Innovations is internationally peer-reviewed journal. Innovations aim to publish original research articles and review articles in diverse fields of Social Sciences and related. This is non-profit, non-stock refereed scientific journal in the world. Innovations is quarterly publication with non-commercial purpose. Innovations Journal has been indexed in the well-known world databases such as Scopus and Cosmos . Innovations recognized as a primary instrument for projecting and supporting the goals and objectives, which include scholarly research and the free exchange of ideas. Innovations appreciate systematic reviews, original papers, and peer-reviewed research on all aspects of social science and some field of Science.

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➡ Papers are invite for publication in 75 Number (December 2023) ➡ Innovations is active Scopus and Scimago indexed journal➡ Scopus Cite score (2022) 00.90 and Scientific Journal Ranking (2022) 0.228➡ Journal update make in every 15 days
Current Issue

Analysis of Democracy as a Political Tool for Authoritarian(ISM)

Pelekeh H. Tapang


: The research analyzes limitations of democracy in enforcing its values and institutions in countries that have authoritarian leaders. The study delves into the political landscape of Cameroon, where leadership operates in absolute authoritarianism. It investigates electoral deficiencies and manipulations, which hinders democratic process. The research reveals that despite claims of electoral reforms in undemocratic nations, opposition parties struggle against electoral frauds. The research concludes that democracy's implementation in authoritarian regimes is compromised by concentration of power and lack of genuine oppositions, leading to a hybrid political system that exhibits authoritarian tendencies flourishing with ease within democratic structures; in other words democracy helping authoritarians to attain legitimacy.  

A Study of the Effectiveness of Methods Used to Disinfect Dental Unit Water Lines

Dr. Ayushi Bajoria . Dr. Mranali K Shetty, Dr. Karthik Shetty, Dr. Ashwin Rao,


Contamination of dental water lines is a cause of concern in dentistry due to rapid development of biofilms within them. Through the years there have been reports regarding the involvement of water from dental chairs to be the suspected cause of afflictions in patients. This study was conducted to compare the disinfection of DUWL using 0.5% of Sodium Hypochlorite, 0.12 % Chlorhexidine Gluconate, Flushing with Distilled Water and Plain tap water. Their effect on bacterial load in DUWL was assessed by evaluating the Total colony count in the water lines.  Disinfection with Sodium Hypochlorite proved to be the most effective method of all those analyzed in the present study. The data obtained by the study can be utilized to tailor make disinfection solutions of Dental unit water lines taking into consideration the local factors.  

Bacteriological Analysis with Antimicrobial Sensitivity in Blood Culture A Roadmap for Antibiotic Stewardship Establishment

Anitha K, Karthika Mohan, Nasreen Begam M, Prabhusaran N, Chitra Rajalaskhmi P


Problem: Blood cultures are an extremely important tool that is employed as one of the gold standard tests in the diagnosis and management of nosocomial bacteremia among hospitalized patients. If the laboratory exercise is done with too much caution, then more negative impacts will be recorded in the process of blood culturing. Methodology: The main objective of this study is to determine the etiological profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of blood cultures. An observational study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Tiruchirappalli, India, where a total of 359 blood samples were cultured bacteriologically and analyzed. Aerobic culture bottles were inoculated with blood samples and incubated in the BACTEC FX40 system till they flashed a positive signal, or for a maximum of 5 days. Positive signal bottles were processed for etiological identification and antimicrobial sensitivity patterns. The subjected blood samples were blood culture samples from clinically suspected bacteremia patients ranging in age from newborn to 91 years. Findings: In our study, we found a male predominance of 62%. Out of which, the 41–50 age group had the highest positivity rate of 29%. Culture-positive cases were 68, which gives a percentage of 19% positivity. While determining the bacterial etiology, Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli showed 24 and 76%, respectively; further analysis reported Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli predominated. The antibiotic sensitivity pattern among Gram-positive strains showed high resistance to Penicillin (50%), Clindamycin (46%), Erythromycin (43%), and Ciprofloxacin (43%), while Gram-negative strains showed 41, 37, and 36% resistance to Amoxyclav, Ceftrioxone, and Ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: This study highlighted the importance of bacterial culture auditing, starting from the method of culturing to reporting the etiology and resistance pattern to establish the institutional antibiotic policy and develop stewardship.  

The Influence of Information Technology on Employee Responsiveness in the Telecommunications Sector, Nigeria

Kelechi Enyinna Ugwu (Ph.D.), Ebele Mary Onwuka (Ph.D.), Felix Ugochukwu Okwedy, Uzoamaka, Gloria Chris-Ejiogu (Ph.D.), Charles Odin


Purpose: The study investigated how information technology has impacted the responsiveness of the telecommunication industry, Airtel, South East, Nigeria Methodology/approach:  The study used a correlational survey design, with copies ofthe questionnaire serving as the main data collection tool. The total sample size for the study was 131 employees. A probability simple random sampling technique was used to distribute the survey. Primary data were gathered using a face-to-face, researchers-administered structured questionnaire made using a Likert scale with five possible outcomes. The data was statistically tested, and Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used to analyze the relationship between one variable and another. Result/Findings: The result of research hypothesis one indicates that a unit rise in teleconferencing applications results in a 0.996 increase in employee responsiveness at a 5 % level of significance. The result of research hypothesis two revealed that a unit increase in internet applications results in a 0.865 increase in service quality at a 5 % level of significance. The researchers suggest businesses provide opportunities for their employees' ongoing education and training, so they can gain the most recent credentials and expertise in their field. Limitations: This study is restricted to five states in South East Nigeria that have Telecommunication Centers. Contribution: The study established a gap in the conceptual framework relating the variables of information technology (teleconferencing software, internet) and responsiveness (service quality). This current study aims to close the conceptual and geographic coverage gaps in the literature.  Practical Implications: The outcome of this study would help policymakers push forinvestments in opportunities for lifelong learning and promote collaborations between businesses, governments, and educational institutions. Novelty: This study contributed to the body of knowledge by identifying gaps in the literature and geographic coverage.   

Factors Affecting Project Performance: A Case of Ministry of Water Resources Development, Somaliland

Dr. Abdi Ahmed Hasan, Zakarie Abdilahi Mohamed , Dr. Perways Alam


This research paper aimed to investigate factors affecting the performance of projects implemented by the Ministry of Water Resources Development, Somaliland. In order to meet the objectives of the study, data collected through primary sources. The study employed descriptive research design and the information was gathered from the target population.  Purposive sampling technique was used to select the respondents and 108 responses returned form the targeted 112 respondents, indicating a response rate of 96.5%. The researcher analyzed the data using statistical analysis such as descriptive and inferential statistics. Mean and Standard deviation were employed to explain the descriptive statistics while Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and Multiple Regression applied to explain inferential statistics. The findings revealed that, organizational culture, project management culture and project manager factors are the key factors that affect the performance of the projects in the ministry. They also revealed that these factors have a great positive significant effect on the performance of the projects.  The study concluded that an improved situation in the independent variables is the source of increased project performance. Following that, the study recommends for the ministry to take the development of the organizational culture, the project management culture and the project managers into consideration to improve the projects’ performance and produce productive outcomes. It also suggests for the project managers to encourage teamwork to keep staff focused on the value of collaboration by participating in the project and setting an example as the teamwork is essential to the project since many initiatives include the collaboration of numerous people or departments.  Finally, the study recommends for the ministry to create records management system that stores projects’ records for future use.  

Fuzzy Neutrosophic Supra Dense G? Spaces

E. Poongothai & D. Vinoba


In this paper a new class of fuzzy neutrosophic supra topological space, namely fuzzy neutrosophic supra -nowhere dense set and fuzzy neutrosophic supra Dense -spaces, are introduced and studied. Several characterizations of fuzzy neutrosophic supra -nowhere dense set and fuzzy neutrosophic supra Dense -spaces, are established. The condition under which fuzzy neutrosophic supra -nowhere dense set become fuzzy neutrosophic supra nowhere dense set, fuzzy neutrosophic supra residual set, fuzzy neutrosophic supra first category and fuzzy neutrosophic supra -spaces, are obtained.  

Management of Over-Extruded Separated Endodontic Instrument Using A Surgical Approach: A Case Report and Review of Literature

Ishani Saluja, Shreya Hegde, Sreelakshmi Pradeep, Anushka Arora, Roma M,


Background: Numerous endodontic mishaps can be seen during root canal procedures. One frequent consequence of improper use or excessive use of the instrument is the separation of the endodontic instrument. Case presentation: We report the case of a failed attempt to manage a separated endodontic instrument non-surgically by a private dentist, which resulted in extrusion of the instrument beyond the root apex. This article describes a successful surgical procedure (apicectomy) for removing a broken endodontic instrument from periapical tissue. Novel material such as amniotic membrane was used for apexification of traumatized immature right and left maxillary central incisor. Conclusion: The clinical and radiographic evaluation done during the follow up visits at 1, 3 and 6, a progressive root growth with apical closure was seen. Apicectomy and Aesthetic restorations had successful outcomes.  

Human Capital Development and Service Delivery of Tertiary Health Institutions in South-South, Nigeria

Ikechukwu J. Ugwoke and Vincent A. Onodugo


This study focused on human capital development and service delivery of tertiary health institutions in South-South, Nigeria. The study aimed to ascertain the effect of the number of qualified specialists in a particular field on the quality of service delivery, and determine the effect of in-house training on the incidence of prescription by medical resident officers of tertiary hospitals. This study employed descriptive survey design. The population of the investigation was made up of the healthcare providers and clinical personnel of selected federal tertiary hospitals. 360 participants were selected for the survey. The study used a well-structured questionnaire. We ensured the validity of the measuring instrument through a panel of two experts. To confirm the reliability of this instrument, an initial study was carried out at the six tertiary hospitals, employing the test-retest approach, involving 24 participants from these institutions in the south-south region, with four participants from each hospital. Results from analysis indicated that the Cronbach's alpha coefficient values exceeded the 0.7 benchmark. The data obtained in this study was analysed using descriptive statistics. Inferential statistics were employed to enhance the scientific investigation of the objectives of the study. The study used a regression model for data analysis, from which inferences were made. Findings revealed that the number of qualified specialists has a significant positive effect on the quality of service delivery in tertiary hospitals, and that in-house training has a significant positive effect on the incidence of prescriptions by medical resident officers in tertiary hospitals. The study concluded that specialist numbers, in-house training, and collaboration with visiting medical experts have crucial roles in enhancing the quality of service delivery, effective prescription patterns, and proficiency of performing complex medical procedures in tertiary hospitals. It is recommended that healthcare institutions prioritise the recruitment and retention of a diverse and competent team of specialists, and that healthcare institutions establish structured and comprehensive in-house training programs.  


➡ Papers are invite for publication in 75 Number (December 2023)

➡ Innovations is active Scopus and Scimago indexed journal

➡ Scopus Cite score (2022) 00.90 and Scientific Journal Ranking (2022) 0.228

➡ Journal update make in every 15 days