Key drivers of capital formation in East Africa: The application of Dynamic Panel Model
Getahun Tolossa Adugna (Msc)
Evidences show that developing countries’ economies are inherent with structural and institutional rigidities and variations of basic economic variables like capital formation are explained beyond macroeconomic determinants. This paper analyzes the capital formation determinants beyond macroeconomic factors and tries to uncover the role of institutional factors on determining size and sign of capital formation function within neoclassical framework. The study is mainly dependent on secondary data obtained from WDI, EFW and PWT which covers panels of 6 East African countries from periods 2003-2020. Dynamic panel model is mainly chosen to estimate the capital formation function. Accordingly, AB- GMM estimation result shows that among Neoclassical’s variables, economic size, economic growth and economic control variables are found to be significant. On the other hand, among institutional variables, business environment, financial development and political stability are found to be significant determinants of capital formation in the region. The simple insight for policy arising from this paper is that in addition to the traditional Macroeconomic policy areas, the capital formation climate in East Africa is explained by the broader structural and institutional environment in which investment functions. Therefore, policy interventions should give emphasis to improvement of such institutional factors to promote the level of capital formation of the region.
Implementing K-Partition Flash Code in Simultaneous Bit Update Framework
Riz Rupert L. Ortiz, Ph.D.
A flash code is a mechanism basically used in encoding and decoding digital information to flash memory devices. Flash codes in literature operates in single bit update framework where a data update equates to a single cell write to the flash memory block. In this study, the K-Partition Flash Code (KPFC) and its variant KPFC-m is implemented in the new framework where multiple bit update is possible. Analytic investigation was conducted to derive the theoretical worst case write deficiency while computer simulations were used to estimate its average case performance. Results show that KPFC and its variant KPFC-m is still competitive with some flash codes in literature using the new framework. More importantly, the implementation of this coding scheme can help extend the lifespan of flash devices.
The Policy of Iraq on the import of waste between recycling and dumping/ A survey study
Nibras Mohammed A. ALsaffar
Waste is a global problem and not a domestic problem confined to one State alone. As technological development increases in all aspects of life, the waste generated increases. The survey found that most of the imported and domestic products studied in the research are recyclable, consisting of refillable glass bottles, aluminium, plastics and cartons, all of which represent national wealth and resources with which to operate stop plants in Iraq, as well as a shortage of recycling plants in Iraq compared to the daily waste produced. In addition, there is a shortage of recycling plants in Iraq compared to the daily wastes in question. The waste recycling plants consisted of one plant in Sulaymaniyah governorate, the other in Al- Mahmudiyah district and the third in DheQar governorate, which has been out of service owing to its combustion, and the fourth and fifth in Karkh and Rasafa districts, both of which have been under construction since 2017. Most of the waste studied in the research is recoverable (aluminium, plastic, glass, cartoon) and all of it is imported by the state and its final plant is unhealthy.
Knowledge about guidelines for critical appraisal of scientific literature amongst dental students
Dr. Chenchulakshmi G & Dr. Arvind M
Introduction: -critical appraisal is the scieic assessment in a systematic manner to evaluate the quality of a scientific publication and analysis of the results. Critical appraisal is the task of assessing the quality and relevance of research in a particular context. It is an important skill for dental clinicians and dental students who have a responsibility to improve clinical care in their practice. One of the core skills of competent dentists is the ability to search and analyse high?quality evidence. An original research article should consist of the following headings: structured abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion. Problems in understanding the basic aspects of knowledge?based information may impede its implementation into clinical practice. It is an essential outcome for undergraduates and postgraduate students in application of their clinical practice. The inference gained from critical appraisal of a scientific literature helps the clinician to make decisions regarding patient care. Objective: - this study was aimed to evaluate the current knowledge about the critical appraisal of scientific literature amongst dental students. Methods: -a twenty one set questionnaire in google forms was circulated amongst undergraduate and postgraduate dental students. The questionnaire was analysed and evaluation about student’s knowledge and perception of critically appraising a scientific literature was done. Results: - about one hundred and eighty two dental students , both undergraduate and post graduates( 52.20%) followed the checklist and found them useful to appraise scientific literature. Conclusion: -the awareness of appraising a scientific literature is observed more in post graduates compared to undergraduate dental students.
Bells palsy - a case report
Dr. Chenchulakshmi G & Dr. Arvind M
Bell’s palsy is a neuropathy involving the seventh cranial nerve also known as facial nerve. It is usually caused by traumatic, infective, inflammatory or compressive conditions of the nerve. Many cases are also with no identifiable etiologies and are classified as idiopathic. Acute inflammation and edema of the cranial nerve vii can lead to compression and ischemia. The most common cause of bell’s palsy is herpes simplex virus but there are several reports of other viruses such as epstein-barr virus, human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis b virus involved with similar presentation. We present a case of a seventeen-year-old female with bell’s palsy.
Evaluation of impact of raw planting technique on wheat production of farmers: the case of Sinana, Bale zone, Ethiopia
Getahun Tolossa Adugna (Msc),
Recognizing the importance of agricultural technology in enhancing production and productivity, the Ethiopian government introduced row planting technology to farmers recently. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of row planting technology on smallholder farmers’ wheat production in Sinana district, Bale Zone of Ethiopia.200 households are sampled and included in the study among which 95 are adopters of the new farming technique and 105 non adopters. Propensity Score Matching (PSM) model is employed for estimation. The result shows that row planting technology has significant positive impact on farmers` wheat productivity. The overall findings of the study underlined the high importance of training and extension service provision to improve farmers’ skill and access to information to address the recommended agronomic practices, and facilitating access to supplementary technology/machines that simplify the row planting process. Therefore, development interventions should give emphasis to improvement of such institutional support systems to increase adoption of row planting technology.
Role of microrna-510 in various malignancies-A Systematic Review
Dr. R. Amritha Sripoo & Dr. Uma Maheswari. T.N
Background: MicroRNA (miRNAs) discovery was first published in 1993.They are a group of small single-stranded noncoding RNA with 18 to 25 nucleotides. These miRNAs regulate cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis and are widely involved in tumorigenesis, tumour progression and metastasis. miRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in many types of diseases. Biomarker is a term that defines different types of objective indicators of health or disease. Throughout history, and according to human technological advancements, these indicators have turned increasingly more precise and reliable. miRNAs have first been established as biomarkers for cancer in 2008, when Lawrie et al. utilized them for the examination of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the serum of patients, and ever since, their potential use as biomarkers has been mentioned in literature for numerous diseases and malignancies.miR-510 belongs to the miR-506/514 gene cluster. Recent discoveries have shed light on the involvement of miRNA 510 in malignancies. Aim: This paper aims to systematically review current findings on expression of MicroRNA-510 as a diagnostic tool in various malignancies. Methods: A search was done using MeSH terms and keyword search in the electronic databases namely PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane, Science Direct ,Lilacs and addition searches were carried out through cross checking the bibliographies of selected articles. Then based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria and availability of the full texts, a total of 9 articles were included in this systematic review. Result: The search yielded a total of 439 articles out of which 9 articles were included based on the eligibility criteria. Quality assessment based on the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 tool was used to obtain a risk of bias chart using Revman 5.4 software and it was proved that from the 9 included studies, six had low risk of bias and other three had intermediate risk of bias. Conclusion: Literature based evidence states that microRNA510 has aberrant expression, biological role and precise mechanism in various malignancies .This systematic review aimed at improving the current understanding of microRNA 510 and their applicability in malignancies. Further, this may alleyway for further analysis of the target gene pathways of miR-510 which may help in diagnosis and treatment of various malignancies.
Validity of becks depression inventory in patients treated for oral cancer
Dr. Chenchulakshmi G . & Dr. Arvind M
Introduction: -Oral cancer is the 6th most common cancer affecting humans. Post treatment patients encounter symptoms as physical\somatic or emotional/ affective changes such as loss of appetite, fatigue, insomnia, sense of punishment. Symptoms in cancer patients and in patients with depression can be identical, e.g. loss of weight or appetite and fatigue. Widely used assessment instruments for screening are the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) according to the Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Becks Depression Inventory is one of the most widely used tools to measure the intensity of depression and aim is to assess depression level in patients treated for oral carcinoma. Methods: - The present study was conducted to evaluate the validity of Becks Depression Inventory in patients treated for oral cancer. Total number of 50 patients having oral squamous cell carcinoma were included in this study. Results: - Out of 50 patients, Minimal Depression symptoms was observed in five patients, Mild Depression was observed in sixteen patients, Moderate Depression symptoms was observed in ten patients and Severe Depression symptoms was observed in nineteen patients. Out of 21 items Becks Depression Inventory, Mean and Standard deviation was highest in Social Withdrawal (1.60±1.10) followed by Loss of Appetite (1.52±1.11). Conclusion: - Becks Depression Inventory assesses the depression state in patients treated with oral cancer. Psychological status and supportive treatment are necessary to improve the quality of life in patients treated for oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Radicular cyst mimicking a Keratocyst - a case report
1. Dr. Pavithra. M 2. Dr. Arvind M
Inflammatory cyst arises as a result of epithelial proliferation within an inflammatory focus due to numerous causes. Radicular cyst is one among the most common inflammatory cyst. They are found mostly at the apices of tooth (periapical cyst), lateral surface of roots (lateral radicular cyst) and remains in the jaw after removal of offending tooth (residual cyst). These cysts are small and very rarely cross the midline. Whereas, Odontogenic keratocyst is a developmental, non inflammatory cyst that may be unilocular or multilocular. They show unusual growth patterns clinically and pathologically and have high recurrence rate. This paper reports an unusual presentation of radicular cyst in anterior mandibular region in a 26-year-old male patient, who presented with increasing swelling in his lower anterior region for the past one month. The size of the lesion was clinically misleading but on histological examination with biopsy was confirmed as a radicular cyst.
Green marketing of solar energy projects in Iraq is a way to ensure sustainable development-Analytical Study
Alaa Nabeel Al-Heali1, Wisal Abdullah Husain2 , Ali N. Hamoodi3
The research aims to demonstrate the role of green marketing of solar energy projects in Iraq to achieve the sustainable development. The marketing mixture, green marketing strategies and sustainable development were highlighted. To achieve the research objectives, a questionnaire has been utilized as asource to collect information from specialists working in research and academic centers for solar energy projects. The first axis included the personal aspect, while the second axis included scientific research questions from green marketing strategies and dimensions of sustainable development (economic, social, environmental). The total value of the stability was 85%, and the data were analyzed using the Statistical Analysis System -SAS program. The research reached a set of conclusions and recommendations, including that green energy plays an important role in achieving the sustainable development of the electric energy by improving economic and social conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to encourage the use of solar energy to obtaining electricity as it is clean, safe, healthy environmental energy and achieves significant savings in the long term.
Multiple odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws syndromic or non - Syndromic -a case report and review
1. Abhinaya LM 2. Arvind Muthukrishnan
Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a benign unicystic or multicystic intraosseous tumor of odontogenic origin. Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) arises from the cell rests of dental lamina and was primarily termed as “keratocystic odontogenic tumor” in the WHO 2005 conference wherein later during revision in the 2017 WHO meeting, OKC was reinstituted (1). OKCs are mostly solitary lesions commonly seen in the third molar region of the mandible, arising during the second to fourth decade of life that can present radiologically as a single lesion or with septations. OKC’s are predominantly seen in males. Multiple OKCs are a rare entity but are usually seen with NBCCS or Gorlin -Goltz syndrome, orofacial digital syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (2). Typically, multiple OKC’s have been known to occur in association with NBCCS, but rarely may they be seen without concomitant syndromic manifestations. The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome also called Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominant disease presenting with triad features of multiple basal cell carcinoma, jaw cysts and bifid rib (3). Other features include palmar and plantar pits, frontal and parietal bossing, mandibular prognathism, hypertelorism, mental retardation, strabismus, calcification of the falx cerebri and medulloblastoma have also been reported. Studies reveal that 5.8% of non-syndromic multiple OKCs, 8.1% were associated with NBCCS, and 7.6% of them had recurrences (4). We present a case report of a young male with multiple OKC’s with absence of any associated syndrome.
Public administration digitalization and reduction of corruption in Nigeria
Onofere Princewill Okereka & Ugo Chuks Okolie
There is no such thing as an ideal society, and there is no such thing as a society without corruption. Reduced corruption has been a major challenge for the Nigerian government and policymakers. Combating corruption is one way to achieve the UN-approved sustainable development goals. This study therefore, examines at public administration digitalization and corruption reduction in Nigeria. Specifically, to explore the effect of public administration digitalization on the reduction of official corruption in Nigeria, across-sectional design and simple random sampling were used. The study's research instrument was a questionnaire, with 219 participants deemed usable. The correlation and linear regression methods were used to test the study hypotheses. According to the study's findings, public administration digitalization has a significant impact on reduction of corruption in Nigeria. As a result, the study recommends among others that the federal and state governments should increase their efforts to invest in information communication technology infrastructures that will aid in the reduction of corruption in public institutions in Nigeria.
The Effect of Relationship Marketing on Customer Loyalty in Banking Industry, a Case Study of Banking Industry in Shashemene Town
Ayano wako Jenga & Kedir Usman Geda
The objective of customer relationship marketing (CRM) is to build customer loyalty by creating and maintaining a positive attitude toward the company. People can be free to switch from one bank to another and this makes the loyalty level of bank customers decreased, even though the efforts and cost spent for maintaining the customers is cheaper than the efforts and cost spent in getting new customers. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of relationship marketing on customer loyalty within the Banking Industry in shashemene town. The study employed both quantitative and qualitative approach with cross sectional research design. The data were collected from 143 sample respondents who were selected randomly from all banks based on their proportion to total customers using standardized questionnaire and 21 interviewees using unstructured questionnaire. The study found that trust and conflict handling has positive and significant effect on customer loyalty whereas Empathy and commitment has negative and significant effect on customer loyalty in Banking Industry in Shashemene town. Banks in Shashemene must add additional efforts for maintaining the trust of their customers, and conflict handling techniques and improve the empathy of the customers and commitment of its staffs.
Preparation of Oregano, Coffee and Black Cumin Aqueous Formulation and Evaluation of Its Anti-inflammatory Activity-An In Vitro Study
Dr. R. Amritha Sripoo , Dr. Uma Maheswari.T.N & Rajeshkumar .S
Background: Origanum vulgare (also referred to as Spanish thyme and wild marjoram),is a member of the plant family Lamiaceae. Oregano contains several potent components that may contribute towards the cardiovascular and nervous systems, relieves symptoms of inflammation, and modulates blood sugar and lipids. Coffee which contains polyphenols are attributed to a number of pharmacological activities that include antioxidant, antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, cardioprotective and neuroprotective effects. Nigella sativa, black caraway is also called kalonji or nigella, and more common in the Far East, Mideast, Bangladesh, India and Africa. Nigella sativa contains active ingredients, in particular, thymoquinone, the main active constituent known for anti inflammatory effect. Aim: To evaluate the antiinflammatory effect of oregano, coffee and black cumin for the formulation of in-situ gel in treating oral lesions. Materials and methods: This study includes the usage of about 1g of oregano, coffee and black cumin extracts mixed with 100 mL of distilled water and boiled for 15 minutes, filtered and again concentrated till 10mL.The antiinflammatory activity of this herbal formulation is assessed by using Bovine Serum Albumin assay. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity of oregano, coffee and black cumin herbal formulation shows about 65% of inhibition when compared with standard. The anti-inflammatory assay has revealed that 75% of inhibition percentage has seen in 40µl &50µl concentrations of Oregano, coffee and black cumin when compared to other levels Conclusion: This study shows the combination of oregano, coffee and black cumin formulation produces good antiinflammatory effects. Hence oregano, coffee and black cumin can be used as safe herbal alternatives instead of commercially available chemicals for oral lesions.
Knowledge, attitude and perception on salivary diagnostic markers among oral medicine specialist
Dr. Divyadarshini V Dr. T.N. Uma Maheswari
Aim: This study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and perception of salivary diagnostic markers among Oral Medicine Specialists. Background: Early diagnosis plays a crucial role in planning the management strategy and improving the prognosis of disease. Saliva serves as a potential diagnostic fluid as it is economic, non-invasive and gives information about oral & general health. Saliva can be used for clinical diagnosis, disease monitoring and decision making. Salivary constituent’s serve as effective indicators of local and systemic disorders. Materials and methods: A 12 multiple choice questionnaire was prepared and circulated among peers for validation. An online survey was created using google forms and distributed among Oral Medicine Specialists. Data was tabulated in Excel spreadsheets, imported to IBM SPSS software version 2.0 and statistical analysis were performed. Frequency, percentage and chi square test were performed. Results: Oral medicine specialists were mostly aware about recent salivary diagnostic markers. Majority of the participants believe that salivary biomarkers can serve as a diagnostic & prognostic tool. 70% of the participants feel that saliva can replace tissue or serum as a biomarker and can be translated into routine clinical practice. Conclusion: Oral medicine specialists have adequate awareness and knowledge about salivary diagnostic markers, but certain knowledge has to be brushed up among them. Majority of participants showed a positive attitude towards using salivary markers as a diagnostic & prognostic tool. Furthermore, it is important to train dental students on these grounds to help them treat their patients in the best possible way.
Explaining risks to patients effectively- a dentists outlook in Tamilnadu- a cross sectional survey
Dr.Varsha.K.S1*, Dr. Krithika C.L 2, Dr. Anuradha G 3, Dr. Kannan A4 Dr. Yesoda Aniyan K 5, Dr. Nandhini Ramesh 6
Background- Explaining risks to a patient is a critical element of an informed decision. Good communication aids in building trust between the patient and the dentist helps in greater satisfaction. Communicating risks to patients effectively is crucial in achieving a good outcome. Aim-The study aimed to assess the communication skills and knowledge of dentists while explaining risks to the patient. Materials and Methods- A cross-sectional online survey was performed among dental practitioners in Tamil Nadu. The survey execution was done using digital questionnaire as the tool and google forms as the survey provider. A structured questionnaire with 21 closed and 1 open ended questions validated by 10 experts from different institutions was used. “Online informed consent was acquired from all participants”. The internal consistency of this study was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Results- Among the dentists, the faculty scored the highest. “There was no significant difference in the gender” Conclusion- Communicating risks to patients is a skill can be improved over time. An OSCE based assessment of skills could be used to assess risk explanation skills with a practical approach in real word.
Reconnoitering the major challenges of food tourism in developing destinations: an empirical evidence from Amhara National Regional State, Northwestern Ethiopia
Food tourism is unique types of tourism that seeks to meet the needs of a market segment pertaining to food products. Providing diversified local foods would reflect the natural and cultural offerings of tourist sites. The current study employed exploratory research design and qualitative approach. The researcher used interview, focus group discussion and field observation to collect data from purposefully selected key informants. The result of this study reveal that poor hygiene, limited menu item in the restaurant and underprivileged stakeholder attention remain critical challenges for the development of gastronomy tourism. It is expedient that the identification of new attractions, health conditions of service areas and timely promotion of local cuisine offerings are vital to uphold gastronomy tourism in the study area.
Paired sample analysis of digital currency trading and selected Nigerian micro economic performance indicators
Amakor, Ifeoma C.1, Kolawole, Fatimehin2 Okerekeoti, Chinedu U.3
This study examined the extent of relationship that exists between the performance of some selected micro economic variables like; Bank Deposits mobilization (BDM), Per Capita Income (PCI) and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in pre and Post crypto currency trading era in Nigerian from 1997 to 2020. 1997 to 2008 were regarded as pre-crypto currency era while 2009 to 2020 were seen as crypto currency era. The relevant data were sourced from published work like books and journal articles, while the data for analysis were sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletins. The formulated hypotheses were tested using Paired Sample T-test. The findings revealed that crypto currency trading has significantly positively influenced BDM, PCI and GDP. If crypto currency trading has increased bank performance, people’s standard of living and Economic growth in Nigeria; the researcher then recommends that instead of placing an outright ban on the crypto currency bank transaction, such transaction in addition to its identified benefits, could as well serve as a good source of income to the government through transaction tax that could be placed slightly above normal tax rate.
The comparative study on functional property of wheat grains grown in wollega zones for bread production
Boru Asefa1, Ayele Rafer2,Tamirat Endale3 and Gadissa Mosisa4
This study was conducted to investigate the comparative study on functional property of wheat grains that are grown in wollega zones on Bulk density, Water absorption capacity, oil absorbition capacity, swelling index, viscosity, falling number, gluten index, gelatinization property for bread production. The 22 wheat varieties were selected and collected from wollega zones based on judgment sampling method. The results were analyzed based on the ANOVA output data of the design expert version 6 software. The maximum value of the impurities among the wheat varieties analyzed is 3.99% obtained by Dembidolo variety, whereas the minimum mean value is 0.41% recorded by Gojam variety. The impurity value has great impact to determine the processors to accept or reject the wheat for flour production. Falling number ranges from 474.40 s (wayutuqabayisa) 175.0s (dembidollo) varieties.The highest mean value of BD is 0.8gm/cm3 recorded by Gudurukubsa while the smallest value obtained is 0.61mg/cm3 by WayuTukaLiban. TKW ranges from 30.21g (WayuTukaLiban) to 50.54g (GudayaBilaDigalu) varieties. The OAC value ranges from 6.35g/g (WayuTukaBayisa) to 8.64g/g (WayuTukaLiban) varieties. The highest and the lowest mean values are 2.46g/s (Dembdolo) and 1.62g/s (ArjoDanda’a) varieties respectively. The mean viscosity value ranges from 9mpa/s (Bale) to 485mpa/s (Jima GenetiDigalu, GuduruLiban, and ArjoDanda’a) varieties. The swelling index of the wheat varieties ranges from 1.45% (Jima GenetiDigalu) to 1.85% (Jima GenetiLiban). The highest preference score rank for overall acceptability was given to bread from Guduruliben (1st) and to the contrary the poorly accepted bread was produced from Bale variety. Generally, from the sensory value analysis the bread from GuduruLiben andWayuTukaOgolcha wheat varieties obtained the 1st and 2nd ranks, respectively.
Forensic analysis and the Nigerian electoral process
Abraham E. Orhero
Nigeria has accelerated its transition from manual (queues, head counts) to semi-electronic voting systems over the last 20 years. This will undoubtedly present several challenges to election officials with limited technical knowledge. The Nigerian electoral experience has included unexpected and unexplained cases in each phase of the election procedure: preparation, screening, verification/fingerprint scan, balloting, result counting/tabulation, and results announcement. Forensics will aid in problem identification, which will aid in effective problem resolution. The Nigerian electoral process is fraught with difficulties. The survey design is used in this study because it allows for a scientific analysis of the variables under consideration. A sample size of 378 was chosen as a representative sample because it falls within the research limit established by the research adviser, as shown in appendix one. The data was analyzed using simple tabulation, frequency, and percentage. The study discovered that there is fiat political apathy among citizens, INEC officials and political party members are interested in the use of forensic analysis, election integrity is a point of contention in Nigeria democracy, and security use incumbent to human activities. According to the findings of this study, the survival of any democracy is linked to periodic elections that allow for mass mobilization or an input in order to ensure legitimacy, obedience, peace, and political instability. As a result, the study recommends, among other things, that political leaders invest in modern science and technology in order to give Nigeria a comparative advantage and position among countries around the world.
Effect of teamwork on employees performance
The study major goal was to determine the impact of cooperation on organizational performance in the Awash Bank Headquarter office in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The teamwork indicator hypothesis proposed by Kim, TY., Wang, J. & Chen, J. (2018) was used throughout the investigation. A total of 144 employees took part in the study, which was conducted using a Census sample approach. Primary data was gathered using the questionnaire. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used to analyze the data (SPSS). The mean, standard deviation, and percentages were used to assess the data. Tables were used to present the data. Mutual trust, shared value, and team role all have a favorable impact on employee performance, according to the findings of this study. The researcher recommended that the management of the Awash Bank headquarter office grasp the main characteristics that encourage great employee performance based on the study's findings.
Micro finance and women economic empowerment in Sub-Saharan Africa- evidence from Nigeria
Kwode E. Israel Ph.D , Mrs Buzugbe N. P. & Mrs Ogbe Mercy
In sub-Saharan Africa, women play important role in economic development of the region, they are involved in different sectors of the economy but in spite of their critical contributions to the growth of the Continent, they are neglected and regulated to the background, thus giving rise to inequality, financial and socio-economic backwardness. Therefore, this study examined the role of microfinance in empowering women in Sub-Sahara Africa- with Nigeria in focus. The study adopted a survey research design with a target population of 400 women entrepreneurs selected randomly from the six geographical regions of Nigeria and identified through a preliminary survey. Taro Yamane’s formula was used to derive 267 respondents using structured questionnaire and analyzed by mean and standard deviation. Pearson moment correlation and simple regression were used to analyze the data. The result of the analysis revealed that microfinance empowered women, fast track gender equality and economic growth. However, lack of awareness of the benefits of credits facilities, inadequate collateral security, high interest rate, gender-disparity and cultural limitations were constraints women encountered in accessing credit from micro-finance institutions in Nigeria and by extension sub-Saharan Africa. Based on the findings, the study recommended that regulatory and other statutory bodies should reduce and monitor the interest rates on microcredits and make it accessible to women entrepreneurs. Policies and programs are tailored to the promotion of women empowerment and put into practice strategies that can prop up entrepreneurial culture. Importantly, government needs to design framework that will fast track women empowerment through innovative finance for women.
Epidemiological profile of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) in patients attending a tertiary care hospital
Shreena Ruth Mathuram, Praveenkumar M, Dr. P. Lawrence
Problem: The global prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is steadily increasing due to the rise in lifestyle related diseases like diabetes and hypertension. Overall the current prevalence of CKD worldwide is estimated to be 229 per million populations with more than 100,000 people entering renal replacement therapy every year.
Role of Small and Micro-Enterprises Regulatory Framework for Loan Repayment Performance of Youth Revolving Fund in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
Abebe Negesse Bantu1, 2*, N.S. Malik1
Youth Revolving Fund plays a vital role in providing financial and technical assistance to unemployed youths in alleviating their economic and social difficulties using it sustainably. However, the government report shows that the repayment not performed as expected for the reason not yet studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Micro and Small Enterprise (MSEs) on loan repayment performance and sustainability of youth revolving funds (YRF) in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. The study's population was clustered into five clusters based on geography and business activities and sample respondents were proportionally assigned each cluster. A total of 380 sample group beneficiaries were selected from 14,183 beneficiary groups in the selected cluster using simple random sampling techniques. Finally, the data for this study was collected from 328 respondents (301 through questionnaires from beneficiary groups and 27 through interviewing loan officers). Both the descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (chi-square test) were used to summarize the masses of information and check the significant association of credit management and support system among different variables and their effect on loan repayment performances and sustainability of YRF. The result showed that MSEs regulatory framework in place has not established tailored and sufficient training for borrowers, the repayment schedule set was not considered the borrowers’ business revenue cycle; weak coordination and collaboration among legally given responsibility by proclamation No. 995/2017 , the fund implementation has suspected to corruption as the body responsible for managing the fund is also responsible to following up on the implementation, and no accountability for misconducting loan officers to discourage corruption have a negatively and statistically significantly affected loan repayment performance and sustainability of YRF at less than 5% level of significance. Thus, it is recommended that the government should the government should also revisit the existing pseudo ‘MSEs Regulatory Framework’, restructure and create workable MSEs Regulatory Framework that can be implemented practically and may play significant roles for YRF sustainability, supervise legally assigned responsible bodies performance and make them accountable for low or not performing their responsibilities. and finally, redesign an alternative exit strategy (relief) for fund released in the first two years (2017 and 2018) as the problems of default was not only from the side of borrowers but also from the government as it became one reason for migration and losses of life of many productive youths.
Effect of Borrower Characteristics on Loan Repayment Performance and sustainably of Youth Revolving Fund in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
Abebe Negesse Bantu1,2*, N.S. Malik1
Ethiopian youth revolving fund plays a vital role in providing financial and technical assistance to unemployed youths in alleviating their economic and social difficulties. The government established this fund to reduce the prevailing unemployment of productive youth through effective management using the fund sustainably by replenishing itself. However, the annual reports of both Oromia Credit and Saving Share Company (OCSSCo) and the government’s show the performance of the fund is not as expected for reasons not scientifically studied and justified. The study's objective was to examine the effect of borrowers’ characteristics on loan repayment performance and sustainability of youth revolving funds in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. The data for this study was collected from 328 randomly selected respondents of five clusters of Oromia based on geography and business activities of Oromia. STATA Software Version 16.0 was used and both the descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (Ordinal Logistic Regression Model) were used for data analysis and the finding shows that six variables including constant: spouses influence, married group members, age of the borrowers, the level of education and knowing other group members have negatively and statistically significantly affected loan repayment performances and sustainability of YRF at less than a 5% level of probability. Moreover, the YRF is unsustainable as operating self-sufficiency ration (OSSR) were much less than 100%. Thus, it is recommended that OCSSCO and Enterprise and Industry Development Office should evaluate the candidates for YRF loan past track record in the community, check the creditworthiness of the borrowers, support the loan with a character certificate from Kebele with a surety, and make a continuous follow-up of borrowers proper fund utilization, and progress of their business and provide some technical support undermine the defaulting rate of borrowers.
Tax Revenue Collection in Ethiopia: Does Institutional Quality Matter?
Taxation is a significant source of finance for governments, allowing them to invest in human resources, infrastructure, and delivery of services to societies and businesses. The main aim of this study is to estimate the impact of institutional quality (political stability, corruption, government effectiveness, rule of law, voice and accountability, and regulatory quality) on tax revenue collection in Ethiopia The study used a quantitative research approach, Ex post facto research design and time series data set from 1996 to 2020. Following the unit root test, this study uses the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model and bound test to determine the presence of co-integration. The findings revealed that the coefficient of the rule of law, government effectiveness, and political stability has a positive and significant impact on Ethiopian tax revenue collection in both the short and long- run. However, only voice and accountability had a significant positive association in the long -run. Furthermore, in both the short and long- run, corruption and regularity quality have a significant negative impact on tax revenue collection. Consequently, efforts to combat corruption and improve governance must begin as soon as possible to obtain optimal tax income in the future. The findings of this study add empirical evidence to assist the Ethiopian government's plans to develop and amend tax policies in the coming period to ensure the effects of institutional quality on the tax-to-GDP ratio.
Nexus between Compensation and Employee Retention in Nigerian Power Holding Company: An Empirical Approach
*1.Ugwu Kelechi Enyinna (PhD) 2.Eze Mercy Ezienyi
One of the most pressing issues that confront the power sector is job insecurity.The studyaimed to elucidatethe nexus between compensation and employee retentionin the Niger Delta Power Holding Company.The study used a correlational research designin data gathering data.Primary data were collected from a population of 880 participants.The survey resulted in 263 out of the 275 questionnaires submitted to the participants which were analyzed using Correlation. The result revealed thatorganizational support positively and significantly predictedemployee retention. The study may lead to practical applications tosupportmanagersto use competitive pay rate as means of compensation strategiesto retain their workforce. This studyfilled the gapin the literature and methodology by developing a framework and a model to show the nexusbetween compensation and employee retention.
Health Expenditure and Economic Growth: The Nigerian Experience
Dr. T. O. Awogbemi
Expenditure on health is an essential element of total expenditure in any nation which could propel economic growth through expansion of existing structure or through the supply of equipments or other investment opportunities. This study therefore explored the impact of health expenditure on Nigeria’s economic growth for the period between 2000 and 2021. Error Correction Model Estimates (ECME) was adopted to empirically examine the impact of repressors on the dependent variable. The descriptive analysis of the data revealed that emphasis is on recurrent expenditure rather than capital expenditure. The empirical results using the Error Correction Model Estimates does not found support for increasing health expenditure as it negatively affect economic growth of Nigeria both in the short-run and the long-run. It is concluded that though government expenditure on health is very vital, emphasis must be placed on capital expenditure to a reasonable extent. Therefore, Nigerian government should intensify efforts towards increasing the Abuja declarations of allocating at least 13-15 percent of annual budget to the health sector for effect funding as well as focus more on health outcomes and its impacts on economic growth in Nigeria.
Assessment of Condylar Subluxation and Dislocation using TMJ tomography: A Retrospective Study
1. Dr. Pavithra. M 2. Dr. Arvind M
Introduction: Temporomandibular joint is a diarthrodial joint, allowing a hinge-like movement, combined with an arthrodial, gliding motion. TMJ mobility disorders include subluxation and dislocation of the joints. They occur when the mandibular condyles displace anterior to the articular eminence. The main aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of dislocation and subluxation using TMJ tomography. Methods: Study was conducted using 67 TMJ tomographs obtained from the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai. This study was retrospective analysis of radiographs, taken during the period of January 2019- February 2021 of patients who reported with TMJ mobility disorders. Results: Position of condyle at the level of articular eminence was 24 (35.8%), anterior to the articular eminence was 37 (55.2%), behind the articular eminence was 6 (8.5%). Among them the prevalence of dislocation was high than subluxation. The total number of dislocation and subluxation cases were 33 and 4. Conclusion: Findings of this study conclude that prevalence of condylar dislocation is more common than condylar subluxation.
Inflammatory lesion clinically masquerading as malignant lesion
1.Abhinaya LM 2. Jayanth Kumar Vadivel 3.Arvind Muthukrishnan
Oral ulceration is one of the most common lesion encountered in clinical practice which is of a multifactorial etiology. The ulcer is an entity which is a cause of concern for both the patient and the physician. The ulcers may be solitary or multiple. When the ulcers are multiple, they are usually chronic and benign. But when the ulcers are solitary, they may be acute or chronic. TUGSE is a rare, benign ulcerative lesion of the oral mucosa commonly affecting the tongue. TUGSE presents itself as a solitary asymptomatic or painful ulcer with rapid onset and has rolled out self-limiting borders. This paper presents a case series of TUGSE with varied presentations which mimicked malignancy, the diagnostic protocol and management strategies which resulted in complete resolution of lesion. In this paper all the three ulcers are found in the lateral border of the tongue. All the three patients responded well to the treatment with topical medications of 0.3% triamcinolone acetonide, topical chlorhexidine gluconate gel, and betnesol mouth rinse twice daily for one week.TUGSE clinically mimics malignant ulcers in clinical presentation and is often reported to a primary care physician or dentist. The presentation of the ulcer by itself causes cancerphobia to the patient. But still there remains a few unanswered questions pertaining to the etiology of the ulcers.
Prevalence of microbes in unpacked dried fruits a public health alarm
Shakeela G1*, Prabhusaran N2
Problem: Food borne infections and intoxications were the principal cause leading to various gastrointestinal disorders including diarrhea with devastating and fatal health consequences. Investigations related to microbial identification provided a clear picture for ensuring the food safety and this study has been limited to dried fruits only. Design/ Methodology: The objective of this study is to design for isolating E. coli, Salmonella sp primarily and other possible microbes from the unpacked dried fruits available in the study area. The details about the dry fruits were collected. All the unpacked dried fruits samples were analyzed for their physical properties and further analyzed for pH, moisture content and water activity. The initial qualitative screening of the dried fruits was microscopically assessed by wet mounting. Further, the samples were inoculated on appropriate culture media and the colonies were assessed for the presence of bacterial and fungal species. Findings: In this study, the bacterial species like Staphylococcus dominating followed by E. coli, Salmonella, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas and Shigella. Among fungal species, Aspergillus, Rhizopus and Penicillium are the possible isolates in this study. No spoilage state of the dried fruits was found. Conclusion: By this study, the vendors were educated appropriately in order to minimize the microbial load in dried fruits and also recommended the health authorities to inspect such unpacked fruits frequently and necessary measures will be taken to curtail the spread of food borne infections.
Papillon Lefevre syndrome a case report and review of literature
Dr. Indra Gopi1 Dr. T.N. Uma Maheswari2 Dr. N.D. Jayakumar3 Dr. Shilpa Syam4
Aim: The aim of this paper is to briefly discuss about a 19-year-old male patient with Papillon-Lefèvre syndromewho also has an elder brother and a mother with similar condition and to enlighten the significance of eliciting family history, clinical examination, early diagnosis of oral complications such as premature exfoliation of teeth and severe periodontitis and proper management and follow up for a better quality of life. Background: Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS) is a rare, autosomal recessive inherited disorder which is characterized by palmoplantar keratosis, aggressive periodontitis, andpremature exfoliation of deciduous and permanent dentition. Numerous etiological factors namely genetic, immunological, or microbial are found to be associated with the syndrome. The incidence of PLS is found to be 1- 4/million with no sex and racial preponderance. In PLS, if both parents are carriers of the defective gene there is a 25% risk possibility for the children to be affected. Method: A thorough and a complete case history was obtained which includes the chief complaint, past medical and dental histories, family history, carrying out clinical and general examinations followed by advising the appropriate investigations namely, radiographic, biochemical, genetic, and histopathological and finally executing the custom-madetreatment for the patient wereperformed. Conclusion: Management of PLS requires a symptomatic and multidisciplinary approach with the help of a dermatologist due to cutaneous lesions and a dentist as both the dentition in the oral cavity are affected. This patient had undergone a complete evaluation performed by an oral physician who diagnosed the disorder, a periodontist who performed the periodontal treatment and a prosthodontist who provided an appropriate prosthesis for the patient. The patient was also referred to the dermatologist simultaneously for the cutaneous lesions.
Knowledge, attitude and perception on OPMD among oral medicine specialists
M. Dhanvanth & T.N. Uma Maheswari
Background: Oral potentially malignant disorders are common oral mucosal lesions associated with tobacco habit mainly and few congenital, immunologically mediated mucocutaneous disorders with increased risk for malignant transformation diseases. Aim: The aim of this questionnaire study is to assess the awareness of evidence based medical management of OPMDs among oral medicine specialists in a university setting. The questionnaire based study was conducted among 100 participants. A self administered questionnaire was used. Sampling was done by convenient sampling. The study was done in a university setting. The questionnaires were distributed to the post graduates and teaching faculties with varied teaching experience in Oral medicine speciality. It was circulated using an online search software, google form and the response was collected through it. Conclusion :The collected data was ranked as good ,average and below average and the data collected were stored and results were analysed by SPSS software. Out of 100, The need of educational programs exclusively on topical therapeutics in management of oral mucosal lesions to be initiated from the beginning of post graduation course and educational programs on current updates of topical therapeutics is essential for Oral Medicine Specialist to ensure proper treatment protocol in dental practice.
Condyloma Acuminatum in oral cavity - a case report
M. Dhanvanth & T.N. Uma Maheswari
Condyloma acuminatum is a sexually transmitted disease, caused by human papillomavirus infection, characterized by a proliferation of stratified squamous epithelium in the genitalia, anus, mouth and pharynx. In the oral cavity, condyloma acuminatum has a predilection for the mucosa of the lip, soft palate, and lingual frenulum, manifesting as single or multiple pink, exophytic, sessile lesions with a firm consistency, of up to 3 cm in diameter. The transmissible aetiological agents of this lesion are papovaviruses. Genital warts have long been recognised and are now thought to be one of the four most common sexually transmitted diseases and second only to genital herpes among the sexually transmissible viruses.The disease is more common in children and teenagers and appears as solitary papules or plaques with pebbled surfaces or as pedunculated papillary lesions. Oral lesions commonly affect the lips, floor of the mouth, lateral and ventral surfaces of tongue, buccal mucosa, soft palate and rarely gingiva. In this case report, we diagnose condyloma acuminatum in a geriatric male who was unaware of the STI on the lower lip region that was treated by complete surgical excision.
The Effect of Slow Claim Settlement Process on Sales and Marketing of Insurance Products: The Case of Ethiopian Insurance Corporation Shashemene Branch
Ayano Wako Jenga & Aliyi Woticha Kabeto
Any delay or negative behavior by the insurer during claim settlement creates customer dissonance. The quick administration of Claim is therefore not only a legal obligation of an insurance firm, but a strong public relations and marketing strategy. Thus, the overriding objective of this study was to identify the effect of slow claim settlement process on sales and marketing of insurance products in the case of Ethiopian Insurance Corporation, Shashemene Branch. The study employed survey types of descriptive research design. The target population of the study was customer and staff of Ethiopian Insurance Corporation, Shashemene Branch. The questionnaire was administered to 102 sample respondents to collect primary data. The respondents were accessed through convenience sampling techniques. After it was coded and edited, the collected data entered the SPSS Version 23 for processing and analysis purpose. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The descriptive analysis that has been used is frequency, mean and standard deviation. Moreover, inferential statistics used are ANOVA, correlation and Regression analysis. The finding of the study revealed that the elements of claim settlement process have positive and significant impacts on the sales and marketing of insurance products and vice versa. The finding also revealed that improving fast and prompt claim settlement process could improve the overall image of the company sales and marketing strategy through repurchase of insurance product and further recommendation to others increasing the word of mouth advertising.
The Economic Contributions of Child Sponsorship Centers: The Case of Evangelical Projects in Yirgalem Town
Abyot Seifu Gebre
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contributions of Child Sponsorship Centers to human capital development: the case of Evangelical Projects in Yirgalem town. A cross-sectional survey was employed to gauge the tangible impacts of the projects. The study was conducted in 8 kebeles and respondents were selected by systematic random sampling method. Interview, field observations and document consultations were conducted. The project students' educational performance was measured by student's grade 10 General School Leaving Certificate Examination (GSLCE) result as proxy for Educational development. The results of data analyzed showed that participation in the projects had brought significant impact on student's grade result. On the other hand, the result which comes from key informant interview shows that some of the beneficiaries are non-poor and are getting aid from the projects while the poor children are suffering from poverty and forced to drop schooling due to the lack of educational accessibilities. And thus, it is recommended that the projects should make adjustments and other concerned government bodies should monitor and take corrective measures. All in all, the educational performance of the project beneficiary students excels than that of non-beneficiary students of the same socio economic status of the area. In this regard, the study has revealed that the projects’ objectives were appropriate for mitigating the educational problems and promoting educational development in Yirgalem, Ethiopia.
The Antecedents and Consequences of Radical Innovation in the Start-Up Industry
1Tubagus Ismail 2Sabaruddinsah 3Edward Fazri
This research aims to examine the variables that affect and are affected by innovation in a start-up industry. The respondents were managers who work in companies that carry out product marketing using digital technology and online media through websites. The results showed human, structural, and relational capital, as well as technological innovation has a positive impact on company performance. However, technological innovation cannot mediate the relationship between intellectual capital and performance.
Consumer Purchase Behaviour and Satisfaction for Patanjali Products in Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar
1. Ahmad Shekib Popal 2. Dawit Negussie Tolossa Dr. Gurudutta P. Japee
The aim of this article is to study the purchasing behavior of consumers gender-wise, age-wise, and income group-wise; the attributes chosen by consumers while purchasing the Patanjali products, and also to know about the satisfaction level of consumers regarding Patanjali products. Fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) are products that are sold quickly and at a relatively low cost. Customer perception is typically affected by advertising, reviews, public relations, social media, personal experiences, and other channels. The segment of Indian consumers can be isolated broadly into urban and rural markets. The choice and usage of a particular brand by the consumer over time is affected by the quality benefits offered by the brand especially when it comes to brands of eatable and cosmetics. Consumer satisfaction is derived when he compares the actual performance of the product with the performance he expected out of the usage. Philip Kotler observed that a person’s feelings of pressure or disappointment result from a product’s perceived performance in relation to his or her expectations. If the perceived benefits turned out to be almost the same as expected, the customer is highly satisfied and that is how the company achieves the loyalty of the customer towards the product.
Corporate board characteristics and financial performance of listed firms in Nigeria
1Aernan Johnson Emberga 2Emengini Steve Emeka (PhD)
This study examined the effect of corporate board characteristics on the performance of Nigerian listed firms. It employed Tobin’s Q as a dependent variable which is used to measure firm performance while Board size, Independence, diligence, gender diversity, and ethnicity were the independent variables used to measure board characteristics. Due to the fact that this is a secondary in nature, data were extracted from the annual reports and accounts of 110 Nigerian listed firms from 2011 to 2020. In order to achieve a robust analysis, the fixed effect panel regression analysis was used. The results revealed that board size has a negative and significant effect on firm performance, both board independence and gender diversity have a negative and insignificant impact on firm performance, board diligence has an insignificant but positive impact on firm performance, while board ethnicity has a positive and significant influence on firm performance. The study recommended that board size should be carefully monitored by shareholders and in order to achieve a balanced according to expected results, board independence should be continuously maintained and periodically reviewed, a maximum of 6 board meetings excluding emergency meetings be held annually; board members should consist of at least half gender diversity, while, ethnic heterogeneity should be allowed on the boards of Nigerian firms for equity, fair representation, and relative peace.
Postoperative assessment /monitoring of micro vascular free flaps comparing ceus and bone scan
Vivekanandhan1 Ashwin chandra veni 2 Anuradha G3 Kannan Asokan4 Krithika C.L5 Yasoda Aniyan6 Swathi Kv7
Reconstruction management of maxillofacial defects has progressed beyond the primary closure and skin grafts to a variety of pedicled flaps and more recently, the microvascular free tissue transfer using composite structures in order to match the missing tissues. Free scapula, iliac crest and fibular grafts are the most often used grafts and have been shown to be reliable. Methods: 10 patients were classified under HCL classification as all of them had man dibular defects. In order to restore the form & functions of the defective mandible microvascular free fibular flap surgery was planned. Apart from the routine investigations, the patients were undertaken for preoperative CT angiography for the legs to study the vascular pattern, course etc. Findings: The patients were divided into two groups, in which the first group consists of 5 patients where bone scintigraphy alone was done and in the second group consisting of 5 patients CEUS was done to assess the flap vitality. In both the groups, all the ten patients had been operated for man dibular defects restored with microvascular free fibular flap. Conclusion: Bone scan serves as a useful prognostic tool in monitoring the vitality of free microvascular bone flap and also in early recognition of complications. Sensitivity of bone scan is superior to clinical monitoring, as it relies only on the skin paddle, In which the assessment of the flap vitality is not dependable.
The Nexus between Non-Farm Employments and Multidimensional Poverty in Rural Ethiopia: Micro-Panel Data Analysis
Mulugeta Abeneh & Bantayehu Tamrie Alemu
The major objective of this study is to analyze the linkage between non-farm employment and multidimensional poverty in rural Ethiopia using balanced panel data from ESS2013/14 and 2015/16. The study employed Alkire and Foster poverty model and probit regression model. Ten indicators of multidimensional poverty are categorized in three dimensions of multidimensional poverty. Results reveal that the incidence of multidimensional poverty among the rural households of Ethiopia is reducing from 94.9percent in 2013/14 to 92.5% in 2015/16,and average deprivations of indicators and the adjusted multidimensional poverty reduced from 50.2% and 49.5%in 2013/14 to 49.7% and 47.4% in 2015/16 respectively. From the three dimensions, standard of living was the highest contributor to the multidimensional poverty index of rural Ethiopia with share of 43.8 percent followed by health dimension at 34.2 percent. On the other hand, the percentage of rural households’ that engaged In non-farm employment increase from 28.9% in 2013/14 to 31.3% in 2015/16. The result of the probit regression shows that non-farm employment has a significant effect on multidimensional poverty status. Non-farm employment activities reduce the likelihood of the rural household being multidimensional poor on average by 0.032.It is recommended that the government should implement policies that promote non-farm employment, and increase credit access for rural households.
The Economic Burden and Survival Strategy for Micro and Small Enterprises during Covid-19 in Sidama Region, Ethiopia
Abyot Seifu Gebre
This paper is intended to examine the economic challenges and possible solutions of the COVID-19 pandemic in the case of Micro and Small Enterprises in the Sidama Region, Ethiopia. The study adopted a purposive sampling procedure to target the specific study area. The sample size for the study was 317. A two-limit Tobit regression model was used for analyses. The result of the study indicated that change in firm’s expenditure and the workers’ size after the onset of the pandemic, relationship with other firms, land access, market chain, internal challenges, members’ size, and their sense of ownership were statistically significant affecting percentage sales. Moreover, training, relationship with other firms, members’ size, and their social relationship and expenditure after the onset showed a statistically significant effect on percentage employment. The study also depicted that the demand for most of the enterprises' output is declining and thus firing out most of their employees. Some enterprises even shut down due to the adverse effect of the pandemic. However, the enterprises engaged in urban agriculture were least affected and enterprises producing soup and sanitizer were positively affected by the pandemic. The governmentis, therefore, recommended to work on building the capacity of the firms and other appropriate measures to reduce such shocks.
Impact of tax audit and investigation in sustaining tax revenue generated under the self-assessment collection: Nigeria evidence
1Dr. Ofogbe, Nyore Sandra 2Dr .Okolo, Marvis Ndu 3Aernan Johnson Emberga 4Nworie, Solomon
The current decline in crude prices emphasises the need to diversify the Nigerian economy. Tapping all the potential for growth and development is the only prudent thing to do in this situation. Given the present pressure on the prices of crude and the crisis created in hitherto mono-product economies like Nigeria, the tendency is to argue in favour of shifting attention away from the petroleum industry. Taxation is one of such avenues through which the government can generate more funds to sustain its economy. Remarkably, the study analysed the effect tax audit and investigation proxy by desk tax audit, field audit, back duty tax audit, and registration audit have on tax revenue generated in Southeast Nigeria. This study used primary and secondary data. The primary data was collected using a well-structured questionnaire administered to 157 selected staff of FIRS and audit firms in Southeast Nigeria. The secondary data were sourced from the FIRS web portal for 2010 to 2021. The data collected were collated and analysed descriptively with the help of inferential methods such as the unit root test, Pearson's correlation test and estimation techniques, the Fully Modified Least Square (FMOLS), and co-integration regression analysis. The findings revealed desk tax audits, field audits, back duty tax audits, and registration audits, on the whole, have a significant positive impact on tax revenue generated in Southeast Nigeria. The study recommends that tax audits and investigations be carried out regularly to ensure that the exact revenue collected is what is remitted to the treasury. In addition, the internal control mechanisms set to test and supervise the staff of the tax audit and investigation department should be strengthened. This will help minimise the level of corruption and hence enhance the effectiveness of the tax audit and investigation.
A Review Article- Proteolytics, Their Functional Role and Practical Applications
Raed Mohammed Khalaf Al-Zaid* , Adil T. Al-Musawi**, Sudad Jasim Mohammad***
Several sources are used to produce protein decomposers, including fish, feathers, chicken waste and vegetable meat, but the use of fish in the production of this important substance is the most widespread, as fish has been used since ancient times in animal diets, especially single-stomach animals, as it is a source of good quality protein and high nutritional value because of its content of Amino acids and fatty acids, and since fish is a high protein source and contains a good combination of essential amino acids and vitamins, it can be found at cheap prices, especially in small sizes, and it can be used as a high-quality and cheap protein source, so attention turned to its use in the manufacture of protein hydrolyses.
Monitoring Urban Sprawl and Its Impact on Land Use and Land Cover of Dehradun Master Plan (2001-2020)
Urban population has been increasing at a rapid pace everyday with an alarming rate. This increase causes various types of ecological imbalances which in turn affects people living in urban areas. In order to mapping of urban areas becomes very crucial, various techniques and methodologies are being used to evaluate the temporal and spatial domains of urban growth. Thus, urbanization complexities open challenges regarding to study urban dynamics. The aims of this research paper were to quantify the urban growth in Dehradun Planning Area (DPA), the capital of Uttrakhand. Two decades (2001-2020) studies have been performed using urban land cover classes derived from Landsat TM/ETM/OLI satellite data. Built-up area recorded as 4006.3 ha increase in first spell (2001-2011) and 1594.2 ha increase during next spell (2011-2020) of study period. Urban Landscape Analysis Tool (ULAT) was used for urban expansion quantify by generating matrices.Land cover classes was performed with the accuracy of 92.91%, 86.00% and 87.50% respectively for the years 2001, 2011 and 2020. (i) Built-up, (ii) Water and (iii) others. These are the major land cover classes were mapped. Classified maps were further utilized to calculate the degree of urbanization which were based on built-up density of study area, consisting of seven classes (i) Urban built-up, (ii) Sub-urban built-up, (iii) Rural built-up, (iv) urbanized open land (v) Captured open land (vi) Rural open land and (vii) water body. These feature class supervised on the basis of urban reflectance of imageries’ cells. Two times footprints maps were also generated for qualitative and quantitative analysis of urban growth in the planning area. The new development areas also mapped as (i) infill, (ii) extension, and (iii) leapfrog were three categories of new developments.
Possibility of Using Geographical Information Systems for Boosting Students Interest in Social Studies
Atubi, Onamrewho Favour
The study was necessitated by the dwindling interest of students in upper basic school Social Studies lessons and the resultant poor academic achievements both in internal and external examinations. The study investigated the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) as a learning resource to boost students interest in Social Studies. The study explored a practical approach/survey research, the population comprised of two hundred and sixteen Upper Basic 3 students from two Upper Basic schools in Delta State Nigeria. A sample of twenty-six students was systematically drawn from the two schools, the twenty-six (26) students were taught with geoinquiries a GIS software for three weeks. After the practical session, survey research was used to obtain data through a carefully and diligently structured questionnaire, the items on the questionnaire were duly validated. Data were analyzed with Mean and percentages, findings showed acceptance of all items by the participants as possible benefits of geoinquiries in boosting interest of students in Social Studies. Inclusion of GIS geoinquiries software as a learning resources into the curriculum of Social Studies for instructional purpose and training of Social Studies educators on how to use GIS educational software were therefore recommended.
Consumer attitude towards popular brands and Non-popular brands with special reference to Apparels and Accessories
Pangi Chandi Shree Naidu & Pangi Tarunasree Naidu , Professor. Jaladi Ravi
The aim of the study is to know the consumers’ buying behaviour toward goods and services despite their brand and popularity during and post-pandemic scenarios. It is well known that the pandemic has crushed the economy and the flow of income and expenditure has been minimal throughout. The cost of the branded commodities and services has not been supportive nor affordable compared to the pre-pandemic situation. The government has been making changes and implementing financial support to small-scale industries in order to meet the local demand for goods and services to make the country self-reliant. The study focuses on consumer awareness of the local brands and the new initiatives to support the small business to enhance the economic situation. Popularity of clothing brands doesn’t come overnight, the entrepreneurs need to invest their years of service, expertise, technology, hard work and strive by not sparing any efforts. India is a diverse economy, which comprises both the large enterprises and small enterprises. But the competition given by these large enterprises may squash the budding entrepreneurs and may ultimately result in a complete evaporation of the thought of entrepreneurship in the young minds due to the challenges. In order to transform the products from a non-popular brand to a popular brand, we need to focus on the key reasons behind their differentiation. Our study depicts the complete picture on how an ultimate consumer perceives a product, and what is needed in a product to become a popular brand.
Environmental degradation and sustainability in Isoko north and south, Delta state, Nigeria: the deforestation factors
Edewor, Akpezi Okiemute Ph.D
The major priority of the global community is to ensure the sustainability of a healthy and living earth. In order to achieve a functional living earth, the forest eco-system should constitute a major factor for environmental sustainability. This is because of its role in maintaining ecological stability. To this effect, this study examines the theme, environmental degradation and sustainability in Isoko North and South, Delta State, Nigeria: the deforestation factors. Based on computed F-value obtained from the regression equation, the f cal is 23.818 is greater than the critical t-value of 2.25 at 0.05 level of significance. Consequently the null hypothesis was rejected and the alternative hypothesis accepted, which confirms a significant effect on deforestation based on variables examined which includes bush burning, arable farming, population, logging, crude oil exploration, sand dredging and firewood collection. The study also indicated that deforestation affects flora resources than on the fauna. The study therefore recommends that green area conservation and preservation should be implemented to ensure that environmental sustainability through adequate forest/ vegetal resources management takes precedence over degradation, in order to avert or mitigate negative consequences of deforestation on the environment.
Assessment of the levels of salivary glucose in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients: A Systematic Review
1.G. Anuradha 2.K.V.Swathi 3.M. Arvind
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease characterised by elevated levels of blood glucose that can occur as a result of deficiency of insulin or resistance to insulin or both. Insulin is a peptide anabolic hormone that is secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas. Insulin acts by enhancing glucose uptake by cells in response to elevated blood glucose levels and when blood glucose levels are low, the adjacent alpha cells secrete glucagon thus maintaining the normal glucose homeostasis. Diabetes mellitus can be Type 1 DM which is insulin-dependent or juvenile onset characterised by deficiency in insulin production, Type 2 DM which is non-insulin dependent characterised by insulin resistance and the other category known as gestational DM seen during pregnancy. Saliva is a complex fluid containing many enzymes, growth factors, microbial antibodies and it serves as a non-invasive diagnostic tool. Glucose molecules have the property to diffuse through a semipermeable membrane and they can transfer through salivary gland epithelium. Hence salivary glucose estimation can be a monitoring tool in diabetic patients. Aim : This systematic review aims to explore studies in literature that have estimated the levels of salivary glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and methods : The search was done using MeSH terms in the electronic databases namely PubMed, PubMed Central, Science Direct, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar. The systematic review has been registered in PROSPERO database (Registration Number: CRD42021287015). A total of 18 articles were retrieved. On application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 2 articles were included in this systematic review. Results : A total of 84 controls (non-diabetics), 347 cases (Type 2 DM: 174 controlled diabetics, 173 uncontrolled diabetics) were analysed for the assessment of salivary glucose levels. Quality assessment of the included studies was done using Review Manager 5.4.1 which generated risk of bias and applicability concern graphs. Both the studies, Bhattacharya et al. (2016) and Kartheeki et al. (2017) were unclear in their risk of bias and had a low risk with regards to their applicability concern. Conclusion : Salivary diagnostics is an emerging field and offers real time diagnostic values in many diseases. The greatest advantage is that it offers an easy, non-invasive collection methodology compared to serum. The studies analysed in this systematic review had a statistically significant correlation of the salivary and serum glucose concentrations in Type 2 DM and thus can be used effectively as a monitoring tool to assess the disease status.
New product launch, brand loyalty disclosures and firms productivity in Nigeria
Egberi Kelvin Agbarha PhD
This study assessed the impact of new product launch and brand loyalty disclosures on the level of firms’ productivity for publicly quoted consumer goods companies. Ex-post facto research design was adopted and twenty-three (23) publicly quoted consumer and industrial goods companies was sampled. The study period spanned from 2010-2021. Data obtained were analyzed by means of both descriptive (mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum values, and Karl Pearson correlation matrix) and inferential (Breusch-Pagan/Cook Weisberg, ordinary least square, fixed and random effect regression) statistical tools. We found the Hausman specification test result as 0.952, indicating that the random effect regression model is more efficient than the fixed effect regression model. Thus, the random effect regression result showed that new product launch disclosure and brand loyalty disclosure positively and significantly influence the level of productivity of publicly quoted industrial and consumer goods companies in Nigeria. More so, brand loyalty disclosure obtained positive coefficient of 0.103 while new product launch disclosure, a positive coefficient of 0.091. This implies that an increase in the brand loyalty disclosure and new product launch disclosure will lead to 10.3% and 9.1% increase in the level of companies’ level of productivity respectively. The study concludes that for firms to enhance their level of productivity, they need to be innovative in areas of new product launch and stimulating brand loyalty. In view of the findings, it was recommended among others that firms should endeavor to launch new products and have these products branded in order to attract the loyalty of customers. Besides, firms’ management should invest in research and development in order to advance new products that would attract the loyalty of customers in order to boost the firms’ productivity.
Analysis of the Earnings and profitability performance of insurance companies- A study in Ethiopian Context
Demilie Eshetu Mahmud & Professor K. Rama Mohana Rao
Abusiness organization is always established with the aim of earning profit from its operations. Without earning profit, growth and stability of a business firm is not possible. this study aims to examine the earnings and profitability performance of selected insurance companies by employing indicators from the CARAMEL framework during the period 2009/10 to 2018/19. The study is basically based on secondary data that has been gathered from annual report of selected Insurance companies, from National bank of Ethiopia, Journals and websites. To analyse the 'earnings and profitability' performance, eight Insurance Companies were taken up for the study. For analysing the earning and profitability performance, five variables namely return on equity, investment income ratio, expenses, losses and combined ratios have been taken. For analysis of data, descriptive statistics was used and a t-test has been applied to see the significances in performance in in terms of the selected variables over the study period. Statistical results of the study revealed a significant performance in return on equity and investment income that ultimately result in improved profitability. The study also revealed that the expense and loss ratios showed significant differences over the study period that ultimately result in a decrease in profitability of the insurers.
Directors Observable Characteristics and Firms Performance in Nigeria: A Panel Analysis
Professor Demaki, G.O. , Imasuen Osasere Festus , Dr. Eromafuru, E.G.
This study looked at the observable characteristics of directors and the performance of publicly traded companies on the Nigerian stock exchange floor. Secondary data on observable features such as board size, board gender diversity, non-executive director, and board independence, as well as Tobin's Q performance measure, were used in a cross-sectional research design.The disproportionate random sampling technique using a sample of 100 firm-year observations covering 25 active listed firms in the periods of 2015 to 2018 was employed. The researchers used a disproportionate random sampling technique with a sample of 100 firm-year data from 25 active listed companies from 2015 to 2018. The panel least squares analysis was employed as the estimation method. The unit root and co-integration test for panel data were used as pre-estimation tests to determine the long-term convergence status of the variables.The findings revealed that, among the directors' qualities studied, board size and non-executive directors had a significant impact on firm performance; more importantly, only non-executive directors have a positive impact.On the basis of the findings, it was suggested, among other things, that females be given more opportunities in the board composition because of their natural role of being meticulous, while the board size be reduced to decrease agency costs.
Assessing Effect of Marketing Practice on the Business Performance of Micro and small enterprise (MSE) in Shashamenne town, Ethiopia
Addisu Bekele Demie , Elia Muhammed , Nurhuseen Endris & Habtimer Mekonnen
The main aim of this study is assessment of the effect of marketing practice on the business performance of micro and small MSE in shashemanne town, Ethiopia. In order to make the study being manageable it is necessary to define the delimitation of thestudy. Thus, the study were delimited conceptually, methodologically, time and geographically. Descriptive research design was applied. Both qualitative and quantitative types of data were used. Primary and secondary source of data was also applied. The target population for this study includes MSEs, workers, manager and owners of robe town micro and small scale enterprise office. The researchers was employed, both probability and non-probability sampling design, Proportionate Stratified sampling and Purposive sampling technique was used. The sample size of the study includes 10 government official from the sector leading organization and 319 from the Mse employees. Descriptive and inferential analysis was used. The model summary indicate the R2= 51.9 percent means that the total variation in the dependent variable (business performance is explained or caused by 51.9 percent of the change in all independent variables: MS, MC, AM, MMS and INF in connection with business performance of SME. The major finding of the study indicate that Marketing skill or hesitant to analyze existing business opportunities, managerial capacity are very critical for the them, poor infrastructure, problem of proximity to buyers and the following recommendation was forwarded based on the finding, MSEs are seen as an essential springboard for growth, job creation and social progress, solving shortage of local supply needs, provide training facilities and promote experience sharing programs, increase the capacity, knowledge and skill of the operators, experience sharing from successful enterprises
Influence of GST Council decisions on Consumer Buying Behaviour With special reference to the Garments, Textiles and Footwear sector in Andhra Pradesh, India
Pangi Chandi Shree Naidu & Pangi Tarunasree Naidu , Professor Jaladi Ravi
Retail Inflation in India has accelerated to 6.95% in March 2022,infringing the upper tolerance threshold of 6% in a row for the third consecutive month. It has resulted in a 17-month high since October 2020. The reasons for such a huge uptick can be many, but when we look at the micro-level aspects, we can understand the huge picture at the macro level, which is interconnected in every step of the functioning of an economy. Perceptivity is the ability of an individual to understand the profound qualities or relationships among the inconsistent variables in the contextual framework of an economy. Our study is based on consumer buying behaviour and the perception of different segments in an economy. The impact of the sensitivity on the understanding level of the consumer and their ultimate behaviour in prioritising their purchase.The study depicts the influence of pandemics on different social settings, its impact on consumer behaviour and the government’s approachto taxation on basic commodities.
Macrophages: polarisation, regulation and role in periodontal inflammation-a mini review
Akshaya J1*, Devapriya Appukuttan2, Dhayanand John Victor3, Santhosh Devanathan4 , Sangeetha Subramanian5, R Ramya 6
Periodontitis is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory condition of the supporting tissues of the periodontium with progressive attachment loss and bone destruction.The pathogenesis involves a complex interplay between periodontal pathogens and the host immune-inflammatory responses.Macrophages are immune cells involved in the detection, phagocytosis and destruction of bacteria and other harmful organisms.Various stimuli instigate distinct functional characteristics inducing an M1 (or classic) and M2 (or alternative) phenotype, which mirror the Th1/Th2 dichotomy.Macrophage polarization plays a prime role in maintaining periodontal homeostasis. Knowledge on the regulation and homeostasis between various components of the immune system and their influence on periodontal health/ diseaseis essential to understand the complex nature of periodontitis and for therapeutic management.This review discusses in detail the distinct subsets of macrophages, their role in maintaining periodontal health / disease and the role of microRNAs in macrophage polarization. Additionally, details on the future perspective of therapeutic modalities to abate inflammation associated with macrophage polarization and the various areas of research have been reviewed.
Determinants of Financial performance of Insurance Companies-Evidence from selected Ethiopian insurance companies
Demilie Eshetu Mahmud & Professor K. Rama Mohana Rao
Financial performance (Profitability) is One of the elements for examining financial statements and overall company performance. This study was conducted to discover the main determinants of financial performance of insurance companies operating in Ethiopia. The study used Secondary data collected from 8 insurance companies out of 17 and from National Bank of Ethiopia (NBE) from 2010 to 2019 and attempted to model the determinants impacting the profitability of insurers operating in Ethiopia Using return on asset as a dependent variable. To this end, the key firm specific characteristics including liquidity, leverage, size, retention ratio, expense ratio underwriting risk, GDP growth rate and inflation rate are regressed against Return on Assets. According to the study's findings, financial leverage and underwriting risk have a negative and statistically significant influence on profitability (ROA) in Ethiopia, whereas the company's size and GDP growth rate have a positive and statistically significant impact on return on assets. Risk retention ratio and inflation, on the other hand, were found to have a a positive but insignificant effect on profitability. However, the liquidity and expense ratios showed a negative and insignificant relationship with profitability (ROA).Even though inflation was found to be statistically insignificant, its signs may have important policy implications, and thus require the attention of policy makers.
Deterrents to the Success of Micro and Small Enterprises in Shashemane City, West Arsi Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia
Guye Nene Sasaga & Adem Morkema Hidi, Habtimar Mekonnen Korsa
The primary objective of this study was to assess the deterrents to the success of micro and small enterprises in the administration of Shashemene, as well as the reaction of success to changes in its deterrents. The kebeles were sampled using Purposive Sampling, and the respondents were sampled using Simple Random Sampling. We used both descriptive and binary logistic regression. The results of a logistic regression show that government support and infrastructure have a positive impact on the success of micro and small businesses (MSEs). Owner-managers of MSEs with government support and good infrastructural facilities have a 38.26 percent and 22.83 percent higher probability of success in business, respectively, and the difference is significant at the 5% significance level. As a result, the more government support and good infrastructure the owner-manager has, the more likely he or she is to succeed. Micro and Small Enterprises' success is highly responsive to changes in their deterrents. As a result, attention should be paid to improving the success of Micro and Small Enterprises by addressing the determinant variables and supporting them more than ever before by providing facilities and avoiding interruptions of various facilities, such as light interruption, water utility shortages, and road rehabilitation, among other things
Undergraduates Perception of Covid-19 Pandemic and their Academic Achievement in South-South Nigeria Universities: Implications for Technology Education
KENNEDY OJI, ODU
The study titled Undergraduates’ Perception of COVID-19 Pandemic and their Academic Achievement in South-South Nigerian Universities-Implications for Technology Education was carried out with the major purpose of finding out the perceptions of undergraduate students of technology education on COVID-19 pandemic and how it affected their academic achievement. Four research questions were raised and two null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The population of the study was 186 undergraduate students of technology education in five universities in south-south Nigeria, comprising 130 males and 56 females. The entire population was used for the study because the population size was manageable and as such did not warrant sampling. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire titled” Undergraduates’ Perception of COVID-19 Pandemic and their Academic Achievement in South-South Nigerian Universities: Implications for Technology Education” (UPOC-19PATAAISSNUIFTE). The instrument comprising of 52 items was developed by the researcher based on literature reviewed and research questions guiding the study. The survey research design was adopted because the study solicited the opinions of the respondents. Face and content validity of the instrument was done by three lecturers of technology education, in university of Nigeria, Nsukka who confirmed that the instrument had sufficient face and content validity. The reliability of the instrument was undertaken by administering the instrument to ten male and ten female students in Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. After two weeks interval the same instrument was given to the same set of students. Using Pearson Product Moment Correlation formula to analyse the data, it yielded a co-efficient of 0.81indicating that the instrument was reliable 186 copies of the instrument were administered to the undergraduate students of technology education in the five universities and 100 percent returned rate was achieved. Mean and t-test statistics were applied for data analysis for research questions and hypotheses respectively. It was found that: (1) undergraduate students of technology education are aware that COVID-19 pandemic is real (2) COVID-19 can be contacted by anyone irrespective of status (3) Online teaching and learning during period of lockdown was inadequate (4) Practical skill lectures were not properly delivered to students. Based on these findings, the following recommendation was made among others: (1) Government should build more infrastructural facilities to accommodate more students and staff due to social distancing of three meters from one another.
The Protection of Women Labor Rights in Ethiopia: Bottom-Up Approach
Wakgari Kebeta Djigsa
Investment projects are increasing in number from time to time in Ethiopia. The country is also receiving some rewards from the sector. Parallel to this, investments usually cause unnecessary harm to human rights and other social interests. In particular, women and children are the primary victims and they deserve special protection. This research aims at investigating how women workers are affected in employment relations in the private sector and the type of protections available for them. The study heavily relies on the doctrinal methodology and uses empirical data. It finds that employers engage in various unlawful activities against women including, but not limited to, unsafe working environment, denial of rest and leave, lower wages and denial of benefits, and many more. Ethiopian laws invoke the protection of human rights of women though the country took only few steps towards ensuring these rights. The country is also committed to ensure that all economic activities in its territory contribute to sustainable development. Thus, it recommends the importance of maximizing the protection of the labor rights of women workers in the country without discouraging economic activities in the country in order to realize inclusive and sustainable growth and development in the country.
Employee development and retention in the workplace: A Survey of Industrial Goods Companies in Nigeria
Arubayi, Damaro Olusoji PhD; Odiri, Vincent I.O. PhD; Echewa Okeoghene Bright
In recent times, the need to develop and retain highly-skilled employees in the workplace has received much debate in the human resource management literature. The debate stems from the fact that human resource management role has shifted from employee hiring, benefits and wages to strategic human resources where focus has been on strategies aimed at developing and retaining employee. Consequently, this study was carried out with the view to assessing the effect of employee development (coaching, participation and delegation) on retention in the workplace of two industrial goods companies with headquarters in Lagos State, Nigeria. Questionnaire was administered on a sample of ninety (90) respondents who are employees of the industrial goods companies and data obtained were analyzed via descriptive (mean, standard deviation, minimum, maximum values and Karl Pearson correlation) and inferential (variance inflation factor, Breusch-Pagan/Cook-Weisberg and simple regression) statistical tools. The regression results showed that all employee development dimensions positively and significantly affect retention in the workplace. Given the findings, it was recommended that management should strive towards engaging the workforce in development initiatives such as coaching, participation and delegation in the workplace; the development initiatives should be tailored towards the current and future needs of the employees in order to make them relevant at all times in the workplace.
Determinants of loan repayment of Microfinance institutions in Ethiopia
Kanbiro Orkaido Deyganto
The loan repayment of borrowers in microfinance institutions is influenced by different factors such as borrowers’ characteristics, loan characteristics, project characteristics, and lending institutions related factors. Hence, the objective of this study was to identify the determinants of Credit default of Microfinance institutions in Ethiopia. To this end, the researcher employed a mixed research approach with a correlational research design where the effect caused by the independent variable on the dependent variable is observed through regression analysis. The primary data were collected from 161 sampled borrowers using a structured questionnaire. The researcher used a binary logistic model to identify the effect of explanatory variables on the dependent variable. The result of regression analysis showed that out of ten independent variables incorporated in the model eight variables such as being female, age, lack of experience, having other sources of income, lack of financial planning skill, loan diversion rate, involved in service sector business activity, and project follow up are statistically significant respectively. Based on the findings of the study, the researcher forwarded possible recommendations for the MFIs to improve loan repayment of private borrowers more than the current status.
Earnings management: The role of monitoring and the implications on audit opinion
Wati Mulyani & Rudi Zulfikar, Agus Sholikan Yulianto
This study aims to determine and analyze the role of corporate governance monitoring proxied by the board of commissioners, independent commissioners, and audit committees on earnings management and the implications of earnings management on going concern audit opinions on life insurance companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) in 2018-2020 for 3 years. The sample selection used purposive sampling, namely the sampling method based on certain criteria so that 69 samples were obtained from all life insurance companies. This study aims to detect earnings management variables using the Kasznik (1999) model. The analytical method used in this study is a multiple regression analysis and logistic regression using the SPSS (statistical product and service solution) version 25.0 program. The results from corporate governance, it can be shown that the board of commissioners, independent commissioners and audit committees have no effect on earnings management, while the audit committee has no effect on earnings management. Although the audit committee has a significant effect on earnings management, it has not succeeded in suppressing earnings management. The last, earnings management has an effect on going concern audit opinion
A sample of people's attitudes towards consumption of processed foods... A Prospective Study
Huda Hameed Kadhim Alabbody
Introduction: It is necessary to consume healthy types of foods that provide the body's needs of all the basic elements and to stay away as much as possible from foodstuffs that contain industrial additives that may have a harmful effect on physical health. Methods: A study was conducted on randomly 400 persons from Baghdad city. The questionnaire included demographic inquiries as well as eating behaviors of consumers in relation to commercially processed foods and soda containing additives phosphate (hamburger, pizza, instant noodles, and soda). Results : Most of the sample was not aware of the additives phosphate in processed food and drinks, and most of the sample did not know the harmful effect of more phosphate in the diet. However, the main sample identified the high sugar of soda. The sample is insufficiently aware of the risks related to high quantity for long periods of phosphate intake and they do not have sufficient awareness of food and drinks containing additive phosphate. Conclusion: This study confirms necessary the raising healthy consciousness to the hazards of excessive processed food and drinks with additives phosphate. Reducing as much as possible intake foods with additives phosphate. Work to conduct more studies to use food additives that are less threatening the physical health.
Effect of Innovative Finance on Profitability of Commercial Banks Operating in Ethiopia
Dr.T. Hymavathi Kumuri & Kanbiro Orkaido Deygnato
Thepurpose of this study was to identify the effectof innovative finance on the profitability of commercial banks operating in Ethiopia. The study used secondary data source were collected from employed select sixteen commercial banks operating in Ethiopia covering the periods from 2016 to 2020 G.C. Random-effect model was used to examine the effect of independent variables on return on asset (ROA) which used as a profitability measure. This study deals effect of innovative finance onthe return on assets of commercial banks operating in Ethiopia. The result of the paper indicated that innovative finance parameters such as ATM, number of mobile banking users, agent banking users, number of internet banking users, number of point of sale terminal, debit card, electronic fund transfer,new saving account has positive effect on the financial performance of commercial banks. It would be contributed to the existing body of knowledge on the relationship between innovative finance and the profitability of commercial banks. This study implied that financial innovations have a positive and significant impact on the profitability of commercial banks.
Influence of GST council decisions on consumer buying behaviour with special reference to the Garments, Textiles and Footwear sector in Andhra Pradesh, India
Pangi Chandi Shree Naidu & Pangi Tarunasree Naidu ,Professor Jaladi Ravi
Retail Inflation in India has accelerated to 6.95% in March 2022,infringing the upper tolerance threshold of 6% in a row for the third consecutive month. It has resulted in a 17-month high since October 2020. The reasons for such a huge uptick can be many, but when we look at the micro-level aspects, we can understand the huge picture at the macro level, which is interconnected in every step of the functioning of an economy. Perceptivity is the ability of an individual to understand the profound qualities or relationships among the inconsistent variables in the contextual framework of an economy. Our study is based on consumer buying behaviour and the perception of different segments in an economy. The impact of the sensitivity on the understanding level of the consumer and their ultimate behaviour in prioritising their purchase. The study depicts the influence of pandemics on different social settings, its impact on consumer behaviour and the government’s approach to taxation on basic commodities.
Chemiluminescence as a diagnostic aid for dysplasia in oral potentially malignant disorders- A systematic review
Dr K.V.Swathi , Dr G. Maragathavalli & Dr T.N. Uma Maheswari
Aim-The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the existing literature if there are studies done using chemiluminescence as a diagnostic tool for detecting dysplastic changes in oral potentially malignant disorders. Background-Chemiluminescence is the production of light as a result of chemical reaction. Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders (OPMDs) includes both precancerous lesions and conditions which carry an increased risk of cancer. Chemiluminescence is a light based detection system and is very useful for detecting OPMDs for earlier intervention. This technique detects metabolic and structural changes in the mucosal tissues which by nature have different absorbable and reflective properties when exposed to various forms of light sources. Since it is a non-invasive procedure, it can be used to evaluate dysplastic changes in various OPMDs at their initial stage for timely intervention. Methods-The search was done using the MesSH terms and keyword search in the electronic databases namely PubMed, PubMed Central and Science Direct.A total of 23 articles were chosen after initial screening of the title.Then based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria and the availability of the full texts,a total of 6 articles were included in this systematic review. Conclusion-Literature based evidence states that chemiluminescence based screening devices serve as non-invasive, simple chair side diagnostic tools for detecting dysplasia in suspicious lesions which may carry an increased risk for malignancy.It can also be used in remote rural setups where health facilities are limited due to resources and mass screening camps as a screening tool for identifying dysplasias in patients with oral potentially malignant disorders to aid in timely intervention.
Factors affecting Micro and Small Enterprises performance in the Case of Arsi Negele Town: Ethiopia
Geleta Feseha Sahilemichael & Professor Jaladi Ravi
Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in ArsiNegele town do not function at the required level, and some of the businesses have gone out of business in their infancy. As a result, this research was carried out to determine the elements that influence the success of micro and small enterprises in ArsiNegele town. Descriptive research designs were used in this study. Primary and secondary data were acquired for the analysis, with the preliminary data collected through questionnaires and focus group discussions. Based on Yemen's 1967 Sampingtechniques, a simple random sampling technique, the study chose 155 Micro Small Enterprise from 1362 MSE found in ArsiNegele town. The study discovered that external and internal factors influenced MSE performance and that their presence might improve the regular operation of micro and small businesses. The study used correlation and regressions analysis. MSE performance and correlation coefficients demonstrated a substantial positive link. Infrastructure, opportunity-seeking Political, legal, financial, marketing, working conditions, commitment to the work, demand for efficiency and quality, goal setting, risk-taking, information seeking, and self-confidence are all factors that positively impact MSE performance (profit). Similarly, variables such as technological, opportunity seeking, commitment to the work, demand for efficiency and quality, risk-taking, political, legal, financial, marketing, working conditions, information seeking, and self-confidence positively impact MSE (capital) performance. They have a significant effect on MSE performance. Furthermore, variables such as technological, opportunity seeking, commitment to the work, demand for efficiency and quality, risk-taking, political, legal, financial, marketing, working conditions, information seeking, and self-confidencepositively impact MSE performance. They have a significant effect on MSE performance in terms of employee count. As a result, strengthening such factors improves MSE performance. The study recommends that the government be more transparent with all supporting and service delivery packages and that the officials have to close supervision of MSEs. Furthermore, policymakers and service provider institutions must consider and adjust the extent, intensity, and quality of support and their interconnections to lessen the impact of external and internal factors on MSE performance.
The effect of liquidity on profitability of private commercial banks in Ethiopia
Taddesse Shiferaw Deneke & Dr. Tripti Gujral
Liquidity can be defined as the ability of a financial institution to meet all legitimate demand for funds. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of liquidity on profitability of private commercial banks in Ethiopia. Both primary and secondary data were used to address the objective of the study. Purposive sampling was used to gather primary data through questionnaires to test applicability of national bank directive number 57/2014 and effectiveness of liquidity measurement tools used to six banks employed and additional primary data used only to support secondary data. Quantitative method particularly explanatory and descriptive design was adopted for the study. The panel data was taken from the audited financial statements of the commercial banks for ten consecutive year starting from 2010/11 till 2019/20.The SPSS version 20 for windows was used to process the primary and secondary data, and multiple regression analysis was employed to test the hypothesis. The main findings of the study are that liquidity ratio, quick ratio, cash deposit ratio and capital ratio has positive and significant effect on return on asset or Profitability, whereas loan to deposit ratio, deposit to asset ratio and bank sizes has significant negative effect on return on asset. However, the effect of NBE Bill purchase was found to be not significant on return on asset of private commercial banks in Ethiopia. Those results suggest that the National Bank of Ethiopia should come out with strict rules and regulations for control mechanism of liquidity measurement tools and liquidity management policy and the private commercial banks should also give more attention to the aspects and instruments of liquidity management.