Firms attributes and share prices of quoted consumer goods firms in Nigeria
Obaje, Folashade Olufunke1; Ogirima, Abdulmumuni2; & Muhammed Abdulsalam3
The study examined the impact of firm’s attributes on share prices of the quoted consumer goods firms in Nigeria. The research design adopted by the study is correlational and ex-post facto and the population constitutes the twenty (20) consumer goods firms quoted on the Nigeria Exchange Group as at 31st December 2021 out of which ten (10) were used as sample size. Due to the data availability of the companies, the study uses purposive sampling technique. The study uses secondary data and the instrument used for the collection of the data is documentation. The data used are extracted from the annual reports of the listed consumer goods firms on the Nigeria Exchange Group.. The study used linear regression model as the techniques of analysis using STATA 13.0 software. The study revealed that firm age has a significant positive impact on share prices while firm size and leverage both have insignificant negative impact on share prices of quoted consumer goods firms in Nigeria. The study therefore recommended that the management, investors and regulators of the quoted consumer goods firms in Nigeria should not place emphasis on the number of years a firm has been in operation and should devise more strategies of maintaining and improving their asset base.
Agricultural productivity, population growth and food security in sub-Saharan Africa
1Nnoli, Ikenna Theodore; 2Enilolobo, Oluwafemi Sunday; 3Ajayi, Emmanuel Olusuyi and 4Imeokparia, Lawrence.
The study investigates the impact of Agricultural productivity and population growth on food security in Sub-Saharan Africa from 2001 to 2019. The study made use of secondary data sourced from the World Development Indicator (WDI, 2021), and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO, 2021). A sample of 38 countries out of the 48 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa was selected using convenient sampling technique. Food security, the dependent variable was measured in terms of availability, accessibility, stability and Utilization, proxied by “Food production Index (2006=100)”, “Gross domestic product per capita, PPP, Dissemination (constant 2011 international $)”, “Per capita food supply variability (kcal/cap/day)” and “Percentage of population using at least basic drinking water service” respectively. In other to achieve the objective of the study, the System Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) was employed. From the GMM result, agricultural productivity with coefficients of 0.07064, 0.04724, 0.45007 and 0.05036 positively and significantly impacted food security when measured in terms of Availability, Accessibility, Stability and Utilization respectively. While population growth with coefficients of -0.09528, -0.03628, -0.74364 and -0.03867 negatively and significantly impacted food security when measured in terms of Availability, Accessibility, Stability and Utilization respectively. The study based on its findings recommended that African leaders need to play a critical role in supporting agricultural research and development which will increase agricultural productivity and hence improves food security.
Financial Development-Income inequality nexus in Developing economies in post-Covid-19 Era: Evidence from Nigeria
Victoria I. Okafor1,2 Oluranti Olurinola3 Ebenezer Bowale,2,4 Romanus Osabohien2,5 Esther Oluwatayo6
Issues: To have a thriving economy post-COVID-19, relevant and viable policies need to be put in place. The incidence of COVID-19 has reduced the last 5 years efforts towards reducing global poverty and income inequality to nothing as poverty and income inequality have further widened. Income inequality is the disparity in income distribution that has further widened due to the income loss of people because of the lockdown instigated to curb the spread of the pandemic. While the lockdown affected global productivity, developing economies are more likely to be more affected because the pandemic exposed the vulnerabilities of economies due to the pre-existing developmental issues plaguing developing economies. Therefore, measures must be taken drastically to ensure that developing economies have an economy to look forward to post-COVID. Methods: This study analysed how financial development can effectively aid income inequality reduction in Africa, focusing on Nigeria. The study examined the Nigeria Baseline Household survey conducted by the World Bank during the heat of COVID-19 with the aid of descriptive statistics. Findings: findings show that financial development can drastically reduce income inequality when electronic measures are embraced.
Effect of Covid-19 Pandemic on Consumption and Prices of Poultry Products in Delta State, Nigeria .
Ogisi, O.D., Enimu, S. and Ovwasa, O. J.
The study was carried out in Delta State, Nigeria to evaluate the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on consumption and prices of poultry products. The specific objectives were to determine the level of consumption of poultry products before, during and after the outbreak of COVID-19; ascertain the major COVID-19 event that impacted poultry industry the most; and determine the effect of Consumer’s profile on consumption of poultry products during the pandemic. The multi-stage random sampling technique was applied in the selection of 405 respondents and primary data were collected using questionnaire. Both descriptive and inferential statistical tools were used for data analysis. The result from the study indicated that 54% of the respondents were female, with average age of 26years; majority 40% had tertiary education. About 60% of the monthly expenditure of the respondents was on food items and the prices of poultry product skyrocketed 300% compared to pre-COVID-19 era, while 95% of the poultry consumers do not have access to the products during the pandemic. The multiple regression models with adjusted R2 of 79% indicated a relatively good fit, revealing that age, gender, employment, household income, and selling price of the products affected poultry consumption in the study area. Based on the result of the study, it was recommended that government and non-governmental organizations should develop alternative sales and distribution platforms for poultry and poultry products (online resources and ecommerce) to connect producers, businesses, and consumers in any circumstances and facilitate flexible conditions for bank loans disbursement and management.
An evaluation of the effect of Cash Flow Activities management on the Financial Performance of Manufacturing Firms Listed at the Nigeria Stock Exchange
1Modum Ikenna C. 2Dr. Ugwoke, Robison O. 3Dr. Ojukwu, Chioma Obianuju 4Akwue, Ojore Solomon
The study examined the cash flow activities on the financial performance of manufacturing firms in Nigeria. Eighteen (16) firms were selected from the forty-three (43) firms listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE) judgementally. The Ex-Post facto research design was adopted, and secondary data were extracted from the selected firms’ annual reports for eleven years (2011-2021). Cash flow from operating activities, cash flow from investing activities, and cash flow from financing activities were used as proxies for the independent variables. In contrast, ROCE, EPS and TQ were used as proxies for the dependent variable. Three hypotheses were formulated and analysed using the fixed and random effect models. There were mixed results of significant and non-significant cash flow activities on the financial performance of the selected manufacturing firms. Therefore, the study recommended that firms should optimally engage all activities that would generate more cash inflow from operating activities to increase the firm’s performance. Management of the firms should thoroughly evaluate investment opportunities to ensure an optimal return, which will lead to improved performance. Firms should use cash flow ratios for investment appraisal and seek a cheaper funding source to reduce the burden of servicing debt to achieve an optimal result.
Effects of communication technology instructional intervention on achievement of basic science and technology among junior secondary school students in Delta State, Nigeria.
Iroriteraye-Adjekpovu, Janice Imizuokena (Ph.D), Ovuworie Onoriode Oghenewede & Umukoro Emmanuel
The paper investigated the effects of communication technology instructional intervention on academic achievement of Basic/Elementary Science and Technology students in Delta State. The paper adopted a pre-test - post-test quasi-experimental design. The population constituted of 21,937 JSII students of Elementary Science and Technology in 179 public/government secondary schools in Delta State. A purposive sampling technique was employed and 223 JSII Basic Science and Technology students made up the study sample size. Basic Science Achievement Test (BSAT) was the instrument used for data collection. The reliability of the BSAT was established using the Kuder-Richardson formula 21 which yielded a coefficient index of 0.77. The data obtained were analysed using mean, standard deviation, t-test and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). The results indicated a significant difference in the achievement mean scores between students instructed Basic/ Elementary Science and Technology with communication technology instructional intervention and those instructed with the lecture method, in favour of students taught Basic/Elementary Science and Technology with communication technology instructional intervention; there was no significant difference in the mean achievement scores between male and female students instructed Basic/Elementary Science and Technology with communication technology instructional intervention; and there was no significant interaction effect of teaching method and sex on students’ achievement in Elementary Science and Technology. It was therefore, recommended that communication technology instructional intervention should be adopted by Basic/Elementary Science and Technology Teachers in the teaching of Basic/Elementary Science and Technology concepts at junior secondary school level to enable them apply scientific and technological knowledge and skill.
Entrepreneurship: A Catalyst for Job Creation and Inclusive Growth in Nigeria
Imoisi, Anthony Ilegbinosa (PhD)
The pecuniarynecessity of making jobs available has become obvious following the downturn in economic activities in Nigeria, which turned chronic unemployment rates into anurgent political concern for the country’s government. This has been compounded by the nation’s persistent insecurity challenges and rising fiscal pressures, along with a global economy that is undergoingrun-of-the-mill growth. While certainly not a solution for all of Nigeria’s unemployment troubles, programmes that stimulate entrepreneurship and encourageMSMEs can assist the country in creating jobs and fostering inclusive growth, along the lines of the eighth SDG. The economic justification for taking up entrepreneurship and MSMEs is uncomplicated to formulate. Other than creating jobs, entrepreneurs and MSMEs can help upset the prevalentsnag of associate capitalism in the nation. Regrettably, promoting an ecosystem that would drive these potential change vehiclesonward is difficult. Undeniably, the Nigerian government has acknowledged the advantages of entrepreneurship but has not ensured that the appropriate ecosystem is available for entrepreneurs to thrive. The policy modifications required to produce such an ecosystem need a resilient political determination and a willingness to confrontembedded political and economic interests. Pressurizing deposit money banks to extend financial openings to entrepreneurs, and increasing market access viaimprovedinterconnectedlocal supply chains are extremely politicized concerns in Nigeria. Carrying out policy reforms in these locales has hence been problematic. Nevertheless if the Nigerian government desire to reduce unemployment, it ought to do what is required to galvanize entrepreneurs and MSMEs
Personality Super-traits and Psychosocial Adjustment of First Year University Undergraduates in Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria
Toyin Odofin, Ph.D And E.E. Ebenuwa-Okoh, Ph.D
This study examined the impact of personality supertraits on psychosocial adjustment among first year university undergraduate students in Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria. The study was guided by two research questions and two hypotheses. Simple random sampling technique and Purposive sampling was used to select 300 male and female first year undergraduate participants for the study. The target population for the study was 100 level undergraduates’ students in the Faculty of Education, Delta State University, Abraka. The instrument used to collect data was an adopted questionnaire which include personality supertraits (PS)and psychosocial adjustment scale(PAS). Cronbach Alpha was used to assess the reliability index of the instrument which yielded 0.79.The data collected were analyzed using Descriptive Statistics, Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) to answer research questions and Regression Statistics to test the hypotheses at .05 level of significance.The results of the findings showed that the fivepersonality supertraits jointly had a positive relationship with psychosocial adjustment. The study further showed that male undergraduate student’s psychosocial adjustment is higher than those of their female counterparts.Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that effective counselling should be given by professional counsellors in schools to first year undergraduate students in order to help nurture the students with emotional needs that wish to share their problems in confidence with them. When planning activities in the universities for undergraduates, equal opportunities should be given to both male and female undergraduates.
Intellectual Capital and Competitive Advantage of Deposit Money Banks in Enugu Metropolis Nigeria
1Ezenwakwelu, Charity A.; 2Esubok, Saviour Etim; 3Okonye, Gift Chukwuyem 4Akpan, Ekom Etim
The study examined intellectual capital and competitive advantage of deposit money banks in Enugu Metropolis. The study sought to: ascertain the effect of human capital on growth performance; assess the effect of customer capital on products patronage; determine the effect of structural capital on service delivery and ascertain the effect of technology advancement on productivity of deposit money banks. The study population was 1497, from which a sample of 297 was obtained from Cochran statistical formula. The study adopted the survey research design. Findings from the logistic regression revealed that human capital had positive effect on growth performance. Customer capital had positive effect on products patronage. Structural capital positively affected service delivery. Technology advancement positively affected productivity of deposit money banks. It was concluded that intellectual capital is essential for organizational competitiveness. Therefore, banks should design policies that support attraction, retention and development of highly knowledgeable personnel.
Recognition and Employees Behavioural outcomes: A Case of Covenant University, Nigeria
Patience N. Evans- Osabuohien Ebeguki E. Igbinona Romanus Osabohien* Daniel E. Ufua Oluwapelumi John Olajugba Olamilekan Ayomiposi Daramola Johnson Oluwaniyi Okeowo Oluwakemi Alake
Background: This study is focused on talent retention strategies and employees’ behavioural outcomes in Nigeria. The study is based on the Nigerian higher education sector and uses Covenant University, Ota, as a case study. Methodology: The sample of the study consists of four hundred and forty-four (444) academic staff in the four (4) colleges of the University. The study used a semi-structured questionnaire to gather relevant data for analysis and interpretation. The Heterotrait-monotrait discriminant (HTMT) ratio of correlation was utilised in ascertaining the Partial List - Equation Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM) was engaged in understanding the predictive relevance of the measurement construct. Results and Recommendation: From the analysis, recognition significantly influences employees’ behavioural outcomes. The study recommends that there is a need for an organisation to embrace continuous evaluation and adjustment of recognitionpolicies to maintain its talent retention competencies. It is also recommended for the case study organisation’s management to consistently project career support initiatives for the enhancement of staff behavioural outcomes.
Original Manuscript Effects of 10-Week Core Exercises Intervention on Agility Skills of U-15 Female Football Players
Dr Melkamu Dugassa Kasssa1* , Mr Amanu Eba Muleta2, Professor D. Mathivanan3
Introduction: Core training effectively improves sports performance.Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the effect of 10-weeks core exercise intervention on the performance measures of two agility categories of U15female football players. Methods: Thirty under U-15 female football players were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG, n=15) and control group (CG, n=15). Baseline and end measurements included the agility T-test and Illinois agility test. The 10-week intervention entailed 40 minutes of supervised core exercises (Jump Squat, Alternate Legs Jump, Squat, Crunches, Lying Twist Trunk, Lunge, Side Plank, and Mountain Climber), three days a week. Pre-test measurements at the start of the study and post-test measurements afterten weeks were compared using mean, standard deviation, and analysis of varience (ANOVA) considering significant level of p<0.05. Second was used as the unit of measurement. Results: In the exeperimental group, there was an improvement in agility T-test and Illinious agility test with p<0.05.A statistically significant difference of Illinois agility test among EG in pretest and posttest between offensive and goalkeepers with a mean difference of (M=3.09), p<0.05; midfielders and goalkeepers (M=2.59), p<0.0; and between Defensives and Goalkeepers players (M=3.43), p<0.01. Also, significant variances of Agility T-Test among offensive players pretest (12.63 ± 0.59 sec) and the posttest values (10.39 ± 0.69 sec) (F=20.84; p=0.0001) was observed.Conclusion: The use of core training in combination with normal football training for ten weeks is shown to be effective in improving the quickness and agility of U15 female football players after ten weeks. So, it appears reasonable to include specific core training programs within football training.Conclusion: Core pieces of training that were applied additionally to soccer training can contribute positively to developing players' speed and agility skills.
Catechizing Women Empowerment through a Multi-Dimensional Prism: Insights from Gender Statistics
Dr shruti R Panday
Women Empowerment is believed to be the key factor inimproving status of women in the society. UNO Agenda 30 incorporates gender equality as one of the targets to be achieved not only to ameliorate the condition of women but also the family and the society. In this context, it becomes imperative that the lens through which the concept of women empowerment is seen, should be widened. A host of economic, social, political, cultural factors are interlinked to ensure real endorsement of empowerment to women in the society. The paper tries to elucidate a multivariate multidimensional causative relation among factors which guarantee real empowerment to women at various levels of their life cycles. From available literatures, variables affecting empowerment at various stages were identified and clubbed as facilitating or debilitating factors and at the same time disparity between actual and real magnitude of empowerment has been identified. The paper has been written with women issues in the developing countries with special focus to India.
Influence of self-efficacy, empathy and self-esteem on teachers attitudes toward students with autism spectrum disorder
Fung Lan Yong , Melinda Kong & Yaw Seng Ee
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of self-efficacy, empathy and self-esteem on teachers’ attitudes toward students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The sample consisted of 69 teachers who completed the scales online. Data were analysed using SmartPLS-SEM software. Findings revealed a significantly positive relationship between teachers’ self-efficacy and empathy toward students with ASD.A significantly positive relationship between teachers’ empathy and attitudes toward students with ASD was also found. Recommendations on how to increase teacher empathy toward students with ASD were provided in light of the findings.
Staffs perceptions of transformational leadership behaviours among departmental heads at Malaysian tertiary institutions
Yuk Fong Chin , Melinda Kong & Ming Ha Lee
The purpose of this study was to examine staff’s perceptions of the cruciality of transformational leadership behaviours among department heads at private tertiary institutions. The study was limited to 56 administrative and teaching staff from three private colleges in Sabah and Sarawak as well as an Australian-based university in Sarawak. The Transformational Scale/Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) designed by Bass and Avolio (1995) was administered online to collect data that were subsequently analysed using SPSS 26.0. Mann-Whitney U test revealed non-significant differences existed in terms of gender, while Kruskal-Wallis H test, revealed non-significant differences existed in terms of age and qualifications. A one-sample Wilcoxon test revealed that all transformational leadership items were significant at the hypothesised valued of 3.5, in which all items had median values that were significantly greatly than 3.5, indicating that staff tended to choose the higher score for all items. Additionally, the mean score of transformational leadership behaviours was 62 for males and 60 for females(out of a total of 70), indicating that staff tended to perceive the cruciality of transformational leadership among department heads, as average. Overall, about 82 to 97 percent of staff perceived that department heads should exhibit all of the transformational leadership behaviours, except for treating staff as individuals rather than members of a group.
Computer–aided Instruction needs for Clothing and Textile students in Nigerias Tertiary Institutions
Azonuche Juliana Ego
The need for adoption and use of Computer–aided Instruction (CAI) technology in Clothing and textile education is an innovation and crucial step in the right direction towards training future labour force needed for apparel industry. The study was to find out the extent of lecturers’ awareness, instructional resources and ascertain CAI needs in pattern making to further the teaching and learning of Clothing and textile in Nigeria tertiary institutions. A hypothesis was tested in the study. Descriptive survey research design was used for the study. Population was 233 respondents. Eight tertiary institutions were randomly selected. All the seven lecturers and 68 students of clothing and textiles in the selected institutions were used. Questionnaire was used to collect data and analysed using percentages, mean, standard deviation and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Findings showed that lecturers are highly aware of the use of CAI in pattern making in clothing and textiles but do not use it in instruction. Instructional resources and pattern making skill needs were identified. Therefore, CAI will expose lecturers and students to skill training and usage. It was recommended that training and CAI technology be provided for effective instruction to meet global competitive requirements.
Effect of public traffic service delivery on transportation administration in Oyo State, Nigeria
Dr. Oluwaseyi Isaiah Alamu & Ahmed Olasunkanmi Lawal
Issues: Traffic management is one of the main functions of public sector; of road transportation is a major mode of transportation in Nigeria. Despite government’s efforts at delivering a suitable transportation system there has been a lot of clam our on the state of transportation administration in Oyo State, Nigeria. Service delivery in the area of traffic management in Oyo State has witnessed a major challenge as a result of an increase in the number of road users, roadside trading, lack of adequate traffic lights, road signs and poor road networks. Methods: This paper seeks to examine the effect of public traffic service delivery on transportation in Oyo State, Nigeria. The paper made use of primary and secondary data. Primary data were collected through questionnaire and interview while secondary data were collected from textbooks, journals, reports, government gazettes and other publications. A multistage sampling technique was used for the study. Findings: The study found that there is a significant effect between public traffic service delivery and management of road transportation in Oyo State, being that 2 calculated(58.21) is greater than 2 tabulated(28.869). Conclusions: The study concluded that public traffic service delivery had an effect on transport administration in Oyo State, Nigeria. Thus, recommended that more hands need to be deployed to manage public transport administration and make available adequate public road transport facilities.
Establishing Virtue Ethics as an Alternative Theory to Consequentialism and Deontology for Addressing Environmental Problems
Dr. Jyoti Kumari1, Dr. Pankojini Mulia2 and Dr. Ajit Kumar Behura3
Environmental Problem is globally witnessed in the twenty-first century. These environmental problems are deforestation, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, loss of biodiversity, climate change, pollution of air, water, and soil, which require urgent attention. The reason behind these environmental problems is: (a) urbanization, (b) modernization, (c) industrialization (d) population growth, (e) poverty, and more importantly (f) the growing materialistic needs of humans, their unethical practices and immoral conduct. Humans are the most powerful beings on the earth and they have misused their physical and mental power to satisfy their greed rather than need which gave them mastery over nature and consequently destroyed it. The effect of these destruction is not only limited to humans, but it is also effecting the other beings of this planet. Only science is not sufficient to provide the solution to these environmental problems, hence we must have to emphasize on the need of ethics. Ethics teaches us which actions are good or bad, right or wrong for human being. Therefore, this present would focus on virtue ethics for addressing the environmental problems instead of other ethical theories such as consequentialism and deontology because presently instead of focussing either on the consequences of an action or the duties and responsibilities of an individual, there is a need to inculcate good virtues among the humans for building a good character so that they can act morally and take moral decisions towards environmental problems.
Financial development and manufacturing capacity utilization in Nigeria
Aniefor, Sunday Jones and Orife, Catherine Ogheneovo
This study examined the effect of credit to private sector on the variation in manufacturing capacity utilization in Nigeria. Data for the study were extracted from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) annual reports and statistical bulletin of 2020. The data as published in the statistical bulletin are on annual basis except otherwise stated. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics generated from E-Views 9.0 statistical software. Based on the empirical evidence on hypothesis, this study upholds that credit to private sector show a negative relationship with manufacturing capacity utilization in Nigeria. The study conclude that there was inadequate credit to finance public sector as it concerns industrial production and capacity utilization in Nigeria and this needed urgent attention to abate the effect on our economy. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) continue to strengthen and regulate the process of financial procedures on areas of industrial sector and ensure commercial banks give adequate priority to industrial production due to its extensive benefits to our economy.
Labour Practices and Plastic Manufacturing Firms Image in Nigeria
1Akinbode, James*, 2Sokefun, Eniola, Ogunrinade, Ranti & 3Ebeloku, Ademola
Image of plastic manufacturing firms in Nigeria have come under severe criticisms for numerous reasons. One of the many issues that is yet to adequately gathered empirical support is the spate of unfair labour practices which might have been responsible for negative image of the plastic firms in Nigeria and it was against this backdrop that this study examined labour practices and plastic manufacturing firms’ image in Nigeria. To achieve the objective of the study, a survey was conducted among two hundred and thirty-eight (238) employees of selected plastic manufacturing firms in Nigeria. It was revealed in the processed data that there is significant relationship between unfair labour practices and plastic manufacturing firms’ image in Nigeria. Specifically, the study discovered that female employees’ were exposed to unfair labour practices in plastic manufacturing firms than male employees’ and this have really affected the image of plastic manufacturing firms in Nigeria. Similarly, employees with low retention tendencies were found to have experienced more unfair labour practices which have earned the firms negative image than those with high retention tendencies. The study concluded that unfair labour practices have contributed significantly the battered image of the Nigerian plastic manufacturing firms. It was recommended that urgent steps must be taken to reposition the Nigerian plastic manufacturing firms to earn positive image and make it more employees’ friendly in order to enhance the productivity level of the industry in Nigeria.
The Role of Indian and Ethiopian Universities in Building a Knowledge-Based Economy: A five-dimensional Comparative Study
Teshome Gudissa Degu, Ph.D.
It is a well-known fact that knowledge-based economies are essential for nations to survive the effect of globalization. In the twenty-first century, a knowledge-based economy is vital for competitiveness. A knowledge-based economy is one in which technological and information development, distribution, and application are vital to economic activity and long-term growth. The study's overarching goal is to analyze the contributions of Indian and Ethiopian universities to the development of a knowledge-based economy. A qualitative comparative analysis methodology was used in this investigation. A total of twenty participants were chosen (ten Indian professors who had previously taught at Indian institutions and who are currently hired by some Ethiopian universities, and ten Ethiopian professors) were chosen from a sample of five Ethiopian universities. Primary data was gathered through in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Furthermore, because secondary sources were so crucial, pertinent information on universities in India and Ethiopia was acquired from published works. The data analysis procedures for this study included transcribing the interview recordings, reading the transcriptions several times to get a sense of the entire interview, starting the coding process, reviewing all codes to determine which codes did not work or combining ideas from different codes, and breaking down the codes that contained too much data into secondary codes. Human capital formation, academic publication, innovation, start-ups, and university-industry linkage were used as criteria to compare the universities of both countries. According to qualitative data analysis, Indian institutions are much ahead of Ethiopian universities. India is a global leader in human capital formation, with one in every four graduates coming from the Indian educational system. Moreover, universities in India have notable publication records and good culture of university-industry linkage. Ethiopian universities are either in their infancy or underperforming in terms of human capital generation, research, innovation, startups, and university-industry collaboration.
Corporate Governance Mechanisms and Reported Earnings Quality of Quoted Nigerian Banks
Adeosun, Omoniyi Alabi (PhD) & Adeosun, Oluwaseun Titi ,
This study investigates the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on reported earnings quality of quoted Nigerian banks. Post consolidation of banks in Nigeria in 2004 resulted in increase in the capital base of Deposit Money Banks (DMBs) but did not mitigate the propensity of the management to engage in earnings manipulation due to weak corporate governance regime. With the introduction of the corporate governance code in 2006 and the revised code for banks and finance houses in 2014 by the Central Bank of Nigeria as well as the adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards, it is expected that financial reporting practice in the quoted banks should improve. This study is directed at ascertaining the extent at which governance mechanisms associate with earnings management in the banking industry. The study used 10 (ten) quoted DMBs during the period 2010-2019, regressed six governance mechanisms on reported earnings quality proxy. Multiple regressions analysis was employed using the software E-view version 10. The study finds a significant and positive relationship between the size of the audit committee, audit committee independence and firm (bank) size and reported earnings quality while board size, board independence and size of external auditors are found to be insignificant but negatively associated with reported earnings quality. The study therefore recommends in light of the findings: that the Code of Corporate Governance 2014 and provisions of CAMA 1990 on audit committee size, audit committee independence and external audit should be upheld in Nigeria quoted banks as they are significant factors in reduction of opportunistic financial reporting by management.
Firms indebtedness and financial performance of the listed oil and gas firms in Nigeria
Akpokerere, Othuke Emmanuel (Ph.D) Osevwe-Okoroyibo, E. Eloho
This study examined the effects of Indebtedness on Financial Performance (FP) of listed Oil and Gas (O&G) firms in Nigeria; for the period of 2011-2020 (10years). This was done in respect of the measures of Indebtedness [Long Term Debt Ratio (LTDR), Total Debt Ratio (TDR) and Debt to Equity (DTER)] in relation to FP proxied with Return on Assets (ROA). Secondary data were collected from annual report of selected O&G quoted companies and analyzed with descriptive statistics, correlation matrix and regression analytical technique using the E-VIEW (version 9.0) statistical tool. The findings revealed that LTDR, TDR and DTER does not have significant effect on ROA. The study concluded that Indebtedness does not exert significance effect on FP of listed O&G firms in Nigeria. The study suggested that in order to optimise the earning potential of the oil and gas enterprises in Nigeria as well as to produce a respectable return on the loan, long-term debts should be applied to long-term business strategies. The first line of attack should once more be equity funding.