Status of development in different blocks of Jalpaiguri district
Jalpaiguri is one of the most backward districts of west Bengal where poverty is a barrier to development. Generally poverty is measured by Below Poverty Line (BPL) indices in rural areas. Below poverty line is an economic bench mark and poverty threshold used by the government of India to indicate economic disadvantage and to identify individuals and households in need of government assistance and aid. Poverty refers to the condition of not having the means to afford basic human need such as clean water, nutrition care, clothing and shelter. This paper is attempted to study the poverty status with some remedial measures
Causes of soil pollution in selected part of Birbhum District, West Bengal
Mr. Prakash Singh
The causes of soil pollution are complex and far reaching. Actually it has economic impacts and this in term causes social impacts. Agriculture is the base of village economy. It has been evolved through different stages, from the past to this modern era.In traditional agriculture farmers used to depend on farm manure and cow dung as natural sources of plant nutrients. This traditional system of applying manure could only support low yields but there was no strain on the inherent of the soil. Modern agriculture largely depends on the use of high cost inputs such as chemical fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, herbicides etc. The application of such inputs has undoubtedly increased the production but there is growing concern over the adverse effects of the use of chemicals on soil productivity and environment quality.Now in case of Choto Sangra, only organic manure was used for crop cultivation before forty to fifty years. So, the production of crop was less than now but now with chemical fertilizer, HYV seeds etc the production of this village has no doubt become increased. Negative effect of modern agriculture is also found that the excessive use of chemical fertilizer has reduced the fertility of field. Undergone demonstration is not practiced here. So, sometimes farmers use chemical fertilizers and pesticides unscientifically. Consumption of chemical pesticides had increased during 1990-91 and decreased during 1995-96 and further come down to about 1998-99 while it is necessary to add the required amount of plant food nutrients in the soil to increase crop production. Continuous removal of micronutrient due to excessive amount of chemical inputs application is depleting the soil fertility. It is however, easy to standardize the optimum levels of production factors at the experimental sites but very difficult to popularize them among the vast majority of farmers. Due to tropical climate, organic carbon status, phosphate status of this soil is low. Potash, a nutrient is adequate in the soils of Choto Sangra village. As remedial measure, organic agriculture should be practiced. It relies upon crop rotations with leguminous crops, addition of crop residues, animal manure, bio fertilizer and bio pesticides.
Changes of population scenario of Himachal Pradesh, India From 1981 to 2011
The population of Himachal Pradesh has been increasing unabatedly since last four decades. The present paper attempts to analyze the trends in population size, density and its growth in the study area during the study period. The study is based upon secondary data. It discusses the changing scenario of population size, density and growth during the four census years (1981, 1991, 2001 and 2011). The study reveals that the population has been increasing continuously and unevenly from 1980s to 2011. The distribution of population presents an inverse correlation between area and population during the study period, because geographically small districts are supporting more population and vice-versa. The study brings out that population density has also been increased over the period. The density of population also presents an inverse correlation between area and population during the study period, because geographically small districts support more human population and vice-versa. The overall growth of population has registered 60.16% increase between 1981-2011.
Influence factors on the purchase decision of electronic consumer durables
Subarna Kumar Sharma
The present paper is an attempt to study the consumer online purchase pattern with reference to various macroeconomic factors. Need to purchase and Ease in purchase is not only guided by the individual aspects, but there are other external forces, acting indirectly but affects directly on “consumer purchase Decision”, called “Macroeconomic Factors”. In this generation of digital convenience which simplifies the process of delivering goods and services in one hand, strengthens the economy by making it more competitive, now the individual who is in search of their utility satisfaction restricted by other factors before deciding their purchase. Economic condition, interest rates, tax system, inflation plays a major role. The aim of this paper is to study the influence of these above stated factors on the purchase decision of electronic consumer durables.
The significant difference of the influence of co-curricular activities on the stress level among the students of senior secondary level
The purpose of the study is to analyze the influence of co-curricular activities on the stress level among the senior secondary students (Class XI & CLASS 12). This is an empirical study which makes use of the data collected from a sample of 80 students belonging to Little Flower School, Guwahati and Gurukul Grammar Senior Secondary School, Guwahati. The sample was divided into two groups, each consisting of 40 students who are participants and non-participants in co-curricular activities respectively. A questionnaire consisting of 10 items was distributed among the students of both the groups to collect quantitative data. It was hypothesized that there is no significant difference of the influence of co-curricular activities on the stress level among the students of senior secondary level who are participants and non-participants in such activities. Significantly different results were obtained from the study. The result of the study indicates that the students who participate in co-curricular activities show lower level of stress than the students who do not participate in co-curricular activities at all.
Ecological study of flora is an important indication as it forms baseline data for the distribution of plant species or communities and their relation with physical environment of particular area
Pteridophytes are the primitive vascular plants, they are found scattered all over the globe and quite many of them occur in India. However, they are not found throught the country. Pteridophytes make as important contribution to the earth’s plant diversity. Being the second largest group of vascular plants, they form a significant and dominant component of many plant communities. All human activities disturb the vegetation by eliminating many species. So an up to date study is very important for knowing about flora, especially in the case of pteridophytes. The present effort was undertaken to enumerate the pteridophytic species present in Kilavarai freshwater river situated in Palni hills of southern Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India, the study was carried out from December 2014 to January 2016. The result of the present study revealed that 36 pteridophytic species belonging to 25 genera distributed among 19 families were noted from the study site. Among the families recorded, Adiantaceae (16.67%) was found to be dominant and largest family comprising 6 species. Polypodiaceae and Pteridaceae (each of 11.11%) shared the second largest family status; they were represented by 4 species each. The third largest family was Lycopodiaceae (8.33%); it was represented by 3 species. The families Cheilanthaceae, Nephrolepidaceae and Selaginellaceae were recorded with each of 2 species (5.56%) and 11 families were represented by single species (2.78%). Moreover, terrestrial species (27 species) were found to be more in number than epiphytic (5 species), 3 species were found as both epiphytic and lithophytic species and 1 species was recorded as purely lithophytic.
Status of education in Western Maharashtra: a Geographical Analysis
Literacy rate is one of the important demographic elements, which is a good measure of human progress towards modernization. Literacy has been defined as the ability to read and write with understanding. Indian literacy is characterized with sharp differences in between the rate of male and females; of rural and urban areas; and of various population subgroups. There are inter-regional variations in literacy rate among Western Maharashtra. The literacy variations are quite significant between male-female and rural-urban in this area. In this present paper, the western Maharashtra region is selected for analyzing these variations of literacy and differential of literacy. For this study, the secondary data are used which collected from socio-economic abstract of district. The collected data are analysed by using statistical and cartographic techniques. Such type of study represents real situation of literacy in Western Maharashtra which helps to planners, scientists and
Urban socio-economic Domination on rural neighbourhood: a micro level study
Mr. Jaba Dutta
Urban growth and sprawl have an influence on surrounding rural areas. Shankarpur mouja, a suburb of Durgapur Steel Township, West Bengal, experienced a rapid growth of population as well as socio-economic development. The study found that over 95% workers of the mouja were engaged in secondary and tertiary activity and only 3% workers were involved in agricultural sector which was the opposite picture of any purely rural area. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of urbanity on neighbourhood rural area. Data were collected from field survey and different secondary sources. Microsoft Excel and QGIS 2.8 RS-GIS Software were applied for the study. It was recorded in the study that Land use pattern of the mouja also got affected by Neighbourhood Township. During the last few decades, the amount of settlement area of the mouja expanded at the cost of agricultural land and forest land. A clear indication of unsustainable land use change was recorded in the study. In the concluding part, restriction against unsustainable land use change and eradication of socio-economic inequality among the inhabitants were recommended.
Sports are universal appeal has led to sport gaining recognition as a simple, low cost and effective medium for achieving key developmental goals-A review
The purpose of the present study was to find out the Effect of Ladder Training, Plyometric Training and Combined Training on Agility Performance of Inter Collegiate Male Athletes. For this study, sixty (N=60) athletes who was participated in Anna University Erode Zone inter collegiate Athletic meet in the event of sprinting was randomly selected as subjects. Their age ranged from 18 to 21 years. The subjects were assigned at random into four groups of fifteen each (n=15). Group-I underwent Ladder training, Group-II underwent Plyometric training, Group-III underwent combined Ladder training and Plyometric training and Group-IV acted as Control. The age group of the subjects ranged from 18 to 21 years. The dependent variables selected for this study was Agility. Agility was assessed by 4x10 meter shuttle run test. All the subjects were tested prior to and immediately after the Experimental period on the selected dependent variables. The data obtained from the experimental groups before and after the experimental period were statistically analyzed with dependent ‘t’-test and Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Whenever the ‘F’ ratio for adjusted post-test means was found to be significant, the Scheffe’s test was applied as post-hoc test to determine the paired mean differences. The level of confidence was fixed at 0.05 level for all the cases. The results of the study showed that the experimental groups namely, Ladder Training group, Plyometric Training group and Combined Ladder Training and Plyometric Training group had significantly improved in Agility.