well as a shortage of recycling plants in Iraq compared to the daily waste produced. In addition, there is a shortage of recycling plants in Iraq compared to the daily wastes in question. The waste recycling plants consisted of one plant in Sulaymaniyah governorate, the other in Al- Mahmudiyah district and the third in DheQar governorate, which has been out of service owing to its combustion, and the fourth and fifth in Karkh and Rasafa districts, both of which have been under construction since 2017. Most of the waste studied in the research is recoverable (aluminium, plastic, glass, cartoon) and all of it is imported by the state and its final plant is unhealthy.
Knowledge about guidelines for critical appraisal of scientific literature amongst dental students
Dr. Chenchulakshmi G & Dr. Arvind M
Introduction: -critical appraisal is the scieic assessment in a systematic manner to evaluate the quality of a scientific publication and analysis of the results. Critical appraisal is the task of assessing the quality and relevance of research in a particular context. It is an important skill for dental clinicians and dental students who have a responsibility to improve clinical care in their practice. One of the core skills of competent dentists is the ability to search and analyse high?quality evidence. An original research article should consist of the following headings: structured abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion. Problems in understanding the basic aspects of knowledge?based information may impede its implementation into clinical practice. It is an essential outcome for undergraduates and postgraduate students in application of their clinical practice. The inference gained from critical appraisal of a scientific literature helps the clinician to make decisions regarding patient care. Objective: - this study was aimed to evaluate the current knowledge about the critical appraisal of scientific literature amongst dental students. Methods: -a twenty one set questionnaire in google forms was circulated amongst undergraduate and postgraduate dental students. The questionnaire was analysed and evaluation about student’s knowledge and perception of critically appraising a scientific literature was done. Results: - about one hundred and eighty two dental students , both undergraduate and post graduates( 52.20%) followed the checklist and found them useful to appraise scientific literature. Conclusion: -the awareness of appraising a scientific literature is observed more in post graduates compared to undergraduate dental students.
Bells palsy - a case report
Dr. Chenchulakshmi G & Dr. Arvind M
Bell’s palsy is a neuropathy involving the seventh cranial nerve also known as facial nerve. It is usually caused by traumatic, infective, inflammatory or compressive conditions of the nerve. Many cases are also with no identifiable etiologies and are classified as idiopathic. Acute inflammation and edema of the cranial nerve vii can lead to compression and ischemia. The most common cause of bell’s palsy is herpes simplex virus but there are several reports of other viruses such as epstein-barr virus, human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis b virus involved with similar presentation. We present a case of a seventeen-year-old female with bell’s palsy.
Evaluation of impact of raw planting technique on wheat production of farmers: the case of Sinana, Bale zone, Ethiopia
Getahun Tolossa Adugna (Msc),
Recognizing the importance of agricultural technology in enhancing production and productivity, the Ethiopian government introduced row planting technology to farmers recently. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of row planting technology on smallholder farmers’ wheat production in Sinana district, Bale Zone of Ethiopia.200 households are sampled and included in the study among which 95 are adopters of the new farming technique and 105 non adopters. Propensity Score Matching (PSM) model is employed for estimation. The result shows that row planting technology has significant positive impact on farmers` wheat productivity. The overall findings of the study underlined the high importance of training and extension service provision to improve farmers’ skill and access to information to address the recommended agronomic practices, and facilitating access to supplementary technology/machines that simplify the row planting process. Therefore, development interventions should give emphasis to improvement of such institutional support systems to increase adoption of row planting technology.
Role of microrna-510 in various malignancies-A Systematic Review
Dr. R. Amritha Sripoo & Dr. Uma Maheswari. T.N
Background: MicroRNA (miRNAs) discovery was first published in 1993.They are a group of small single-stranded noncoding RNA with 18 to 25 nucleotides. These miRNAs regulate cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis and are widely involved in tumorigenesis, tumour progression and metastasis. miRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in many types of diseases. Biomarker is a term that defines different types of objective indicators of health or disease. Throughout history, and according to human technological advancements, these indicators have turned increasingly more precise and reliable. miRNAs have first been established as biomarkers for cancer in 2008, when Lawrie et al. utilized them for the examination of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the serum of patients, and ever since, their potential use as biomarkers has been mentioned in literature for numerous diseases and malignancies.miR-510 belongs to the miR-506/514 gene cluster. Recent discoveries have shed light on the involvement of miRNA 510 in malignancies. Aim: This paper aims to systematically review current findings on expression of MicroRNA-510 as a diagnostic tool in various malignancies. Methods: A search was done using MeSH terms and keyword search in the electronic databases namely PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane, Science Direct ,Lilacs and addition searches were carried out through cross checking the bibliographies of selected articles. Then based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria and availability of the full texts, a total of 9 articles were included in this systematic review. Result: The search yielded a total of 439 articles out of which 9 articles were included based on the eligibility criteria. Quality assessment based on the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 tool was used to obtain a risk of bias chart using Revman 5.4 software and it was proved that from the 9 included studies, six had low risk of bias and other three had intermediate risk of bias. Conclusion: Literature based evidence states that microRNA510 has aberrant expression, biological role and precise mechanism in various malignancies .This systematic review aimed at improving the current understanding of microRNA 510 and their applicability in malignancies. Further, this may alleyway for further analysis of the target gene pathways of miR-510 which may help in diagnosis and treatment of various malignancies.
Validity of becks depression inventory in patients treated for oral cancer
Dr. Chenchulakshmi G . & Dr. Arvind M
Introduction: -Oral cancer is the 6th most common cancer affecting humans. Post treatment patients encounter symptoms as physical\somatic or emotional/ affective changes such as loss of appetite, fatigue, insomnia, sense of punishment. Symptoms in cancer patients and in patients with depression can be identical, e.g. loss of weight or appetite and fatigue. Widely used assessment instruments for screening are the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) according to the Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Becks Depression Inventory is one of the most widely used tools to measure the intensity of depression and aim is to assess depression level in patients treated for oral carcinoma. Methods: - The present study was conducted to evaluate the validity of Becks Depression Inventory in patients treated for oral cancer. Total number of 50 patients having oral squamous cell carcinoma were included in this study. Results: - Out of 50 patients, Minimal Depression symptoms was observed in five patients, Mild Depression was observed in sixteen patients, Moderate Depression symptoms was observed in ten patients and Severe Depression symptoms was observed in nineteen patients. Out of 21 items Becks Depression Inventory, Mean and Standard deviation was highest in Social Withdrawal (1.60±1.10) followed by Loss of Appetite (1.52±1.11). Conclusion: - Becks Depression Inventory assesses the depression state in patients treated with oral cancer. Psychological status and supportive treatment are necessary to improve the quality of life in patients treated for oral squamous cell carcinoma.