Assessing the Socio-Economic Condition of Development-Induced Displaced Households: The Case of Ribe Irrigation Dam, South Gondar Zone, North West Ethiopia
The purpose of this study was to examine the socio-economic condition of development-induced displaced households; the case of Ribe Irrigation Dam in South Gondar Zone, Amhara region. A mixed research approach was employed for the study. This study employed a multistage proportionate simple random sampling and purposive sampling. 318 respondents and fifteen subjects were selected for quantitative survey and qualitative data respectively. The quantitative data were analyzed using percentage and frequencies, T-Test and one-way ANOVA. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The study revealed that majority (58.5%) of households were owned cultivated farmland before they displaced; whereas currently (60%) of displaced households has no any cultivated farmland. (70.8%) of respondents are grouped in to lower economic level after they lost their cultivated farmland due to the irrigation dam. Social relations, level of social support and participation among neighbors are decreased. After displacement (63.3%) respondents were engaged in non-farming livelihood activities. For (90.3%) of respondents the compensation is not proportionate for their farmland taken for the irrigation dam. Majority of respondents (85.5%) bought urban house and land and built house in urban area by using the compensation. There is a statistically significant relationship between household size and amount of compensation money. The study also showed that participatory, proportionate and partiality of the compensation procedure has limitations.
Effect of controlling practices on budget effectiveness in case of Laga Tafo Laga Dadi town
Temesgen Desta Tolessa
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of budget control Practice on the effectiveness of the public organization in Laga Tafo Laga Dadi town. In order to achieve this purpose, questionnaire were distributed to 238 professional employees and returned from 219 respondents. Data used for the research was collected through well-structured questionnaire using simple random sampling. A statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 25 was used to process and analyze the data collected from the respondents and also correlation and regression analyses were performed or made to determine the association between dependent and independent variables. Finding from this study revealed that budget control practice are factors that can influence the effectiveness of public organizations. For this study, seven independent variables were used including budget planning, budget monitoring and control, budget evaluation, participative budget, communication, motivation and responsibility and dependent variable was organizational effectiveness. According to the research output, there is a positive significant effect between independent variables such as monitoring, evaluation, participation, motivation, and responsibility and dependent variable public organization effectiveness. However planning and communication has a negative significant effect on effectiveness of public organization. The practice of planning, monitoring and control, participation of budget, budget evaluation, communication, motivation and responsibility in public sectors was relatively moderate.
Determinants of Micro and Small Enterprises Growth in case of Nekemte City, East Wollega,Oromia region of Ethiopia
Temesgen Desta Tolessa
Today, micro and small enterprises are global issues for development where Ethiopia is a part.The purpose of the study was toinvestigate the determinants of micro and small enterprise growth in Nekemte city.Data for this paper comes from the cross-sectional survey collected from five micro and small enterprisesin Nekemte city, East Wollega, Oromia region of Ethiopia. The five-level Likert scale and dichotomous questionnaire were used as the main data gathering tool. The researcher was used stratified & simple random sampling techniques and the data were collected from 332 participants.Binary logistic regression was used to identify the extent & probability to which explanatory variables predict the sales growth of micro and small enterprises.The result shows that access to finance,teamwork role,access tothe internet, access to government support, and access to work premises are the main explanatory factors for the sales growth variations in the study context. Access to business plan development, opportunity seeking,horizontal & vertical relationship of micro and small enterprises are also explaining variations in sales growth.The correlation coefficient findings of access to finance, teamwork role,access tothe internet, access to government support, and access to work premises have a strong and positive relationship with the sales growth of micro and small enterprises in the study area. The local government is advised to establish micro and small-scale enterpriseswith specific financial institutions that primarily meet their financial needs and are also suggested to connect micro and small enterprises with government projects that may increase the chance of selling their goods & services for a government project. Finally, they are also suggested to supply required internet access with fair & reasonable prices that help them to promote and manage their goods and service in the study area.
Analysis of Smallholder Farmers Wheat Product Market Linkage: In Case of Bale Zone Sinana Woreda, Oromia Region, Ethiopia
Kasim Kelil (MBA) Yeshitila Gabre (MBA) , Solomon Eshetu (MBA)
Ethiopia suffers from weak market linkages on both the input and output side. Weak systems connection prevent quality products from reaching end users, such as insufficient packaging and storing inability of Ethiopian products to meet international market standards and restrictive trade regulations. The purpose of this study is to analyze market linkage of smallholder wheat farmers’ of Bale zone Sinana district. To attain this objective, closed ended questionnaire and interview are selected. The total sample that was selected for this study is 418. This study was used descriptive and causal research design to implement the study and both primary and secondary data were comprised in the study. The data was analyzed with the help of SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistical techniques used to analyze both qualitative and quantitative data, and linear regressions analysis were used to investigate the relationship between dependent and independent variables of constraints that affect market linkage. Results of multi linear regression model indicated the relative influence of determinants of different independent variables on market linkage of wheat in the study area. Hence any improvement in one of the dimensions will positively contribute in enhancing the smallholders’ farmer market linkage. Therefore, the researchers recommend improving wheat market failure through enhances farmers’ awareness on market oriented wheat production, strong farmers’ market linkage and strategies of marketing are help to get access of wheat market and strengthen smallholder market linkage.
Comparative Effects of Play-Simulation and Analogy Teaching Strategies on Secondary School Chemistry Students Achievement
Akpokiniovo, Samuel Rukevwe & Avwiri, H.E.(PhD)
The study measured the impact of play simulation and analogy on secondary school chemistry students in Delta North Senatorial District through critical assessment of three research questions and three hypotheses at the 0.05 level of significance. The study also applied a non-randomized pretest-posttest control group design. There were 153 secondary schools with 11,756 SS2 chemistry pupils. From there, the selection of 9 secondary schools and 258 students were employed in the study. The Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT) was utilized to collect data. To assess instrument dependability, the Kuder-Richardson formula 21 yielded reliability co-efficient of 0.86. The t-test was employed to assess the null hypotheses while mean and SD was used to answer all required questions. The results showed a substantial difference in mean chemistry achievement scores between students taught with play simulation and analogy at p<0.05. There was also a significant difference (p<0.05) in mean accomplishment scores between chemistry students taught using play simulation and those taught using lecture, and between chemistry students taught using analogy and those taught using lecture. Based on these data, students taught with Play simulation outperformed students taught with analogy and lecture. Thus, play simulation improves students’ achievement in chemistry.
The Impact of Empathetic Leadership and Job Innovation in Improving Operational Performance and Firm Value
Galih Fajar Muttaqin1*, Dabella Yunia2, Edward Fazri3
This study aims to improve operational performance in Indonesian unicorn companies during the COVID-19 pandemic. The purposive sampling method was used to collect data on Empathetic Leadership, Job Innovation, Operational Performance, and Firm Value from managers of various unicorn companies by distributing questionnaires. The data collected were analyzed using a Structural Equation Model, such as statistical software Partial Least Square. The results of this study showed a change in the pattern of work carried out by companies in running their businesses. For instance, Empathetic Leadership and Job Innovation increase Operational Performance and Firm Value. Furthermore, the original sample value of Empathetic Leadership to Job Innovation, Empathetic Leadership to Operational Performance, Job Innovation to Operational Performance, Job Innovation to Firm Value, and Operational Performance to Firm Value were 0.912, 0.629, 0.351980, 0.287, and 0.671, respectively, while the statistical values were 33.881, 9.543, 5.247, 3.106, and 7.272. Therefore, companies must stay on a good performance scale to maintain firm value. In conclusion, Operational Performance and Firm Value can be affected by Empathetic Leadership to Job Innovation.
The effect of corporate governance on financial performance of microfinance institutions in Ethiopia
Ayneshet Agegnew (Ph.D. scholar & Asst.Prof), Co-Author Dr. Tripti Gujral
The article is aimed to identify the impact of corporate governance on the financial performance of MFIs in Ethiopia. To this end, the researcher employed a quantitative research approach with an explanatory research design. The secondary data were collected from 30 MFIs audited financial statements from 2016 to 2020 G.C. The research employed a random effect regression analysis model to identify the effect of ten explanatory variables on financial performance measured through return on asset. The result of this study indicated that board diversity, board education, capital adequacy, and leverage have a positive and statistically significant impact on the financial performance of MFIs. On other hand, the board size, liquidity, non-performing loan, and inflation have a negative and statistically significant impact on ROA. But the size of the audit committee does not affectthe financial performance of microfinance institutions operating in Ethiopia.
Relationship of nerve growth factor in saliva and chronic periodontitis an analytical cross-sectional study
Dr. Ramaprabha Murugan, Dr. Krithika CL, Dr. Kannan A, Dr.Yesoda Aniyan K, Dr. Ashwin Chandraveni M, Dr.Anuradha Ganesan
Issues : The complex interactions between the immune and the nervous systems has instilled a keen sense of interest among the humans which led to the discovery of nerve growth factor. The study aimed to determine the relationship of salivary nerve growth factor and chronic periodontitis comparing it with healthy individuals. Methods: An analytical cross sectional pilot study was conducted with 200 subjects from the out-patient department. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected and processed, for the analysis of NGF using sandwich ELISA technique. Findings: The data were then statistically analyzed which showed that the difference between cases and controls with regards to NGF concentration was found to be statistically significant (p=0.045) using Mann Whitney test. Spearman’s correlation analysis of the gingival index scores with NGF concentration was very weak and negative, with no statistical significance (p=0.296). Conclusion: The study stands novel- being the first in-vivo study to ascertain the relationship between salivary NGF and chronic periodontitis. The findings of the study show a statistically significant association of nerve growth factor with chronic periodontitis which can help in better understanding of the immune mediated disease pathogenesis. NGF has been in use in various fields like ophthalmology, endocrinology, oncology etc. Understanding the role of NGF in chronic period ontitis marks the beginning of further research in using it as an adjunct in the control of inflammation. This study paves way for future research on the clinical application of NGF in dentistry as an adjunct to the other conventional modalities.
Food security - health and education
Pangi Chandi Shree Naidu & Prof. Jaladi Ravi
Food security plays an indispensable role in human existence. If we look at the contemporary world around us, we can come across certain crises. Such as, international conflicts, external aggression, terrorism, war, autocracy and pandemic, which is leading the people of that concerned country to a chaotic state with uncertain future, poverty, unemployment, malnourishment, inflation and instability. Food security is affected not only from the external factors, it happens from within the nation too. The inability of the administration to balance the exigency and affluence is detrimental to the nation. Srilanka is facing the challenge of food insecurity right now, because of its fast-depleting foreign reserves and couldn’t even able to afford the essential food items, pharmaceuticals and fuel. In 2022 India has extended the financial assistance of over $2.4 billion to Srilanka, in the form of $400 million currency swap, a $500 million loan deferment and a $1.5 billion line of credit. Organic farming crisis led by the decision of Srilanka government to ban the use of fertilizers has resulted in the decline of farm yields to a huge extent. Food is either unavailable or unaffordable to the poor. If we are looking at our own country India, we can see the consumer price index-based reading accelerated to the eight-month high of 6.07% in February. The Retail Inflation has crossed the upper tolerance threshold of 6% set by RBI. Reserve Bank of India is facing an ethical dilemma with the two conflicting moral requirements. One is the Accommodative stance of RBI in its monetary policy for the past two years, in order to revive the economy devastated by Covid-19 which resulted in high Inflation. And the other is not considering the Inflation as an immediate concern, which is making the basic essential goods unaffordable to the poor.
Taxation of Electronic Commerce: Prospects and Challenges for Ethiopia
Wakgari Kebeta Djigsa
Electronic commerce is one of the fastest growing industries in the global economy including in the developing and least developed countries. The advancement in information and communication technologies and the internet has offered the brick-and-mortar businesses additional marketing channels to transact online. The prospects that came with electronic commerce, however, are not without drawbacks. One of the challenges is related to the power of developing economies to levy and collect taxes on such online businesses. This paper seeks to examine the prospects and potential challenges in the taxation of electronic commerce from a legal perspective. It examines the existence or otherwise of an enabling legal and regulatory environment for the taxation of electronic commerce in Ethiopia. In so doing, it employs a qualitative doctrinal research methodology and heavily relies on binding domestic and international legal and policy frameworks as primary sources of data and pertinent literatures as secondary sources. It introduces some possible approaches of addressing potential challenges.
Determinants of Womens Participation in Managerial Positions: Evidence from University of Gondar, Ethiopia
Asemamaw Tilahun Debas (PhD)
Despite record-breaking numbers of women appointed to ministry level in 2018/19 and increasing public attention around gender equality in various institutions, women remain to face multi-faceted challenges and are underrepresented in senior leadership roles across industries in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the level of women’s participation in managerial positions and its determinants at the University of Gondar. The study was conducted using the cross-sectional survey design method encompassing both qualitative and quantitative research approaches. Questionnaires were handed out to 266 employees selected using a proportional stratified sampling technique from a population of 4837 female employees. This was analyzed through descriptive (mainly mean analysis) and multiple regression statistical techniques. The findings of the study showed that women’s participation in leadership is very low with a mean average of 2.20. Furthermore, the study revealed that personal, organizational, parental, and socio-cultural factors explained 93.4% of the variations in women’s participation in managerial positions and significantly contributed to their underrepresentation. The findings also indicated that organizational factors were the highest contributor to the low participation of females in leadership. The current empirical study contributes to investigations in academic institutions and provides new insight into determinants of women’s participation in leadership in the Ethiopian context.
Potential impact of covid-19 on economy in Ethiopia: A case of micro enterprises in West Arsi Zone
1. Habtimer Mekonnen Korsa 2. Guye Nene Sasaga
The first case of covid-19 disease is confirmed on December 8, 2019, in China Wuha City and within short period the virus is spread throughout the world and resulted multi-dimensional effects. The aim of this study is to assess the potential impact of covid-19 on microenterprises’ income in West Arsi Zone of Ethiopia. By using multistage sampling techniques350 microenterprises are sampled from 7 Wored as of the Zone. Ordered Log it Model was employed for estimation. The result shows that covid-19 outbreak has significant positive impact on enterprises’ income. The regression result reveals that cut-off of one or more business type/production of microenterprises, decreases in customer, decrease in product due to fear of covid-19, displacement of workers from their job and product distribution and marketing challenges are significantly play vital role in decline of enterprises’ income that associated with the pandemic. Therefore, development interventions should give emphasis to support microenterprises especially those participated on vulnerable business area.
Assessing Role of Accounting Records and Suitability of International Financial Records Standard for Small and Micro Enterprise: Case of Goro town, Ethiopia
Addisu Bekele Demie & Habtimer Mekonnen Korsa
The purpose of this study is to assess the Role of Accounting Records and Suitability of International Financial Report Standard for small and micro enterprise in Goro town, Ethiopia. In order to achieve the objectives of this study and thereby provide solution to its problems, mixed research approach was used by the researchers. Descriptive research design was applied. Both primary and secondary data were used in this study. Convenience and purposive sampling technique was used. The population of the study was including 200 employees of SME and 5 auditor of the woreda. Data was collected through the use of self-administered schedule and structured interview and Data analysis section of the study was based on both descriptive and inferential analysis. Accordingly, R2=.729 meant that all independent variables together explained the total variation of the dependent variable, usage of Accounting and suitability of international financial report standard of SME by 72.9 percent. The findings indicate Accounting records help to increase profitability, the type of SME influence the application of IFRS, and absences of support on IFRS. Based on findings, Suppliers can also issue an invoice whenever good are supplied to SME owner, and Each SME owner, trader, and supervisor should make sure that he or she is aware of the importance of accounting records towards the business growth, let it be seminars, international meetings, and conferences to improve their skill on accounting record. Thisstudy was conducted in the time range” between” April 2020 to November 2020.The study will contribute to academic understanding by clarifying the role of accounting record and suitability of international financial record standard for SME and the study will also help for other researcher as reference.
The Clinical Benefits of Triclosan in Dentistry
Dr. Sangeetha Subramanian1*, Dr. Devapriya Appukuttan, 1Dr. Prakash PSG1, Dr.Aishwaraya V L2, Dr. Jasmine Crena3, Dr. Santhosh Venkadassalapathy4
Triclosan (TCS), the antimicrobial agent is incorporated into various healthcare products like dentifrices, mouthwash, hand soapsand antiseptics.In dentistry, triclosan is recommended to prevent caries, periodontal diseases,peri-implantitis and halitosis. TCS has short physiological half-life and it is rapidly absorbed, metabolized, and eliminated from the body.TCS is metabolized by phase II enzymes to glucuronide and sulfate conjugates.TCS blocks the active site of enoyl reductase enzyme in bacteria and thereby inhibit bacterial growth. TCS has prominent anti-inflammatory properties which accounts for its anti-gingivitis action.Triclosan?containing dentifrice may be beneficial for the modulation of osteo?immunoinflammatory response around implants by reducing the levels of RANKL/ OPG, which could represent a method to prevent peri?implant mucositis.Research indicated that overuse of triclosan may contribute to the development of resistant microbes.The present review about TCS highlights the dental uses of triclosan, its antimicrobial resistance, safety, adverse effects and toxicity.
Contributing factors for human resource management in tourism business enterprises in the context of a developing region
Yihalem Kebete & Negese Teshager
Human resource management is a decisive concept in bolstering the performance of tourism business enterprises. The main aim of the current study was to pinpoint the major contributors of human resourcemanagement within tourism businesses. Thestudy pursued explanatory research designalong with quantitative research approach. Research participants were selected through simplerandom sampling technique. This study appliedmultiple linear regression analysis to predict how each independent variable explains the dependent variable of the study.The findings of the current study unveilthatthe effectiveness of human resource management within tourism business enterpriseis significantly impacted byemployee training, knowledge sharing,working culture,employee commitment and motivation.It is notedthat understanding the fundamental contributors that support human resource management in tourism business enterpriseis paramount in attaining its future vision.
Analysis of Iraqi consumer behavior during the pandemic crisis of covid-19 Analytical Study about Consumers opinions, sample from Baghdad
Alaa Nabeel Al-Heali1
The world is experiencing the Corona Virus crisis that has prevail over the world since the end of 2019 until now, which has greatly affected the behavior of consumers in general and for the purpose of determining the behavioral patterns of the Iraqi consumer during the crisis and identifying their options and purchasing decisions towards consumption goods and goods used to protect against the virus (masks, gloves,face shield,sterilizers and medicines). This study focused on analyzing the behavior of the Iraqi consumer during the Corona Virus crisis, as the research relied on the questionnaire as a research tool delivered to (1452) Iraqi consumers in the city of Baghdad. It was found that the Iraqi consumer increased the percentage of his/her consumption of consumer goods during the Corona virus crisis due to the influence of the media and news about this health crisis, but despite the pandemic, there are other factors that have discouraged the consumption process for the Iraqi consumer to reassure the state of ensuring the provision of goods consumption, and the absence of obstacles to the provision of goods and materials in Shops and markets during the Corona virus crisis, calling on consumers not to be afraid of the scarcity of consumables during this crisis, in addition to the fact that the Corona virus pandemic greatly affected the increase in awareness and confidence of the Iraqi consumer in shopping online compared to the situation before the pandemic. The study recommends the need for government support for food prices and health protection equipment so that all consumers can buy them, as well as the need to intensify the awareness programs provided by the Ministry of Health through the media and social networking sites to raise health awareness among Iraqi consumers about the seriousness of this virus and the need to wear health protection equipment and encourage online shopping through discount offers and encouragement to exempt consumers from delivery fees during the crisis.
Nexus between Financial instability and Economic Growth in East and South African countries
Temesgen Furi*, Wondafarahu Mulugeta**, Badassa Wolteji***
Study analyzed the interactions between ratio of current account balance, credit to GDP, External debt to GDP, broad money supply to GDP, and inflation rate and economic growth shows optimal stabilization outcome for financial variables. Study shows how financial variables should respond to together with financial instability by estimating impulse response functions and variance decompositions. The main hypothesis of this paper tests whether changes in one of financial variables may lead to a considerable impact on other financial instability and vice-versa. A study employed Panel Vector Autoregressive modeling to empirically examine the relationship between Credit growth, inflation, money supply, debt and their effects on GDP growth in East and South African countries in selected 11 East and South African countries from 1995 to2019. It is found that impact of debt on Credit to GDP, inflation rate, money supply to GDP and economic rate to be weak while credit and money supply strongly interdependent on each other positively based on impulse response functions and variance decompositions next to GDP and inflation rate, all these channels, a credit to GDP isprobably the most important financial instability variables that create shock toeconomic growth. This is due to the fact that credit to GDP ratio account more percent in variation of GDP growth, followed by inflation rate while Money supply ratio account more percentage in variation of credit to GDP ratio followed by GDP growth. Moreover, money supply ratio accounts more percentage in variation of inflation rate followed by GDP growth rate. In general, the major reason for variation and shock of financial instability variables are their own initial valuesi.e Shock of GDP more likely affected by initial values of GDP while a shock in Money supply to GDP largely affected by initial values of Money supply to GDP. Therefore, Central Bank, government and other financial institutions: advised to maintain money supply, debt ratio and credit to bring sustainable economic growth in Eastand South African countries.
Assessment of the aggregate amount of money that households are willing to pay for improved electricity supply in Debre Markos Town, Amhara Region, Ethiopia
Yibeltal Bantie Kebie & Professor Ch. Appa Rao
This study was undertaken to assess the total amount of money that households’ are willing to pay for improved electric power supply. By applying the double bounded elicitation format with follow up open-ended question, the study used the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM). Despite the study used both primary and secondary data, it was mainly used primary and cross-sectional for the year 2021/22. Both non-probability and probability sampling were used to select the study area and the sampled households from the town respectively. This study used well-designed questionnaire as best instrument for collection of the primary data from these sampled households. The study used cross-sectional data collected from 404 randomly selected households from Debre Markos town and the Contingent Valuation (CV) surveyed responses were analyzed through descriptive analysis. The CV surveyed result revealed that 393 (97.28%) of the respondents were willing to pay a positive amounts for improved electric supply services per Kilo Watt (KW). The CV surveyed result also showed that the mean WTP of the household for the proposed improved electricity service is between 1.24 Ethiopian Birr (ETB) and 1.32 ETB from the closed-ended and open-ended question responses respectively which is much higher than the current electric bill tariff of the town which is 0.0044 ETB for the electricity consumption brackets of 0-50 KW. Thus if the proposed electricity development scheme is implemented, in addition to satisfying the electricity needs of the households, the town’s electric utility management can collect more revenue from the sale of this improved electricity supply. Furthermore the total amount of birr those 49,023 households in Debre Markos town are willing to pay was found to be ETB 375,877.8525 per day or ETB 137,195,416.2 birr per year which is much higher than the current total revenue of ETB 97,213,171.55 collected by the utility management for the average daily electric consumption per day of 6.15 KW.
Effect of corporate governance on financial performance of private commercial banks in Ethiopia
1. Girmachew Kahsay Desta 2. Professor P. Viswanadham
This paper entitled “Effect of Corporate Governance on Financial Performance of Private Commercial Banks in Ethiopia.” Banks serve a crucial role in the economy by intermediating funds from savers and depositors to activities that support enterprise and help drive economic growth. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of corporate governance on financial performance of private commercial banks in Ethiopia. The data used in the study was from secondary sources and the sample size was determined using purposive sampling. The study used descriptive data analysis, Pearson correlation analysis and multiple linear regression model to conduct inferential analysis to determine causal relation of the panel data. All most half of the explanatory variables were strongly correlated with return on asset. The regression analysis depicted a mixed result. Some independent variables such as liquidity position and bank size had positive and significant impact on financial performance and others like board independence and capital adequacy ratio had positive but insignificant effect on financial performance.
Corporate governance mechanisms impact on commercial banks financial performance with reference to selected private commercial banks in Ethiopia
1. Girmachew Kahsay Desta 2. Professor P. Viswanadham
The main objective of this paper was to investigate corporate governance mechanisms impact on commercial banks’ financial performance. Nine years data for the period 2012 up to 2020 was used to study fourteen private Ethiopian commercial banks. Purposive sampling technique was adopted to pick these banks based on the effective operation and availability of data for the study period. Secondary sources of data were used. These data were obtained from Audited annual financial statements of the private banks for the period of 2012 to 2020 from the National Bank of Ethiopia and board characteristics related data were gathered from each selected bank in the study. Descriptive statistics was used to quantitatively describe the essential features of the variables. This study also used correlation analysis to find out the level of relationships between variables and panel regression model to conduct inferential analysis using ROE as proxy for the banks' financial performance. SPSS statistical software package was used to analyze the quantitative data. Corporate governance variables considered in this study include Capital Adequacy Ratio, Liquidity Position and bank leverage and the control variable included in the study was bank size. Findings of the study signified Capital Adequacy Ratio was negatively and strongly correlated with ROE. Bank leverage and bank size had positive relationship with return on equity. The regression result depicted that capital adequacy ratio had a significant and negative impact on return on equity. Both liquidity position and bank size had positive and statistically significant impact on banks’ financial performance in Ethiopia. Banks should give due attention to the optimum level of capital adequacy ratio because high capital adequacy ratio adversely affects return on equity of the private commercial banks. Banks should focus on diversification of their operation and works towards increasing their number of borrowers which leads to improve the economies of scale of banks so as to magnify their return on equity.
Determinants of Households WTP for Improved Electricity Supply Services in Debre Markos Town: -Using Contingent Valuation Method (CVM)
Yibeltal Bantie Kebie & Professor Ch.Appa Rao
This study was undertaken to analyze the determinants of households’ Willingness to Pay (WTP) for improved electric power supply. The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was used by applying the double-bounded dichotomous choice value elicitation format. Though secondary data was used, the data used in this study was mainly primary and cross-sectional for the year 2021/22. Purposive sampling was used to select the study area, but multistage sampling methods of probability sampling technique were used in order to obtain the sample households from the town. In the first stage, Simple Random Sampling (SRS) was used to select sampled kebeles for the study. In the second stage Systematic Sampling (SS) was used to draw individual households in each sampled kebele. For collection of the primary data from these sample households, this study used well-designed questionnaire. The study used cross-sectional data collected from 404 selected sampled households. Multicolliniarity between explanatory variables was cross-checked by the measure of Correlation matrix of explanatory variables and heteroscedasticity was checked by using robust regression model. The Probit empirical model was employed to analyze CV surveyed responses. The Probit model test statistics showed that respondents years of stay in the town, households’ income, respondents satisfaction level, reliability of the existing electric power being used, average electric power interruption (outage) per day and quantity of electric power being used had a positive effect on the probability of households’ WTP for improved electricity. On the other hand sex of the respondent, responsible organ for the provision of improved electricity supply and initial bid offered to respondents had a negative expected effect on the probability of saying ‘Yes’ for the initial bid offered to them for improved electric power supply services
Effectiveness of planned teaching programme on knowledge regarding home care of mentally retarded children among care givers in selected special school
Mental retardation is a big threat not only to any nation but also to the entire human life. A mentally retarded child needs greater effort that demands extra attention and nurturing. Parents at home and caretakers in special schools are commonly involved in caring a mentally retarded Child. Caregiver’s knowledge effects the nurturing of mentally retarded children. Quasi experimental, pretest – posttest control group research design with convenient sampling technique was selected for the study. 30 care givers of mentally retarded children divided 15 in each experimental and control group were assessed for the level of knowledge. Planned teaching program on home care of mentally retarded children for about 30 minutes was provided to the experimental group. After a week post-test was conducted using the same questionnaire for both the groups. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study finding showed that planned teaching programme was effective in enhancing the knowledge regarding home care of mentally retarded children among care givers.
Technologically Mediated Religious Innovation and Distribution in the time of Pandemic
Melchor L. Cuizon
The COVID-19 pandemic remains the killer disease that plagues humanity in the century. The exponential rate of mortality is high enough to have killed millions of people across the globe. With delays in medical resources and the scarcity of vaccines especially in developing countries like the Philippines, it can be assumed that the number of casualties due to the disease infection is still significantly higher. In remedying the situation and the desire to contain the spread of the virus through physical transmission, the governments around the world unanimously agreed to regulate the mobility of the public and implement restrictions on social gatherings. Religious practices are not exempted from abrupt disruption. The paralyzes brought about by the pandemic challenged the religious institution as well as the religious public to devise new ways and means to exercise their religious conviction and practices amidst the public health measures. Technologically mediated communication becomes the vehicle and the image of religious rituals and practices worldwide. Steaming services using social mediahave become the prevalent option in delivering religious services to thefaithful. This paper aims to (1) demonstrate the necessity of social media platforms in religiouscommunication during the pandemic and (2) argue that a proper disposition (gelassenheit) to technological devices is essentially required in response to the technological enframing (ge-stell) which reduces both the person and things as standing – reserve (bestand).
A geographical perspective on driving attitudes and behaviour in Nigeria
Atubi, Augustus Orowhigo (Ph.D.)
Traffic accidents and related fatalities have become a major public health problem in the world. This paper is aimed at examining the geographical perspective on driving attitudes and behaviour in Nigeria. Most researchers have used the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) in analysing significant factors concerning speeding behaviour. This paper also considered the use of this theory. While early studies did not shed much light on the role of personality traits in explaining behaviours that pose a risk to road safety, new methodological approaches and theoretical models have begun to emerge in recent decades to better study the relationship of personality traits to driver behaviour. Some theoretical models point out that certain drivers’ personality traits can influence risky driving behaviours, either directly , or indirectly through attitudes dealing with road safety.
Effect of Internal Control on Financial Transparency towards effective public financial management in Public Universities, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia
Abayneh Kindie Derso & Professor P. Venkateswarlu
This article was intended to seek theeffect of internal control onfinancial transparency towards effective public financial management in Public Universities, in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. Data were collected by Structured closed ended five point likert scale questionnaire from 468 respondentsand were analyzed using SPSS, Version 25. The coefficient of Ordinal regression used to explain the effect of each of five types of internal control-integrated frameworks’ principlespointed by COSO, 2013 (control environment, control activities, risk assessment, control information & communication, and monitoring control) on financial transparency. Coefficient of Ordinal regression shown that each of Internal control has positive effect on financial transparency. Thus five types ofinternal controls were positive indicators for presence of financial transparency in Public Universities. Control activities were most likely influence financial transparency and next influencing variable was risk assessment. Control activities, risk assessment, control information & communication, and monitoring control were statistically significant but control environment. The study findings suggested that strong internal control improves financial transparency i.e. the performing of financial activities and practice of sharing financial information within employees in an open &clear manner.Public Universities should giveemphases to internal controls to attain objectives of financial transparency to achieve effective public financial management.
Effect of Organizational Culture on Employees Work Performance in Public Universities, located in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia
Abayneh Kindie Derso & Professor P. Venkateswaralu
The objective of this article was to investigate the effect oforganizational culture onemployees’ work performance in Public Universities, located in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. Data were collected by Structured closed ended five point likert scale questionnaire from 468 employees (non-teaching workers) and were analyzed using SPSS, Version 25. The parameter estimates of Ordinal regression were used to explain the effect of each organizational culture namely- management support, employees’ training, employees’ participation in decision making, employees’ reward & compensation, knowledge sharing, and job satisfaction towards employees’ work performance.Parameter estimates of Ordinal regression shown that the effect of employees’ participation in decision making (4.595) was the most estimated increase predictor of employees’ work performance, followed by management support (2.636). In addition, the effect of job satisfaction (1.774) and knowledge sharing (1.679) positively influenced the employees’ work performance. Those four variables had statistically significant effect on employees’ work performance. Moreover, effect of Employees’ reward and compensation (0.305) also contributed an increase to employees’ work performance, even if it was not statistically significant. On other hand, employees’ training (-0.306) less likely influenced employees’ work performance, with insignificant effect. The study findings suggested that, Public Universities, located in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia,should give strong emphasis to improve employees’ training; rewarding and compensation scheme; practices of knowledge sharing; task assigning on job with inclusivedecision making and management follow-up which in turn will add at higher level to employees’ work performance
The Abiy`s Factors: The Implications of Ethiopia`s Foreign Policy Change towards the Horn of Africa since 2018
Mersha Zenebe Felek
The aim of this research was to assess the role of ‘Abiy factors’ and the implications of Ethiopian foreign policy change towards the Horn of Africa. The research has attempted to analyze the implications of Medemer, Passion, and excuse’ and Ethiopian reforms towards the Horn of Africa. Qualitative research has been employed and important data was collected through interview from key informants consisted of top officials from IGAD, MoFA and diplomats from (Djibouti, Sudan, South Sudan, Kenya, Somalia and Eritrea). The research has also reviewed previous works on the area and other areas with similar concern. Therefore, the findings of the study revealed that the Abiy factors (Medemer, passion and excuse) have brought economic cooperation, rapprochement, political stability and security of the region relatively. Considerable efforts have been significantly addressed; and even continued to stabilize and cooperate the region with enormous economic cooperation and political stability until the thesis was done. Furthermore, the focus of Abiy`s foreign policy towards the Horn is changed suspicion to friendship especially with Eritrea and throughout the region. Overall, the findings of the study revealed that Horn of Africa is exercising relatively integration, order and peace as the result of Ethiopian foreign policy reforms concerning its neighboring countries. But, it should also be noted that the efforts has greatly impeded by multitude of challenges such as; internal challenges (ethnic conflict, inter-regional conflict macro-economic imbalance and activism) and external challenges (Al-Shabab, crisis in South Sudan, opposition in the Republic of Sudan, the competition of supper states in the region, and border conflict).
Effect of COVID-19 on Income of Households in Ethiopia: A case of West Arsi Zone
1. Habtimer Mekonnen Korsa 2. Guye Nene Sasaga 3. Addisu Bekele
Immediate to the confirmed case of COVID-19 in Ethiopia, the government at all levels has significantly strengthened its prevention and control measures which in turn results economic crises in the country.The aim of this study is to assess the potential impact of COVID-19 on households’income in West Arsi Zone of Ethiopia.By using multistage sampling techniques846 households are sampled from 7 Woredasof the Zone. Ordered Logit Model was employed for estimation.The result shows that COVID-19 outbreak has significant positive impact on households’ income.The regression result proves that cut-off of one or more business type/production of households, decrease in product due to fear of COVID 19, displacement of family members from their job and product distribution and marketing challenges are significantly play vital role in decline of households’ income that associated with the pandemic.Therefore, development interventions should give emphasis to support the vulnerable group especially daily laborers.
Factors Determining Financial Performance of Micro and Small Enterprises in West Arsi Zone Kore District
Geleta Feseha Sahilemichael Professor Jaladi Ravi
Today the role of MSE is crucial in every economic development aspects. Even though this sector plays fundamental role in the economic development of the nations, it is constraints with different factors. The Constraint faces micro and small enterprises are different in its condition and determine it at all its various development stage. Some the SMEs faces these constraints at its startup/establishment/ other at growth stage and others even at maturity stage. Even though their development stages are different and their wants also depends on their size of development, the determinants that determine their performance are more or less comparable. From these constraints financial performance is one of the main factors that are affecting Micro and small enterprises performance. This study focused on the factor that determines the financial performance of Micro and Small enterprise in Kore district with a special emphasizes on manufacturing, urban agriculture, service and petty trade sectors. Bothe primary and secondary data was used for the study. By using Yemanu 1967 sampling techniques, 129 of SME were selected. The information’s were collected based on Stratified random sampling technique. In addition in this study data were analyzed by using descriptive narrations. The study analyzed different major challenges which highly affect financial performance of Micro and Small Enterprise in kore district, which are: inadequate finance sources, lack of business management skill, lack of marketing skill and poor entrepreneurship skills. It is recommended that government has to focus on the facility of micro finance institutions and micro and Small enterprise capacity building training like Business development strategies i.etraining on Entrepreneurship skill, Marketing ,financial management and etc.
Does Emotional Intelligence, Moderate Leadership-Commitment nexus in Organizations? Evidence from the Banking Sector in Ethiopia
Birara Bezie Asratie1, Abebe Ejigu Alemu2, Demis Alamirew Getahun3
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between leadership style and organizational commitment and the moderating role of emotional intelligence in the Ethiopian banking sector. A descriptive correlational research design was adopted for this study. Quantitative research methods were used to collect data from 312 non-managerial bank employees who participated in this study. A multistage stratified random sampling method was used to determine the samples. SPSS version 20, descriptive statistics, correlation, and regression analyses were performed to analyze the data. The results show that both transformational and transactional leadership styles are positively correlated with organizational commitment.However, the results showed that emotional intelligence did not moderate the relationship between leadership style and organizational commitment. This study contributes to understanding the mechanisms of developing organizational commitment through leadership styles. The study, therefore, recommends that bank leaders focus on leadership styles combined with transformational and transactional leadership styles that have a greater impact on organizational commitment in Ethiopian banking. The study recommends that bank industries should actively focus on their recruitment and training policies. This study also provides an opportunity to expand the research to other financial sectors.
Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Commitment in the Banking Industry in Ethiopia
Birara Bezie Asratie1, Abebe Ejigu Alemu2, Demis Alamirew Getahun3
Nowadays, emotional intelligence (EI) is a topical subject attracting several researchers in the field of organization management/behavior. An increasing number of studies have been done on emotional intelligence however, there is no unifying work focusing on the measurement of emotional intelligence of managers in the banking sector. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational commitment in the Ethiopian banking sector.A descriptive correlational research design was adopted for this study.Quantitative research methods were used to collect data from 312 non-managerial bank employees who participated in this study. A multistage stratified random sampling method was used to determine the samples. SPSS version 20, descriptive statistics, correlation, and regression analyses were performed to analyze the data.The results of the study showed that emotional intelligence was positively related to all three dimensions of organizational commitment (affective, continuance, and normative). The regression result indicates positive and statistically significant impacts of emotional intelligence on organizational commitment. The findings have implications for emotional intelligence training may play an important role in enhancing the organizational commitments of employees. Therefore, the results of the present study recommended that organizations while hiring or promoting new managers should measure the emotional intelligence level of prospective candidates. In addition, they should organize seminars and workshops on emotional intelligence for their managers and similar ones to energize organizational commitment among their subordinates.
Theory overview of corporate culture defining research model of the relationship between corporate culture affect to employee commitment and business performance
Huynh Thanh Tu1,2, Tran Minh Hieu1,2,3*
The research aims to build a theoretical framework on corporate culture, the factors of corporate culture that affect employee commitment and business performance. The research is based on the theoretical of corporate culture of famous researchers such as Mayer & Allen, Schein... Besides, the author conducts a review of previous studies to synthesize the elements of corporate cultureaffectto employee commitment; corporate culture factors affect business performance and employee commitment factors affect business performance. The research results will provide a proposed research model on the relationship between corporate culture affectto employee commitment and business performance. The research model will be the scientific basis for researchers to conduct empirical studies at enterprises.
Audit Opinion Going Concerned: How about Indonesia during the Covid 19 pandemic?
Rudi Zulfikar1, Kurniasih Dwi Astuti2 ,Tubagus Ismail3
This study examines the effect of continuous bankruptcy predictions ongoing concern audit opinions with the previous opinion as a moderating variable and discusses the implications of the Going Concern Audit Opinion on market reactions during the COVID 19 outbreak in companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange for the 2019 - 2020 period. The time the COVID 19 outbreak occurred in Indonesia had implications for slowing economic growth, which impacted investment and resulted in company bankruptcy. The bankruptcy prediction variable uses Altman. Z-score. The sampling technique used in this research is the purposive—sampling method. In addition, regression analysis. The model used to test the interaction of bankruptcy prediction variables with previous opinions uses Moderated Analysis (MRA). The test results prove that bankruptcy prediction has a negative effect on going-concern audit opinion. Other evidence confirms that the previous opinion variable, the dummy variable, reduces the relationship between bankruptcy prediction and going concern audit opinion. Giving going concern opinion audit has a positive effect on market reaction. This study proves that in Indonesia, going concern audit opinion can be influenced by bankruptcy predictions and the provision of previous audit opinions to have implications for market reactions. In addition, in Indonesia, companies with significant or low assets are not a factor in market reactions but are signals given by companies.
The Impact of Foreign Financial flows on Economic Growth: an Empirical Analysis with Reference to East African Countries
Tekalign Elias Era & Professor Jaladi Ravi
The main objective of this research was to examine the impact of foreign financial flows and real exchange rate (control variable) on economic growth of East African countries. Foreign financial flows are important vehicles for economic development as far as the developing nations are concerned. They have a key effect on country’s economic growth by increasing the efficiency of resource allocation, financing current account imbalances, upgrading currency stock, encouraging export, enhancing productivity and facilitating the transfer of innovative ideas & technology. To determine the effect, the researcher adopted explanatory research design, census-sampling method, and correlation & regression data analyses. In addition, huasman and diagnostic tests were conducted to select an appropriate model. The researcher used secondary panel data, collected from World Bank development indicator website, for the period of 2013-2020. The dependent variable used as a proxy to measure economic growth is log of real GDP per capita whereas explanatory variables representing financial inflows are FDI, Foreign AID (i.e. Official Development Assistant), remittance and sovereign debt. Moreover, real exchange rate was used as a control variable. From the study, the researcher found that inflows of foreign direct investment and sovereign debt had positive and progressive effect on economic growth whereas foreign aid, remittance and real exchange rate had negative and significant impact on economic growth and development of East African countries. The researcher also recommended that governments of East African countries and policy makers should adopt appropriate policy framework, efficient financial development systems, strong management structure, and monitor & control the process to make sure that resources are utilized efficiently on planned and productive investments.
Assessment of Socio-economic Impact of Corona virus (COVID-19) in Case Bule Hora and Dugda Dawa Town, Western Guji zone, Oromia Regional State, Southern Ethiopia
Kumera Takele1 Million Chimdessa2 Haile Tamiru3
The Assessment of Socio-economic Impact of Corona virus (COVID-19) study was conducted at western Guji Zone, Bule Hora Town and Dugde Dawa Town, Southern Ethiopia.This paper provides some of the first evidence on the socioeconomic impacts and responses to the pandemic among households and individuals in western Guji Zone. The objective of the study is to determine the social impact of Corona virus (COVID- 19), to evaluate the economic impact of Corona virus (COVID- 19) and to identify community vulnerable by COVID-19 in the study area. To do so, Community-based cross-sectional survey was used for the study and 150 sample respondents (100 From Bule Hora town and 50 from Dugde Dawa Town) were selected by Cochran formula from the two district. From the sample respondents 99.3% of the have information about COVID-19. The study show that 96% Corona virus highly affect people with the social groups of poor, elderly (greater than 65), pregnant women, people with disability, unemployed, street vendors and small retailers, taxi drivers in the study area. As Government declared states of emergency and issued stay-at-home orders, many individuals in low-income found them out of work, both in the formal and informal labor markets because of these households have lost income across a variety of sources. More than 50% of the households have lost income due to the pandemic as consumable purchasing increasing, slow down of import and exports and state emergency to stay home. The government should take actions and policies aimed at reducing the impact of the pandemic on manufacturing firms and service sector should resolve both supply side constraints and shortage of demand.
The relationship between television promotion and consumer purchasing decisions-A field study
Dr. Afnan Mohammed Shaban
The research is concerned with studying the relationship between TV promotion and consumer purchasing decisions, and aims to determine the type of relationship TV promotion and consumer purchasing decisions, the extent to which TV promotion programs are watched, and the motives for watching TV promotion programs, factors affecting the purchasing decision, motives for making purchasing decisions, and the extent of the impact of TV promotion In the purchasing decision, the questionnaire tool was used, which was distributed to a sample of (200) male and female individuals from downtown Baghdad, and the questionnaire was used as a research tool to obtain the information that was unloaded in the statistical program spss using the various statistical transactions to test the hypotheses, and the research reached to Several results, including there is a good follow-up rate for TV promotion programs, the more to watch is to obtain information and learn about goods and services, and the most important factors affecting the sample in making the purchasing decision are past experiences and the highest percentage obtained by the purchase motive, methods of persuasion in promoting the commodity, and the existence of a correlation relationship A function between the extent to which promotion programs are viewed and consumer purchasing decision-making, proving the second hypothesis There are differences for the demographic variables of the sample towards watching TV promotion programs with the exception of the gender variable, and that TV promotion has an effect on purchasing flight, and the program’s content and idea are the most important elements influencing the purchasing decision of the consumer, and the third hypothesis has been proven that there is a significant correlation between the effect of TV promotion on the decision Purchasing and demographic variables for the sample.
Governance and Public Policy Implementation in Nigeria: The Covid-19 Palliative Measures in Focus
Monday E. Dickson
Following the outbreak and growing number of confirmed cases of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic across the country, the Federal Government of Nigeria announced lockdown measures in states of the federation. This was followed by the closure of schools, religious houses, offices, business organisations and the ban on the social gatherings. The government also adopted the policy of producing, purchasing and distributing palliative items to the citizens. This paper, therefore, examined the challenges associated with the implementation of palliative measures from the prism of public policy. The study adopted the descriptive approach to trace the outbreak of the pandemic, describe its spread and measures adopted by the government to contain the epidemic. Relevant data for the paper were gathered from tertiary shreds of evidence, particularly books, journals, government publications, information from the centre for disease control dashboard, etc. The data were analysed qualitatively along with the existing literature. Findings revealed that the implementation of the policy was constrained by paucity of data, lack transparency as well as coverage, ethnic and party considerations. This, however, culminating in nationwide protests. The study recommended that public policies must be well planned and executed devoid of any parochial considerations.
Inventory Management and Firms Performance of Listed Manufacturing Firms in Nigeria
1Emmanuel Mitaire Tarurhor (Ph.D), 2Emmanuel Ejiroghene Aruoren (Ph.D) , 3Akanni Atanda Owolabi
This study assessed the mediating role of cost of capital, ignored by most prior studies, on the link between inventory management and firms’ performance. The study population are the 40 manufacturing firms listed for the period of 2010 to 2020 on the Nigerian stock exchange market. A total of 33 firms were found useful in this study, after excluding firms with incomplete data, leading to 363 observations. Dataset used were obtained from the Machame Ratio database compiled by Talk Data Associates. A panel ordinary least square regression and structural equation model were used for analyses in the study. The findings showed that inventory management proxied by inventory turnover ratio and inventory conversion period do not influence manufacturing firms’ performance in Nigeria. In addition, despite the high and positive impact of cost of capital on firms’ performance, does not exhibit a moderating effect between inventory management and firms’ performance of manufacturing firms in Nigeria. It was however recommended that government should discourage the importation of substitute locally manufactured goods. Furthermore, managers should source for cheaper cost of capital and guard against diverting loans meant for inventories for other purposes.
Analysis of accounting information system of car spare parts inventory in increasing the effectivity of internal control
Yanti1 Tubagus Ismail2 Imam Abu Hanifah3 Munawar Muchlish4
The purpose of this study is to analyze the flow of the car spare parts inventory system as well as the effectiveness of internal control. This research was conducted at PT. ASTRA International TBK - AUTO 2000 Karawang. Data analysis was done by analyzing the accounting information system of car spare parts inventory, as well as the level of effectiveness of internal control by paying attention to the elements of internal control. The data were obtained through observation, interview, and documentation directly in PT. Astra International TBK. Based on the research that has been conducted, it was revealed that there are still many shortcomings in the application of inventory accounting information system and internal controls. The shortcomings include the presence of traps of functions and tasks by the inventory warehouse section. In addition, there are also unavailable documents, numbered printed sequences, and no accounting function. Last, the SOPs was also not provided and not done firmly. Therefore, in this case, since there are several weaknesses in the internal control over spare parts inventories, it is necessary to improve the existing internal control in order to achieve effectiveness.
A three-way analysis of variance on the locus of control of college lecturers in Malaysia
Fung Lan Yong & Melinda Kong , Ming Ha Lee
The purpose of the study was to examine the locus of control of college lecturers in Malaysia in relation to age, gender and educational levelsusing the Rotter Scale.A review of literature indicated that research on theseattributesis still lacking among Malaysian educators. The sample consisted of 60 lecturers from five colleges who were asked to complete an online questionnaire.A three-way analysis of variance (Age x Gender x Educational Level) was conducted and results showed significant age and educational differences in their internal locus of control; however, no significant gender differences were found.Findings of this study highlight the necessity of informing college lecturers onways to improve their internal locus of control. Since this psychosocial concept is relatively new among Malaysian college lecturers, it is suggested that this notion be incorporated in their trainings and professional development.
An Assessment of Factors Affecting the Effectiveness of Inventory Management in Public Sector of Kellem Wollega Zone: The Case of Dambi Dollo Town
Madhu Lincoln 1, (Associate professor) Mosisa Dachasa 2
This study intended to assess the factors affecting the effectiveness of inventory management in the public sector of Dambi Dollo Town, Ethiopia.The study was targeted toward total of 584 staff of 24 public sectors employees and storekeepers founded in Dambi Dollo town level which is organized in to four pools such as administration pool, Woreda communication pool, agriculture pool, and civil service pool. The researchers employed stratified sampling to group the samples, a purposive sampling technique to select respondents and a simple random sampling technique to select employees within each stratum.The study was used explanatory research design and questionnaires were used as the data collection instrument, Closed-ended questions were used in collecting the data. A study also used a sample size of 241. The quantitative data was analyzed by use of SPSS version 26.0. The study used regression and correlation model to show the relationship between the dependent variable and the independent variables. The study revealed that long bureaucratic procurement procedures, ineffective inventory documentation, lack of adequate qualified and well trained staff and lack of adequate fund are obstacles of the effectiveness of inventory management. The researcher recommends that too much rigid rules and policies need to be avoided; improve current inventory management documentation. Adequate funds need to dispatch on a timely manner while qualified and adequate personnel need to involved in stock control.
Reactions of Parents to the Diagnosis of Autism in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Biruk Befkadu1*, Margaret E. Adamek2, Debebe Ero3
Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder that causes impairments in multiple areas of development including social interaction, communication, and behavior. In Ethiopia, around 600,000 individuals are living with autism. Developmental disorders such as autism are sometimes regarded as an evil-spirit or as a punishment from the supernatural/divine power in this country. The level of awareness, acceptance, and support for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in Ethiopia is very low. Joy and Nehemiah Autism Centers are the only two centers providing support for children with autism and their parents. The main objective of this study was to examine the reactions of parents to the diagnosis of autism in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. To achieve this objective, nonrandom purposive sampling was used to select parents of children with ASD. Twelve parents were recruited from the two institutions with the help of managers of the centers. Data were collected by semi-structured interview guides. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. The identified reactions of parents to the diagnosis of autism were: stress, shock, denial, and feelings of guilt, blame, sorrow, and grief. Only a few participants relieved by the fact that their confusion was over and knowing their challenge had a name, autism. Overall, the negative feelings and reactions were dominant, but a few parents who felt relieved perhaps reframed their minds early on to thinking towards helping and providing care to their children. As a result, parents need to be cared for in order to provide for the needs of their children at the moment of diagnosis and throughout the entire process of caring for individuals with ASD.
Relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction of academic Staffs in some selected Public Universities in Amhara regional state, Ethiopia
Muluken Alemu Delele * & Prof. Jaladi Ravi **
The aim of the study was to assess the dominant leadership style used by college deans as perceived by academic staffs and their level of job satisfaction who are working in public university in Amhara regional state in Ethiopia. Furthermore, the study examines the relationships between three leadership styles, namely transformational leadership style, transactional leadership style and Laissez-faire leadership style and job satisfaction of academic staffs in some selected public universities in Amhara regional state in Ethiopia. Samples were selected from 720 sampling frame by using stratified sampling techniques. The collected data was analyzed by using Statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS-version 21).mean score value and correlation coefficient analyses were used to analyze the data. mean score value results indicate that relatively transformational leadership style were dominantly excised by college deans in the sampled public universities in Amhara regional state in Ethiopia .Moreover, the findings confirmed that a moderate level of job satisfaction was observed among the academic staffs in the sample public university. Besides, findings indicate that transformational leadership style, transactional leadership style and Laissez-faire leadership style had a significant and positive relationship with job satisfaction of academic staffs in the sample public university. It is better for education leaders to use appropriate leadership style that increase the commitment and job satisfaction of academic staffs
A study on the relationship between Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment of Academic Staffs (in the case of some selected Public Universities in Ethiopia)
Muluken Alemu Delele * & Prof. Jaladi Ravi **
the purpose of the study was to examine the level of job satisfaction and organizational commitment among academic staffs working in public university in Ethiopia. Moreover, the study investigates the relationships between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. 650 samples were selected from 720 sampling frame by using stratified sampling techniques. The collected data was analyzed using Statistical package for Social Sciences version 21.0; mean score value and correlation coefficient analyses were used to analyze the data. Results indicate that a moderate level of job satisfaction and organizational commitment among the academic staffs in the sample university. Furthermore, findings show that Job satisfaction and organizational commitment had a significant and positive relationship.
Effects of Eucalyptus (E. camaldulensis) tree plantation on the soil properties on Didessa Woreda, South Western Ethiopia
Fikiru Gamachu*, Ferede Abuye, Tefera Jegora
Eucalyptus camaldulensis are widely planted all across Ethiopia including on large areas of land previously allocated to food production. In recent decades eucalyptus has also increasingly been planted on lands around and within “church forests,” sacred groves of old-aged Afromontane trees. Due to the fast-growing nature of eucalyptus combined with its widely recognized socio-economic benefits (as fuel wood, charcoal, construction wood, etc.), this introduced species has been widely planted around and inter cropped on the agricultural lands in almost all parts of Ethiopia. In some cases even replacing native tree species with eucalyptus becomes common types of land use practices throughout the country. In many developing country contexts the introduction of exotic eucalyptus has been shown to have ecological impacts ranging from soil nutrient depletion, to lowering water tables, to allelopathic effects. In this study, I have collected a total of 5 composite soil samples from eucalyptus stands at four radiuses (1m, 5m, 10 and 15m) and from the adjacent agricultural plots with one depth (0-30cm) to investigate the effects of eucalyptus (E. camaldulensis) on the fertility of the soil comparatively with the adjacent agricultural plots. To achieve these objectives Didessa district was purposively selected based on the abundance of eucalyptus (E. camaldulensis) plantation. Minitab version 16 was used for statistical analysis of soil properties. The result of the experiment revealed that all the investigated soil physico-chemical properties (texture, BD, TP, MC, OM, TN, and Av.P) under both land use types (Eucalyptus stand and adjacent agricultural plots) were significantly different (p< 0.0 and p>0.01) except the pH values measured at all levels. Except sand and silt fractions, the soils under the stand of eucalyptus had the higher mean values for all the selected soil physico-chemical properties than the adjacent agricultural plots. Therefore, planting eucalyptus trees on a carefully selected site with continuous management may has a promising potential for biomass and forest area coverage enhancement.
Analysis of Structure Conduct and Performance of Garlic Market in Libo Kemkem District, South Gondar Zone Amhara Region, Ethiopia
Gedefaw kindu Wubet
Currently, a marketable and medicinal crop is paramount important for improving livelihood and treating health problems. Garlic is the main bulb crop produced in Libokemkem District, but the structure conduct and performance of the garlic market were not studied and documented in the study area. As a result, this study aimed to analyze the structure conduct, and performance of the garlic market at Libokemkem District. 400 garlic producers, 37 traders, and 12 consumers were selected by using multistage random sampling techniques. To evaluate garlic market efficiency, market structure, conduct, and performance approach were used. During the survey, I identified the four largest traders who captured 35.11% of the total quantity of garlic purchased. The result indicated that the garlic market in Libo kemkem District was characterized by a weak oligopoly market structure. Competition, trade license, and shortage of starting/working capital were the main barriers to entry into the garlic market. To evaluate garlic market performance, a marketing margin was computed for each value chain actor. The result indicated that 11.33% of the total gross marketing margin was added to garlic prices in the value chain. From the total marketing margin, 0.71% was gone to collectors, 4.78% for wholesalers, and 5.83% for retailers. Even though all value chain actors were benefited, weak oligopoly market structure, barriers to entry, and misconduct in price setting were indicators for the market performance of garlic was not competitive. The findings of the study pointed that, attention is given by the government and other stakeholders in supporting financial resources and following up administrative issues then improve competitive marketing practice instead of oligopoly market.
Road traffic accident deaths, injuries, driver safety and socio-economic development in Nigeria
Atubi, Augustus Orowhigo (Ph.D.)
The design of roads can have a considerable impact on their safety. Ideally, roads should be designed keeping in mind the safety of all roads users. This would mean making sure that there are adequate facilities for pedestrians, cyclists, and motorcyclists. Measures such as footpaths, cycling lanes, safe crossing points, and other traffic calming measures can be critical to reducing the risk of injury and death among these road users. Safe vehicles also play a critical role in averting crashes and reducing the likelihood of serious injury. However, socio-economic development influence road safety but few studies have assessed both the short-and long-run relation between economic performance and road safety in Nigeria. Based on the literature gathered, government, policy makers, road safety agencies, motorists and motorcyclists should invest in road infrastructure enforcement of traffic regulations and safety measure that will reduce injuries.
R&D Investment Research From 2015 to 2021 Using VOS Viewer Application: A Bibliometric Analysis
Dharmendra ,Tubagus Ismail , Lia Uzliawati & Imam Abu Hanifah
This study aims to provide a bibliometric and science mapping analysis on the research area of R&D Investment published in the Dimension database over the 2017-2021 period. The study used the VOSviewer software and MS Excel spreadsheet for data analysis. The study identified an increasing trend in publication on the topic. The study found that Zahn Bozanic was the most productive author, also Zahn Bozanic, J. Richard Dietrich, Bret A. Johnson, and Frederick L. Bereskin, Po?Hsuan Hsu, Wendy Rotenberg were the highly cited authors. The authors from The USA were the productive publication, while the SSRN Electronic Journal was found to be the most influential journal. The most reoccurring keywords on the topic were R&D Investment, Firm Performance, Research, R&D Expenditure. Finally, the most co-cited sources included Journal of Accounting and Economics, Journal of Financial Economics, The Journal of Finance, The Accounting Review, and Journal of Accounting Research.
A descriptive study to assess the knowledge on pneumonia among mothers at selected hospital, Puducherry
Mrs. Revathy.V 1 , Dr. Sivapriya 2 , Dr. Nivedita 3
Pneumonia is an infection that inflames the air sacs in one or both lungs. The air sacs may fill with fluid or pus (purulent material), causing cough with phlegm or pus, fever, chills, and Difficulty breathing. Pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract infections are the leading cause of death worldwide. Pneumonia affects children and families everywhere, but is most prevalent in south asia and sub-saharan africa. The study was undertaken with the objective to assess the knowledge level of mothers regarding pneumonia in children .Non- experimental descriptive research design was used to assess the knowledge level of mothers on pneumonia in children by a structured questionnaire the findings of the present study concluded that 43 (61.42%) of mothers have moderate knowledge regarding pneumonia in children, 17 (24.28%) have adequate knowledge whereas only 8 (11.42%) have inadequate knowledge regarding pneumonia in children
Determinants of Corporate Voluntary Disclosures in Annual Reports: Evidence from Ethiopian Commercial Banks
Dejen Debeb Asmare Professor P. Viswanadham
Corporate disclosures is a formal-sounding term for making information accessible to interested and affected parties. Henceforth, in excess of mandatory disclosures companies are voluntary disclosed information. The voluntary disclosure level is different from company to company and there are some factors which are affecting to this variation. Therefore, the aims of this study were to identify the extent of voluntary disclosure level and its determinants. In order to achieve these objectives the study developed a voluntary disclosure index including 65 items grouped into nine categories by employing content analysis in the annual reports of commercial banks in Ethiopia for the time period of 2017/18 to 2020/2021. Furthermore, this study used Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression model to test the association between commercial bank attributes and voluntary disclosure practices. The study revealed that disclosures about corporate strategy were the highest and the level of corporate governance information is the lowest level of voluntary disclosure in the annual reports of the study time periods. Furthermore, the study indicate that there is a positive relationship between commercial bank age, size and return on asset and voluntary disclosure, which is statistically significant. The findings also revealed the extent of voluntary disclosure in annual reports is not significantly influenced by other commercial bank attributes. The current empirical study contributes investigations in the commercial banks and provides new insight into determinants of voluntary disclosure in the annual reports of commercial banks in Ethiopian context.
Level of Disclosure Compliance with IAS/IFRS: Empirical Evidence from Ethiopian Commercial Banks
Dejen Debeb Asmare Professor P. Viswanadham
: The need for financial statements comparability attracts interest in terms of developing quality accounting standards. Better corporate disclosure practices are essential in achieving and maintaining public trust and confidence in the banking system, and these practices are critical to the proper functioning of the banking sector in particular and the economy in general. However, little attention has been given to the corporate disclosure practices of the banking sector especially in developing economies. The scope of this study was confined to an evaluation of IAS/IFRS disclosure level in the annual reports published by Ethiopian commercial banks. During the time when the study conducted, there were seventeen (One government owned and sixteen private) commercial banks operating in Ethiopia. The study used the annual reports of seventeen commercial banks, whose annual reports were available for the three years period. The findings indicate that there was significant variability, total standard deviation of 0.20in commercial banks annual report disclosure level. This variability was more noticeable in the IFRS 12 with standard deviation of 0.49; IFRS 2 with Standard deviation of 0.46 and IFRS 9 with Standard deviation of 0.45 among others. Therefore, it can be observed that there was no absolute (100%) compliance of the 28 IAS/IFRS standards among seventeen commercial banks annual reports in the periods covered by the study. The findings of this study further revealed that IAS 7 (statement of cash flows) and IAS 21 (The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates) have the maximum mean result of 98.32% and 92.16% among all the standards with a variability of 0.039 and 0.27 respectively. Whereas IFRS 10 and IFRS 11 have the minimum mean of 0% with no variability. Therefore, it can be observed that there are standards that have greater compliance and also standards that have lower compliance level among the 28 IAS/ IFRS standards considered in this study. The study revealed that 19 among the 28 of IAS/IFRS standards complied on average of 50% and above score. These were IAS 7 (statement of cash flows), IAS 1 (Presentation of Financial Statements), IAS 10 (Events after the Reporting Period), IAS 8 (Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors), IAS 21 (The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates), IAS 28 (Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures), IFRS 13 (Fair Value Measurement), IAS 36 (Impairment of Assets), IAS 33 (Earnings Per Share), IAS 12 (Income Taxes), and IAS 16 (Property, Plant and Equipment).On the other hand, the lowest level of compliance between 0% and 27.19%was observed in IFRS 3 (Business combinations), IAS 20 (Accounting for Government Grants and Disclosure of Government Assistance), IFRS 9 (Financial Instruments),IFRS 10 (Consolidated financial statements), IFRS 11 (Joint arrangements), and IFRS 15 (Revenue from contracts with Customers).
Corporate Strategies applied by hospitality companies to tackle the Pandemic-a global preview
Prof. Jaladi Ravi Mr. A. Srinivas Rao Dr. Gedela Rakesh Varma
This research paper focuses on the global context on how hotels were successful in pandemic situation, challenges faced by them, new trends and concepts which were introduced for the first time by global companies. Due to the short supply of potential customers, hotel managers and operators the research paper utilized mostly data available through magazines and web pages. This study gives the characteristics of global hospitality industry and also the effect of pandemic on management and on human resource.
Knowledge, Attitude and Perception of Senior Citizens (A2 Group)Towards Effectivity of COVID-19 Vaccines
Pauline Mae T. Layaoen1, Darwin G. Dela Cruz2
Vaccination has been practiced for so many years to weaken the possible effects of infectious diseases and to provide strong immunity to fight against those diseases. As the country experiences the massive effects of the COVID-19, specifically the health system, and vaccines are not accepted by some people, this study assessed the senior citizens’ (A2 Group) knowledge, attitude, and perception (KAP) towards effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines for senior citizens are the vulnerable ones in terms of this disease. The survey was conducted to 50 senior citizens through phone calls, messenger and google form in different streets/zones in Brgy. Daan Sarile, Cabanatuan City, Nueva Ecija. This was analyzed through descriptive-correlational analysis method. Out of all the respondents, 10% refused to get vaccinated but majority (80% or 40) of the respondents are vaccinated, where 44% of them were encouraged by social health-workers. For sources of information, 34% of the participants answered that they get COVID-19 vaccines related information from both media and relatives and they perceived interpersonal sources are very accurate source with mean average of 4.64. With the assessment for knowledge, 68% of the respondents are knowledgeable and 32% are not that knowledgeable about COVID-19 information. Out of 100% participants, 90% of the senior citizen respondents has a positive acceptance and attitude towards COVID-19 vaccines and poorly 10% identified as otherwise.Findings also revealed that respondents’ perceived accurateness on digital media (e.g., social media platforms, websites, etc) and educational attainment are significantly associated. Also, respondents with lower education finds the digital media as accurate source of information about COVID-19. Moreover, results shows that respondents’ marital status is significantly associated with their knowledge and perception on COVID-19 (p<0.05). It also shows that household size is also significantly associated (p<0.025) with the perception on COVID-19 vaccines. With this, the study found that majority of senior citizen are more likely willing to be vaccinated than to reject the immunization and has a high rate of positive acceptance towards COVID-19 vaccines.
Compares between Social Studies/Political Science and Social Studies/Christian Religious Studies achievement in Colleges of Education in Delta State, Nigeria
Uwaifo, Roseline Osayi (Ph.D)
The paper examines combinatorial influence of Social Studies/Political Science and Social Studies/Christian Religious Studies on the terminal achievement of Social Studies Students in Colleges of Education in Delta State, Nigeria. The design used was expost-facto with the population of 189 students who combined Social Studies with Political Science and Christian religious studies, in Colleges of Education, Agbor and College of Education, warri.137 students were purposefully sampled for the study. The study answered four research question as well as texted three hypothesis using MANOVA 2×2×2 factorial design and f-text at 0.05 level of significance. The study discovers that the achievement of Social Studies/Political Science was low while Social Studies/Christian religious Studies was high. Furthermore, the study revealed that College of Education, Agborunder performed academically. Based on the good performance of Social Studies/Christian Religious Studies students, Christian Religious Studies is adjudge as a good match with Social Studies. Also, Government should provide equal facilities, logistics and man power to College of Education, Agbor.
Assessment of after-sales management in the automotive sector: case of motors and engineering company of Ethiopia
1. Jagadish Brahma Goulap (PhD) 2. Dawit Desta 3. Yohannes Workeaferahu Elifneh (PhD)
This study examined the after-sales service management practice in the automotive sector in a developing country context (Ethiopia). The case company is Motors and Engineering Company of Ethiopia (MOENCO), the largest firm in the automotive sector of the country. The study was conducted using the descriptive survey method encompassing both qualitative and quantitative research approaches. Questionnaires were handed out to the respondents and descriptive statistical analysis techniques (mainly Mean analysis) were used for the study. Findings of the study show that MOENCO’s customers can choose their preferred after-sales service form according to their preference. The study also shows that the location of service delivery is crucial. It is found out that customers prefer getting maintenance of different machineries that they acquired at their (customers’) locations rather than at the service providers (MOENCO’s) station, since transporting equipment’s and construction machines is difficult to manage and the cost of doing that also create inconveniency. Besides, the study found out that as operational requirement, the companies technicians are always in check-ups and they also travel to meet customers to fulfill their demand. However, the company lacks formal procedures, goals and policies to implement after sales services. This study recommends that having proper policies for after sales services and engaging customers actively in the process will be vital.
Success factors of the micro finance sector: evidence from the developing world using a success factor research approach
Yohannes Workeaferahu Elifneh (Ph.D.)
For the most part, the microfinance sector garnered notable success in the developing world in the past decades. This study identified and examined the extant literature in microfinance literature by way of success factor research approach. The success factor research approach has been championed in the past few decades in investigating organizational success factors. This approach is believed to provide the groundwork for reliable success factor research in the field of microfinance. This articulation of the key drivers of success among microfinance institutions (MFIs) could possibly lead to higher success of MFIs in diverse contexts. Accordingly, this study produced a humble finding regarding MFI success factors in the developing world - Asia, Africa, and South America, by systematically reviewing the extant literature in line with the subject of the study. Search and library sources were utilized in identifying published research works that focused on the success factors of MFIs in the specified regions. The result of this study show that, indeed, success factors vary across MFIs and their respective contexts. The identified success factors range from being innovative in choosing collaterals involving land title, bikes, motorbikes, cars, and cattle to ensure the sustainability of MFIs (Asia) to utilizing indigenous knowledge and resources in client screening and follow-up (Africa) to commercialization phenomenon (South America).In fact it is worthy to note that this study depended on the author’s ability to access and review available resources, and this limitation could be taken as an avenue for future researchers to augment this by conducting further studies on MFIs’ success factors from different contexts.
Factors Affecting the Recruitment of Performing Arts Groups Thru Social Media During COVID-19 Pandemic
Nerissa A.Ventura1, Darwin G. Dela Cruz2 Jocelyn R. Dollente3
There is a developing revenue to social media promoted by Performing Arts Groups (PAG). The chances to perform in front of other people became limited since the COVID-19 pandemic started. In2020, online classes started due to the danger of COVID-19. For the different Performing Arts Group to continue their cultural performances, one of the techniques to look for new members is recruiting and starting an audition through social media. This study will assess the effectiveness of social media, specifically Facebook in recruiting new members of PAG. Simple random sampling was used, and 70% of new members in different PAG in Central Luzon State University (CLSU)served as respondents. This study utilized Descriptive-Correlational Research Design. A survey questionnaire through google form was used to gather information as an instrument. The majority (65.71%) of the respondents has 10,000 pesos or below family monthly income. Respondents' sources of information on the recruitment of cultural organizations mostly came from social media (77.14%), friends (57.14%), classmates (48.57%), and professors (5.71%). Akin to this, social media, specifically Facebook is an effective communication strategy in recruiting new members in times of pandemic. This is through providing the groups' information and purpose and posting their previous performances, posting an announcement or the audition, using posters, video presentations, and being responsive in answering queries. Active and prompt is also an important factor in recruitment by sending private messages or group chats, spreading details by the old members, and planning for online meetings.Moreover, it is also revealed that students audition in PAG because the publication materials posted is interesting and catchy. Achievements of the group is also an edge for the PAG to persuade students to join their groups. Additionally, the study revealed that students with low family monthly incomes are more likely to join PAG because of peers and the benefits they will attain.It is recommended to continue using social media in recruitment and working on the communication strategies such as direct and interesting posts, creative promoting practices, and active and prompt response since those effectively make the members more interested in joining the group.
Field Trips and Their Effect on Learning Outcome of Students in Social Studies
Atubi, Onamrewho Favour and Ogheneakoke, E. Clifford
The study examined the difference between the post-test mean score of students taught with field trips and those taught without field trips. The difference between the post-test mean score of male and female students taught Social Studies with field trips was also investigated. The study employed quasi experimental post- test only control group with a factorial design of 2x2, the first two represent field trips and convectional teaching while the second two represents male and female students. An instrument titled “Social Studies Learning Outcome Test” (SSLOT), was used for data collection. The findings of the study showed considerable difference in post-test mean score of students taught Social Studies with field trip and those taught without field trips. Secondly, there was no significant difference between the post-test mean scores of male and female students who were taught Social Studies with field trip.
Impact of external factors on growth of micro and small business enterprises: The case of MSEs in Finote selam city, Ethiopia
Hunegnaw Alemu Desta 1 and Professor P. Venkateswarlu 2
The major objective of this study is to describe impact of external variables on growth of micro and small business enterprises in Finote selam city, Ethiopia. MSEs in Ethiopia have many roles for the development of the economy of the country. MSEs are back bone of the economy of the country because they contribute greater part for the development of gross domestic product of the country (Mengesha, 2018).However; there are bottlenecks to divert micro and small business enterprises to be out of the truck of growth. Access to technology, access to finance and access to infrastructure are external factors having impact on growth of MSEs (Tekele, 2019). Primary data were collected using questionnaires from 200 sampled owners of MSEs in Finote selam city. The data collected were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and inferential analysis using SPSS version 21. Both qualitative and quantitative research approach were used. Convenient random sampling technique was used to draw each sample respondents from 400 owners/ operators of MSEs in Finote selam city. According to the finding of this study, access to finance and access to infrastructures are the most powerful factors to affect growth of MSEs. According to the odd ratio of binary logistic regression analysis, the probability of growth of MSEs in the study increases by 4.351 and 4.842 if MSEs have an ease access to finance and furnished infrastructures among other external factors included in this study respectively. On the bases of the findings of this study, recommendations have been forwarded to the concerned parties to give due attention / emphasis for access to infrastructure and finance.
The Entrepreneurial Ecosystem of Micro and Small Enterprises in the Amhara Region, Ethiopia: The Challenges and Achievements
Mulugeta Chane Wube and Dr. Heena Atwal
This study is intended to evaluate the entrepreneurial ecosystem of MSEs and the accompanying results of the ecosystem in the Amhara region, Ethiopia. It follows a time-series analysis and review of related literature based on Isenberg’s (2011) model of entrepreneurial ecosystem having 6 elements: Policy, finance, market, support, and human capital. Policy-wise it seems that strong efforts are made although implementation comes to the contrary. The results about finance, support, human capital, and culture show that a conducive ecosystem is not yet established as the results of the ecosystem are by far lower. Though some encouraging results have been observed about the market and policy for mulation , the overall result of the efforts made in developing the entrepreneurial ecosystem is not adequate taking the region’s context into account.Policy manuals crafted encountered implementation problems to the ground and did not bring the expected results. Moreover, the forecasts made based on time-series analysis show that significant results are not achieved in developing the entrepreneurial ecosystem. The research focuses on the evaluation of the entrepreneurial ecosystem of MSEs by taking only Isenberg’s 6 domains of the entrepreneurial ecosystem and other dimensions of the ecosystem are not addressed by the study. Similarly, only reports, directives, manuals, strategies of the government, and a review of research findings are used for the analysis. Inputs of MSEs’ operators and other stake holders are not taken. Moreover, only the ecosystem of the Amhara region of Ethiopia is considered and other regions are not treated. Hence, future researchers are suggested to fill these gaps and addmoreto the finding of this study. Much should be done on creating a conducive and workable environment for MSEs so that countries can enjoy the benefits that they can acquire from them. Developing an entrepreneurial ecosystem for developing countries like Ethiopia is not an option rather a must as it is the means for absorbing a large number of youth unemployed. Creating employment opportunities at large is possible through and only through MSEs development. Paid employment does not address chronic unemployment problems in developing countries like Ethiopia as medium and large organizations are not adequately available. Hence, creating a conducive entrepreneurial ecosystem should be taken as the priority of the government and other stakeholders.
Magnetic resonance T2 mapping in Temporomandibular Joints: comparison among different age groups- an observational study
Dr. Radha R1, Dr. Yesoda Aniyan K2, Dr. Kannan Asokan3,Dr. Krithika C L4, Dr.Anuradha G5
Introduction : Magnetic resonance imaging is a technique used to produce slice images of the human body with high contrast between various soft tissues, structures and/or organs. T2 relaxation time is a quantitative MR imaging parameter regularly used to detect degenerated cartilage in the knee and lumbar intervertebral disks. This study assessed the T2 character of normal TMJ disc and compared the T2 MRI mapping among different age groups. Materials and method: Thirty volunteers meeting the clinical inclusion criteria and morphologically normal TMJ images based on a conventional MR examination were recruited for this study. The imaging was performed using a 3.0T system using turbo spin echo sequences oriented in the oblique sagittal and oblique coronal planes, perpendicular and parallel to the transverse axis of the mandibular condyle in closed-mouth positions. Global and zonal region of interests were manually determined for each TMJ disc. Mean T2 values of the global and zonal ROIs of all the TMJ disks were determined. Results : The mean values of the disk (global disc area, superior, inner and inferior) were compared across the groups for both right and left sides using one way ANOVA. Turkey post Hoc test was applied to compare the mean values between individual groups. The T2 relaxation time increased as the age increased on an overall comparison but there was no significant difference between group B(30-39yrs) and group C(20-29yrs). Conclusion : The results of this study confirmed the preliminary findings that after age 40, there is an elevation in MRI T2 values in the TMJ. Given the dependency of cartilage T2 on anisotropy of the type II collagen matrix, these findings suggest that senescent changes of cartilage collagen begin near the articular surface and progress to the deeper cartilage with advancing age.
Hybrid Data Analytics System for Higher Education: A Proposed Model for System Prototype
Ervin L. Rodriguez, Ph.D.
The pandemic transformed the management of work in the lives of people differently, and the internet and online systems have likely become a necessity. The study aimed to develop a hybrid data analytics system for Universities. The said study applied a development type of research method. An Agile development methodology was implemented in the software development process using a Server-side scripting language and a Model View Control(MVC) framework. K-Nearest Neighbor(KNN) classification algorithm concept, through PHP String Scripts and other libraries, was used to automate recommendation functionalities. The storage of the records were securely hosted by a Cloud-based Hosting and Database Server. The result of the study allowed the system to be connected both the client and the personnel through its systematic reminders and email notifications. The accessibility were transformed from local to world wide. Automated recommendations functions and other descriptive data analysis to necessary record transactions were generated according to the needs of the user. Using ISO/IEC 9126 software quality models, a software evaluation were conducted in three (3) different type of users had an overall result interpretation of “highly acceptable” in almost all criteria which generally means that the system met the software quality standards. Through the said system, the transactions of the University will be able to operate 24/7 with the assurance that the people are safe from the present pandemic.
Toward a harmonized definition of the complex multidimensional concept of innovation
Dr. Mohammed Dahmani Fathalla
Problem: Now a days it is commonly admitted that innovation is instrumental for the growth of organizations and nations. Nevertheless, the concept is still poorly understood and innovation became a hot universal buzzword used in several ways, which is causing confusion on its proper meaning. This warranted the need to develop a harmonized definition that can be shared across disciplines and uniformly reflect the concept. Design/Methodology/Approach: We carried out an empirical study based upon a comprehensive review of the literature focused on a search on the commonalities and discrepancies of the current definitions of the innovation, which Findings: We highlighted the high degree of complexity associated with the concept of innovation. We demonstrated that the perception of this concept is contingent across a variety of disciplines. We also showed that the term “innovation” is associated with five key elements namely, process, output, implementation, novelty and value creation. Conclusion: We lifted the ambiguity surrounding innovation, and proposed a new integrative definition of innovation to harmonize the perception of this multidimensional and multifaceted concept and to ultimately disseminate a working global view of the concept of “innovation” and it across all fields
Impact of Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic on Economy of Tourism and Hospitality industry and Mitigation Mechanism in Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia
Ayana Fiseha Zeleke 1*, Solomon Mekuanint Biwota2, Molla Mengesha Sisay3
The purpose this study is to explore the severity of COVID-19 pandemic on the economy of Tourism and Hospitality industry in Bahir Dar City and Mechanisms taken to Mitigate and then. This research used secondary data sources and, expert interview. Besides, data was collected from Stakeholder participants during panel discussion about the issue of COVID-19 to get a better understanding of its economic impact. Qualitative analysis method was employed to reach in to conclusion. Textual description was used to present the results of the study. The finding illustrates pandemic has highly affected tourism and hospitality industry to lose huge revenue than other economic sectors. Many establishments were not able to cover operational cost as well as employees’ salary. Hence they partially or totally locked down their businesses. Consequently, large numbers of employees were displaced from the job and remained out of work. However, government recognized that will take long time to recover from such economy crisis. Hence, it decided to gradually re-open everything in order to adjust the situation. As result, tourism and hospitality businesses are opened gradually. Finally, government and stakeholders are recommended to take the lesson from current situation and develop the different mitigation strategies. Government should support this sector in various ways in order to recover from economic crisis and toreta in their employees.
Using ethno-chemistry approach to improve students achievement in chemistry: A case study of senior secondary school students in Delta State
Agboro-Eravwoke Ochuko Urhievwejire (Ph.D)
The major crux of this study is to determine the effect of ethno-chemistry approach on students’ achievement in chemistry. Three research questions and their corresponding hypotheses were raised and formulated, respectively. The study design was the pretest–post-non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental design. Sample size consisted of one hundred and twenty-five senior secondary school 11 chemistry students in Delta state. The instrument for data gathering was the Separation Technique Achievement Test (STAT). Proper validation and reliability were done before it was utilized. The collected data were tested using mean, independent sample t-test and analysis of variance. The study findings include; (i) significant difference in the achievement scores between ethno-chemistry and lecture groups’ students, (ii) non-significant difference in mean achievement scores between the male and female students taught using ethno-chemistry, (iii) a non-significant interaction effect of method and sex on students’ achievement in chemistry. Therefore, it was concluded that ethno-chemistry is a good alternative for teaching chemistry and recommended that the method be used in teaching all chemistry students irrespective of school type based on sex.
Using self-regulated learning and Mind maps in enhancing students achievement in senior secondary schools Physics in Delta Central Senatorial district
Ovuworie Onoriode Oghenewede & Abamba, Emmanuel Ikechuku (Ph.D) & Ijeh, Bomboi Sunday (Ph.D)
The study investigated the use of self-regulated learning and mind maps in enhancing students’ achievement in Physics in Delta Central Senatorial District of Delta State. Three (3) research questions and hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted the quasi-experimental design, specifically the pre-test post-test control group design. The population of the study consisted of nineteen thousand, four hundred (19,400) SS II Physics students from one hundred and eighty-eight (188) secondary schools in Delta Central Senatorial District. The study sampled three hundred and six (306) SS II Physics students from six (6) intact classes from six (6) public mixed schools selected using random sampling techniques of “hat and draw” method with replacement. The instrument for data collection was Physics Achievement Test (PAT) which was face and content validated. A reliability of the PAT was established using Kuder-Richardson’s formula 21 (K-R-21) which yielded coefficient of 0.86. PAT was used in collecting data to determine students’ achievement. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent samples t-test, and ANOVA. The results showed that: there was significant difference in the Physics mean achievement scores among students taught using self-regulated learning, mind maps and lecture method with students in the mind map group scoring the highest, followed by students in self-regulated learning and lecture method groups respectively; there was no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught Physics using self-regulated learning instructional strategy; there was no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught Physics using mind maps instructional strategy. It was concluded among others that mind maps is the most effective strategy for teaching and learning of Physics while self-regulated learning strategy can be used as alternative. It was recommended that mindmaps strategy should be adopted by Physics teachers for teaching of Physics in secondary schools and that relevant agencies should train Physics teachers on the effective implementation of mindmaps.
Management Level of Special Education Teachers (SPET) on handling Learners with Special Needs (LSEN)
Hydie P. Garcia1, and Danilo S. Vargas2
This study assessed and evaluated the SPED program in a limited capacity. It tried to quantify the socio demographic profile of the LSEN, their participation, academic standing, and their parent’s perception of the SPET handling their child. From the data, it can be surmised that there is no regular distribution in terms of the age of the SPED Learners. It can be seen that the combined number of 13-year-olds and 15-year-olds is still below the number of 14-year-olds. This may suggest that there is no regular number of enrollees in SPED. SPED learners, especially the LSEN, have a diverse disabilities. The majority of the SPED learners (56%) always attend their class. However, a significant portion of the SPED learners (16%) reported their teachers as at risk of dropping out. In terms of academic grades, most SPED learners’ grades are clustered around the 80-84 mark with an occasional higher or lower rate. The learners often participate in extracurricular activities, but they seem to have problems working with regular students. The results generally show positive responses from SPED learners' parents regarding SPET's dedication to teaching, empathy, and ability to identify individual differences.
Characterization and Optimization of Soybean Oil from Soybean Seed (Keta and Billo 19) Variety
Gadissa Mosisa Gobana & Tamirat Endale Geleta
The objective of this study was extraction, optimization, and physicochemical properties of crude soybean oil (Keta and Billo19)variety and as well as determination of proximate and mineral composition examination of the soybean seed. The soybean seed oil was extracted from (Keta and Billo19)variety using normal hexane by soxhlet device. Concluded the aid of a Design Expert and using the central composite design of the response surface methodology, the experiment was 27 twenty-seven but by composite reduced which has the same value and runs. Using n-hexane as the solvent, each experimental run was accepted out in a 150 ml soxhlet extraction device. The result displayed that the seed keta variety consisted of: (52.35%) and Billo 19 variety consisted 54.23 as the mean value of 53.29 oil yield, the proximate composition value of Keta and Billo19 with the mean value was; moisture (6.342% ), total ash (4.57 %bywt ), crude protein (40.79 %), crude fat (26.175%), crude fiber (4.50 %) and carbohydrate ( 10.63%). Mineral composition analysis of soyabean seed (Keta and Billo19) variety mean value was;- magnesium(432.36mg/100g),sodium (3.4 mg/100g),potassium (24.775 mg/100g),Calcium (429.68ppm),Zink (2.925ppm) and Phosphorus (629.265g/100g). The factors analysis was:- temperature (700C), solvent to solid ratio (10:1), and particle size (0.54mm) obtained from the experiments together with the factors considered during the experiments and the mean value of oil yield was 53.29%. The maximum oil yield obtained from the experiment was found to be 53.29 % and the quadratic models developed predicted 58.18%. Then, the request of response surface methodology to optimize oil extraction from soybean seed has been successfully confirmed at optimum parameters: temperature 70, solvent to solid ratio 10, particle size 0.54 was found which is faithfully in convectional with the result attained from the model and the experimental observation and consequently validated the findings of the optimization. Thysicochemical characterization of the soybean oil (Billo19 and Keta)variety was obtained with the mean value was:- acid value (2.914 mg KOH/ g), free fatty acid value (0.2914 %), saponification value (151.01 mg KOH g), iodine value (109.4 g I/100 g), and PH content (4.92%).
Empirical analysis through financial ratios that factors affecting financial performance of microfinance institutions: evidence from Omo microfinance Sodo District, South Ethiopia
Gobezu Gotoro Gota & Dr. S.S. Sodha
Microfinance is a smooth financial system that provides financial services such as loans, savings, money transfers, insurance, and payment to economically low-class people. Microfinance institutions (MFIs) endeavor to achieve two basic objectives, ensuring the financial sustainability of the organization and accessing financial services to a massive number of poor people. Many MFIs face the challenge of maintaining financial sustainability and that also hinders them from achieving another objective, excelling social outreach. Therefore, this study aimed to examine factors of financial performance of MFIs, particularly Omo Microfinance institution (OMFI) Sodo District. The study employed a quantitative research approach and collected time serious secondary data from OMFI Sodo District for the period of 2015-2019. Collected data were analyzed in descriptive and inferential statistics by using multiple linear regression models and SPSS version 24. Return on asset (ROA) was selected to be proxy for the dependent variable, financial performance of MFIs, and net interest margin (NIM), loan loss provision (LLP), non-performing loan (NPL), leverage ratio (LR), and microfinance liquidity ratio (MLR) were selected as predicting variables. The study found that out of 5 explanatory variables included in the regression model, 4 variables were found to be statistically significantly affected ROA. LR and MLR influenced ROA positively and statistically significantly while LLP and NPL have a negative and significant effect on ROA. NIM has a positive relationship with ROA, but its relation was not statistically significant. The regression model revealed that approximately 97 percent of the variation of ROA was explained by the explanatory variables included in the model. Therefore, the study recommended that MFIs need to pay considerable attention to these variables to fix the problem, establish a strong financial management system, and maintain sustainable financial performance.
Larvicidal activity of different solvent extracts of Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) red coloured flowers against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)
M.Pandeeswari1, Raja Selvaraju2 and R.Yamuna3, Manu Thomas Mathai4
Larvicidal activity of various solvent extracts of Nerium oleander red colored flower was studied against third instar larvae of three important vector mosquitoes viz., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. Preliminary phytochemical analysis was done to all the solvent extracts showed the presence of Tannins, saponins, flavonoids, quinones, terpenes, phenols and coumarines are present in the red colour flowers extracts. Among the solvent extracts acetone extract was most effective when compared to other extracts. Cx. quinquefasciatus was the most susceptible (LC50=20.4 mg/L) and An. stephensi was the most tolerant (LC50=34.0 mg/L). Also, the extract was subjected to GC-MS analysis and 16 major biochemicals were detected. The present study clearly indicated that bioactive molecules present in the acetone extract of red color flower of N. oleander are promising botanical pesticide against vector mosquitoes.
The effect of Credit Management on Financial Performance of Microfinance Institutions in Hawassa, Ethiopia
Tekalign Elias Era & Professor Jaladi Ravi
The main purpose of this research was to examine the effect of credit management on financial performance of microfinance institutions in Hawassa. To achieve this objective the researcher employed explanatory (ex-post) research design, with quantitative approach, and convenience sampling method. Descriptive statistics, correlation, regression methods and inferential statistics were used to analyze balanced panel data, secondary data obtained from audited financial statements, of three Microfinance institutions (MFIs) in Hawassa for a period of ten years (i.e. 2008 to 2017). The data was analyzed by using STATA software. The Hausman test was also used to determine which of the fixed effect and random effect models was the most appropriate. The result revealed that average collection period (representing credit collection policy) and credit risk had statistically significant and negative relationship with return on Investment. On the other hand, interest rate had positive significant relationship with return on investment of MFIs. Based on this result, the researcher concluded that there was significant relationship between Credit Management and Financial Performance of MFIs in Hawassa, Ethiopia. The researcher also recommended that microfinance institutions can increase financial performance by properly determining an optimal level of interest. Moreover, it should adopt stringent credit collection policy to reduce average collection period and to increase loan repayment rate. Furthermore, management should be able to draw useful lessons from past experience, have a keen awareness to monitor and control credit risk and price loans on the bases of pre-determined risk rate to ensure adequate compensation.
Impact of demographic variables on growth of MSEs in Ethiopia : The case of Bahir dar city, Amhara region, Ethiopia
Hunegnaw Alemu Desta & Professor P. Venkateswarlu
The main objective of the study is to describe the effect of demographic factors on growth of MSEs in Bahir Dar city. Demographic variables in many studies have been identified differently. MSEs in Ethiopia play great roles by providing large job opportunities for less educated and non educated people. For instance in the studies conducted by chaniago (2021) and Vallabh & Mhlanga (2015), demographic variables have significant impact on growth/success of MSEs. However; in the studies conducted by Kassa (2021) and Wakuma & Temesgen ( 2016). Demographic variables were found as they are insignificant to affect growth of enterprises. In addition to this literature gap, there are many challenges of growth of MSEs in Ethiopia. On the base of this motivational gap that this study was conducted. Primary data from 100 number of sample respondents were collected. Both descriptive and inferential analyses were done. The study found that age, experience, family size, education status and gender have significant relationship with and impact on capital growth of MSEs in the study area. Recommendation is forwarded for the enterprise development office of the government to give due attention for demographic variables having impact on capital growth of MSEs in the study area.
Financial Condition Analysis of Addis Ababa City Government in Ethiopia
Mata Maldaye Masaro1 Professor P. Venkateswarlu2
In recent years, the financial issues of local governments have become more and more important in providing the required public goods and services sustainably to local residents and accelerating the development of the locality. Consequently, maintaining a sound financial condition is an important requirement for providing residents with therequired quality services, making strategic investments in the locality, and the proper functioning of local government operations. Financial condition of a local government is concerned with the ability to finance expected services on a continuing basis by surviving economic disruptions, identifying and adjusting long-term changes, and anticipating future problems without suffering for a financial resource shortfall and financial dependence. The purpose of this study was to assess the financial condition of the Addis Ababa City Government of Ethiopia. Assessing the financial condition was based on various financial ratio models developed by various scholars and suited to the system of the Addis Ababa city government as a local government. Data for the financial ratios of the fiscal period 2010/11-2019/20 was obtained from the audited IBEX results financial report of the Addis Ababa Finance and Economic Development Bureau. The analysis of financial trends and financial ratios was based on the description of the research results in line with scholarly literature on financial ratio models’ implications and descriptive statistics analysis. Research results showed that Addis Ababa City Government has a special attention-demanding financial condition to maintain sound financial health to properly guarantee the provision of public goods and services at the required level and quality in the locality and assure the jurisdictions' change and development.
Firm characteristics and environmental performance: a study of listed conglomerates in Nigeria
Ezekwesili, Tochukwu P. & Ezejiofor, Raymond A.
The study examined the effect of firm characteristics on the environmental performance of quoted conglomerates firms in Nigeria. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for this study. The population of the study was constituted by all the five (5) conglomerate firms listed on the Nigerian Exchange Group as from 2011 to 2020. Data were derived from the financial statements of the selected firms over the years of interest. The descriptive statistical analysis of data for this study was done using mean, correlational analysis and standard deviation while Ordinary Least Square multiple regression analysis was used at 5% level of significance. The findings revealed that firm size and firm leverage has not significantly affects waste management expenditure of quoted conglomerates firms in Nigeria It was recommended that conglomerate firms with larger firm size should be more conscious of the need for preservation and protection of the environment against damages occasioned by firm operations.
Value added tax and economic development in selected sub-Saharan Africa countries
Akakabota, Edward Eta, Ph.D1, Ugherughe, Joseph Ediri, Ph.D2* and Oghoghomeh, Tennyson, Ph.D1
The study examined the effect of value-added tax productivity on the economic development of three Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries: Nigeria, South Africa, and Kenya. The study adopted an ex post facto research design. Data was collected from the World Bank Database and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) for the period of 1995-2018. The study analysed the data using an adopted regression analysis. A stationary test of the data was used for the Augmented Dickey–Fuller unit root test. A Johansen Co-integration test was used to test the long-run relationship between the variables. The Ordinary Least Square (OLS) was used to test the hypothesis at the 5% level of significance. The findings revealed that value-added tax was found to have significant influence in Nigeria and Kenya but had an insignificant effect in South Africa. Based on the findings, the study recommended that Nigeria and Kenya should grow their economies by increasing VAT with caution so as not to abuse the human development index, while South Africa should ignore the use of a VAT strategy to grow their economy.
Application of novel instructional strategies and learners academic performance in Biology
Chukwuka, Rita Ewere
The paper explored the application of novel instructional approaches and learners’ academic performance in Biology. Two research questions guided the paper. The study design was a descriptive survey. The study population involved Biology teachers. The study used two hundred (200) public school teachers as the study sample size purposively chosen. The study instrument was the questionnaire. The findings demonstrated that the biology instructors/teachers have awareness and applied novel instructional approaches. The study findings and conclusions suggested that regular refreshers seminars and workshops be organised by the school authorities where various experts and resource persons will be invited to abreast instructors of the novel instructional approaches that can enhance learners’ academic performance achievement.
Insurance Industry Performance and Potential Capital Market Development Nexus In Ethiopia: The Application of AHP And DEMATEL Multi-Criteria Decision Models
Yitbarek Takele Bayiley (Ph.D.)
The study investigated the interdependence between insurance industry performance and potential capital market development in an emerging market context. AHP and DEMATEL multi-criteria decision models were employed to measure a level of importance and establish interdependence. Ordered with their weighted criteria score the paper identified profitability, operating growth, solvency, asset quality, and management soundness as key insurance industry performance indicators. The centercause score indicates profitability, trade volume, market capitalization, operating growth, asset quality, solvency, and management soundness, respectively assume a central position in the insurance-capital market interaction. The study also projects solvency, management soundness, and asset quality as cause group and market capitalization, trade volume, profitability, and operating growth as an affect group. The paper concludes unidirectional influence from the insurance sector to capital market development in the insurance industry-capital market interplay. The study contributed by introducing a methodology to analyze the potential consequence of introducing and developing capital markets in financial institution-dominated systems which is the characteristic feature of most African economies and a critical policy decision to promote economic development.
Open High School Program (OHSP): Efficacy in its Implementation
Shiena S. Cruz1 and Danilo S. Vargas2
The researcher conducted a study to evaluate the program after almost 4 years of implementation. The study utilized a survey method to quantify the observation of the teachers and the perception of the learners. In terms of the sociodemographic profile of the OHSP learners, the age of the learners seems to cluster around the 14-16 age bracket . It also reveals that there are about an even number of males and females. In terms of grade level, there are fewer Grade 7 learners that are enrolled in the program. The majority of the OHSP learners come from a family with unstable jobs. Further analysis shows that most of the OHSP learners' parents are working as a farm hand or has a small-scale business. In terms of parents' educational attainment, the data suggest that a large majority of the parents are high school graduates. In terms of family income, data shows that a substantial chunk of the families of OHSP learners did not reach the poverty threshold set by National Economic Development Authority (NEDA). In several siblings, the data reflects that majority of the OHSP learners come from small families. The results also suggest that OHSP learners seek assistance and even let others accomplish tasks intended for them and learners prefer to do the task when the deadline is near, a result of low motivation in accomplishing the task. According to teachers surveyed, OHSP learners require constant supervision to accomplish a given task. In informal reading inventory, the results also show that majority of the OHSP learners are classified as Frustration learners. For teacher's assessment of learner's compliance on modules, the data reveals that a majority of the learners in OHSP are failing to submit their requirements half of the time. With regards to the attendance, tardiness, and grades as academic indicators for assessing the progress of a learner in school, the result suggests that out of the 7 classes of the OHSP on average OHSP learners only attended four and half times. While tardiness is not a big problem. In the correlation analysis between experiences of learners with their sociodemographic profile, a negative correlation was found between having difficulty in complying with requirements and Grade Level. A very significant relationship was found between seeking assistance and Gender. Another significant correlation was found between being motivated and Grade Level. Turning to Time Management, where two variables from the learners' profile have been marked significant correlating. It seems like females are more open to the idea of making a priority list. The other correlation being preparing necessary materials and Family Income.In correlation between experiences in OHSP and the Teachers' Evaluation of OHSP learners, it found out that difficulty in complying with requirements is correlated with requiring constant supervision, learning new concept and Phil-IRI rating. The motivation was found to be significantly correlated with the following instruction. And preparing necessary materials is correlated with attendance, compliance, and final grade. Keywords: 1.Open 2.High School 3. Program 4.Efficacy 5.Implementation The researcher conducted a study to evaluate the program after almost 4 years of implementation. The study utilized a survey method to quantify the observation of the teachers and the perception of the learners. In terms of the sociodemographic profile of the OHSP learners, the age of the learners seems to cluster around the 14-16 age bracket . It also reveals that there are about an even number of males and females. In terms of grade level, there are fewer Grade 7 learners that are enrolled in the program. The majority of the OHSP learners come from a family with unstable jobs. Further analysis shows that most of the OHSP learners' parents are working as a farm hand or has a small-scale business. In terms of parents' educational attainment, the data suggest that a large majority of the parents are high school graduates. In terms of family income, data shows that a substantial chunk of the families of OHSP learners did not reach the poverty threshold set by National Economic Development Authority (NEDA). In several siblings, the data reflects that majority of the OHSP learners come from small families. The results also suggest that OHSP learners seek assistance and even let others accomplish tasks intended for them and learners prefer to do the task when the deadline is near, a result of low motivation in accomplishing the task. According to teachers surveyed, OHSP learners require constant supervision to accomplish a given task. In informal reading inventory, the results also show that majority of the OHSP learners are classified as Frustration learners. For teacher's assessment of learner's compliance on modules, the data reveals that a majority of the learners in OHSP are failing to submit their requirements half of the time. With regards to the attendance, tardiness, and grades as academic indicators for assessing the progress of a learner in school, the result suggests that out of the 7 classes of the OHSP on average OHSP learners only attended four and half times. While tardiness is not a big problem. In the correlation analysis between experiences of learners with their sociodemographic profile, a negative correlation was found between having difficulty in complying with requirements and Grade Level. A very significant relationship was found between seeking assistance and Gender. Another significant correlation was found between being motivated and Grade Level. Turning to Time Management, where two variables from the learners' profile have been marked significant correlating. It seems like females are more open to the idea of making a priority list. The other correlation being preparing necessary materials and Family Income.In correlation between experiences in OHSP and the Teachers' Evaluation of OHSP learners, it found out that difficulty in complying with requirements is correlated with requiring constant supervision, learning new concept and Phil-IRI rating. The motivation was found to be significantly correlated with the following instruction. And preparing necessary materials is correlated with attendance, compliance, and final grade.