Farmers knowledge and attitude of the design and lending practices of lenders in Nigeria
Prof. Emmanuel O. Eyo1 & Dr. Innocent A. Asuquo2
Issues: Low loan performance has remained the central problem with extending loans to farmers in Nigerian. Credit needs of farmers are met better when the lending design is good and user friendly. The knowledge of sources, lending design and practices of lenders is important for increasing outreach by formal financial institutions. What lending design and organizational practices can ensure loan performance? Methods: This paper uses from primary data and the conjoint analytical technique in evaluating the lending design and organizational practices that are farmers friendly, analyses farmers knowledge of organizational practices of lenders, attributes in the designs and organizational practices of formal lenders that are farmers friendly and suggest the design that encourage loan performance. Findings: The average attitude score for attributes that farmers had positive disposition to was highest (84..17%) for the bank of agriculture and lowest (75.7%) for the commercial banks, whereas the attitude score for attributes that the respondents had negative disposition to was highest (80.57%) for commercial banks, and lowest (66.62%) for the bank of agriculture. commercial banks. The results of the conjoint analysis showed that attributes such as location of financial institution, loan disbursement time, loan terms, loan amount, interest rate charged, specialization in agricultural lending and loan repayment schedule were important in an optimal choice of lenders as revealed by mean ratings of 4.66 to 6.78. on the whole, customized lending, flexible repayment plan and specialization of the lenders in agriculture would be invaluable in changing the narrative as regards the non performance of loans in Nigeria. Conclusions: The respondents were more knowledgeable and exhibited better attitude for the design and lending practices of the Bank of Agriculture and worst attitude towards the design and lending practices of the commercial bank. The conjoint analysis showed that customised lending, flexible repayment plan and specialization of the lenders in agriculture would be invaluable in changing the narrative as regards the non performance of loans in Nigeria.
The Impacts of Development-Induced Displacement of Persons in Ethiopia: The Dark Side of Addis Ababa Expansion
Wakgari Kebeta Djigsa
The internal displacement of persons in the context of development and urbanization is an ever increasing global phenomenon which displaces people from their homes, lands and livelihoods. This article examines the impacts of development-induced displacements of personswith the continual expansion of Addis Ababa. It also investigates the adequacy of the legal redresses available for the victims of the urbanization. Drawing on qualitative methods, the article doctrinally investigatesinto the problem from legal, policy and historical perspective. It finds that successive Ethiopian governments have been abusing power, law and policy to displace the Oromo nation from the country’s capital city. It adds that the displaced persons lost their homes, family, language, culture, identity and livelihoods. The study urges the Ethiopian government to uphold its international and national obligations of refraining from causing arbitrary displacement of persons and redress the victims.
Fighting corruption in Nigerian civil service under the fourth republic: the role of EFCC and ICPC
Oluwatobi, O. Adeyemi (PhD)
Corrupt practices are common phenomenon in Nigerian civil service. One can hardly enter an office and get his work done without financial or other forms of inducement. Hence, bribe is openly demanded by government officials before any assistance is render. In spite of civil service rule, the scourge continued unabated. This institutional decadence has greatly affected the overall operations of Nigerian public service. Therefore, given this disturbing trend, this study aimed at examining the impact of EFCC and ICPC in combating the malignant effects of corruption in Nigerian civil service. In achieving the stated objective, the study employed a qualitative technique of data collection through the content analysis of official records, policy pronouncements and a considerable review of related literatures.Hence, the findings from the study reveals that the ICPC and EFCC have recorded a commendable success in fighting corruption in public service but both anti-graft institutions are confronted with some challenges such as outdated penal and criminal codes legal system, slow pace of the judiciary in handling corruption-related cases, the problem of underfunding, and among others. The study therefore concludes that sufficient funds should be made available to these agencies for effective and efficient performance in their operation.
Life as a Migrant: The lived Experience of Returnee Migrant Children: The Case of Farta Woreda Returnees ; South Gondar Zone, Ethiopia
Throughout their entire process of migration returnee children undergo with various conditions of migration. It was the objective of this phenomenological study to explore the lived experience of migrant returnee children in Farta Woreda. A total of 30 returnee migrant children were purposively selected for the study. An in-depth interview was employed to collect relevant data from subjects. The findings of this study revealed that migrant children encountered psychological, social, economic, physical and educational problems during their live as a migrant. Although, migration exposed children to the aforementioned difficulties, the study also confirmed that migration helped migrants to escape from early marriage and assist their family occasionally. The study also affirmed that migrant children were engaged in activities like working in cheap and difficult jobs, spirituality, forming friendship, and re-integration to their family as a strategy to cope up with the difficulties they experienced.
An Empirical Analysis of Corruption, Income Inequality and Governance in Africa
Bosede Olanike Awoyemi *, Jane John Mpapalika , Oluwole Aiyegbusi , Ibidapo Adeyiola
Over the years, the persistent tendency of corruption and income inequality has been a concern due to its adverse effects on the macroeconomic stability of a nation. In response, countries have established corruption units and bodies to tackle it. Despite these anti-corruption measures embarked by the sovereigns, corruption is still rampant in public institutions. Most studies have pointed out that increasing corruption tendencies is due to weak governance. This paperused annual data covering the period 2005 to 2019 for 34 African countries and Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) a dynamic panel. Corruption was captured by Transparency International Corruption Perception Index (CPI) composite index and Income inequality was proxied by the Gini index drawn from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database (SWIID). Governance was captured by range of indicators from the World Bank Governance Index (WGI) and World Bank Country Policy Institutional Assessment (CPIA). Findings show high levels of income inequality and corruption coupled with comparatively low levels of transparency, accountability and quality of public administration. These results further suggest that a decline in corruption practices, reduces income inequality level across the countries. From the policymaker’s view, countries should create an enabling environment to fight against corruption and income inequality.
Impact of COVID-19 and response measures: The role of multipurpose cooperatives in Ethiopia
Karunakaran R* Dayanandan R** & Roba Huka Dido***
This study was focused with the main objective of assessing the disruptions of Covid-19 and response measure of primary cooperatives in the selected Districts of Sidama Region. To address the specific objectives, 397 sample members from fifteen primary multipurpose cooperatives in three Districts namely Hawassa Zuria Woreda, Wondo Genet Woreda and Yirgalem Woreda were selected by simple random sampling technique to collect the primary data with structured interview schedule. In addition, focus group discussions and secondary data were also be used as information source. Descriptive statistical tools such as Mean, Standard Deviation, Chi-square Test, and ANOVA and ordered logistic regression were carried out for analysis and interpretation of data. Majority of the respondents agreed that well-functioning of the cooperatives were disturbed due to the Covid-19 pandemic in terms of decision making process for the day to day affairs, business turnover, loan repayment, supply of final produce to the society, revenue declining, distribution of agricultural input, productivity of employees, delivery of essential commodities. Nearly half of the respondents from the sample cooperatives agreed that their cooperatives helped in smooth production of agriculture amidst the Covid-19 situation in terms of provision of training on organic farming, production of hand sanitizer and face masks, provision of inputs to enhance the productivity of the farmers, provision of credit, involving processing of products which encourage the members in production of more agricultural products and provision of emergency funding etc. More than 70% of sample respondents agreed that the sample cooperatives have played a vital role in smoothening of distribution during the pandemic situation in terms of shortened the supply chain, reduced the risk of inflation, developed market linkages, absorbing the surplus products, arrangement of transportation facilities and providing the consumer articles etc. The sample primary multipurpose cooperatives worked for the smooth consumption which is reported by more than half of the respondents and the p value also significant at 1% level. The major factors that determine the smooth functioning of sample cooperatives are; Provision of Training on organic farming, Ensuring Quality Products, Provision of short-term credit, Accessibility of emergency fund, Ensuring transportation for smooth distribution, Make the products and services close to the members and public, Provision of storage facilities, Stabilizing commodity price, Eliminating middle man, Supply of essential commodities during the Covid-19 pandemic which are to be given due attention in the study areas.
The Effects of Marketing Mix on Customer Satisfaction on Kabul Based Mobile Network Operators
Mahboob -ul- haq Haneef, Dr. C.V.Khanaji Rao and Srinu Setti
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of marketing mix elements on customer satisfaction in Kabul based Telecommunication Companies. This research is a survey type and simple random sampling method has been used. The statistical population includes all customers who have used the services of the of five Telecommunication Service providers in Kabul province Afghanistan. The number of statistical sample sizes was obtained by pre-test and using Cochran's formula equal to 400 people, for more reliability and to avoid error the researcher added 30% more in sample size. SPSS 22. IBM software is used for data analysis. The reliability of Cronbach’s Alpha is calculated for overall questionnaire became 0.924 for 47 items, which presents the internal consistency of the data and it is excellent with respect to Lee Cronbach. Furthermore, for data analysis both factor analysis and correlation measurement is used. The results confirmed the main hypothesis of the research and showed that the elements of marketing mix have an effect on customer satisfaction. However, among the sub-hypotheses, the effect of product, price, distribution and promotion on customer satisfaction had positive and strong correlation and accepted all the alternative hypotheses.
Internally Displaced Persons and Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopian Constitution
Darasa Abdisa Kuma
Since 1995, Ethiopia has started to practice multi-cultural /ethnic form of federalism to empower nations, nationalities and peoples of Ethiopia to exercise rights to self-determination. However, a number of persons were being internally displaced from different regions of Ethiopia federations as a result of conflict basing on ethnic minority, language and religious minority. Therefore, this writing assesses the relationship and gaps of internally displaced persons and Ethiopian Constitution. Internally displaced persons are persons or groups of persons who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters without crossing internationally recognized state borders. This situation has an impact on both internally displaced persons and the hosting communities or regions. To this end, the writer has employed qualitative research methodology to provide in-depth understanding of the relationship between the FDRE Constitution and internally displaced persons in the country to forward new legal and institutional alternatives to solve the realities of internally displaced persons in lights of Ethiopian federalism.
Withdrawal of Criminal Charge in Ethiopia: Exploring the role of Courts to protect rights of Accused persons
Darasa Abdisa Kuma
Withdraw of criminal charge by public prosecutor plays decisive role in the administration of justice and securing public interest. If it is regulated and managed in lights of International instruments for the protection of human rights and the FDRE constitution of Ethiopia, Courts ensure the protection of accused persons rights. However, in Ethiopia both at federal and regional level courts have limited power on withdrawal of criminal charge and its effect also not clear indicated within the existing legal framework. This work ties to explore role of courts in Ethiopia to protect accused rights in light of Withdrawal of charge. As a result of limited involvement of courts in withdrawal of criminal charge, accused person’s lives in the cloud of suspicion. In order to accomplish this work, the researcher utilized qualitative research and found that public prosecutor has unlimited power to withdraw criminal charge for any reasons. Thus, the writer recommends amendment of laws of prosecution to empower courts on withdrawal of criminal charge in Ethiopian legal framework.
Macroeconomic and Firm-Specific Determinants of Bank Performance: A one-step system GMM dynamic panel model
Yitbarek Takele Bayiley
The study investigated themacroeconomic and bank-specific determinants of Ethiopian banks' performancefrom 2011 to 2020.All the 14 commercial banks that were operational during the study period were included. We employed a one-step system GMM dynamic panel data approach owing to its lower bias and higher efficiency than other approaches such as the standard first-difference GMM estimator. The dynamic character of the model specification has been manifested through significant coefficients of lagged performance indicators. The lag of ROE, credit growth, and interest rate showed a positive and significant effect on bank performance while branch expansion, economic growth, and capital adequacy ratio exhibited a negative and significant impact on the outcome variable.However, three macroeconomic factors: deposit growth, exchange rate, and inflation rate found to be insignificant to influence bank performance. The research concludes bank-specific factors predominantly influence the performance of the Ethiopian banking industry.
Assessing Teachers Practices of While-Reading Activities in ELT Classes with Reference to Bule Hora High School
Tsega Andasha Duresso
This study was principally focused on exploring teachers’ practices of the while-reading activities in ELT classes at Bule Hora School. Besides, it examined factors that had influenced teachers’ classroom practices of while-reading activities. The study utilized descriptive design to elucidate credible data from the subjects. Two hundred and eight students with eight teachers were involved in the study. Data were collected through observation, questionnaire and interview. Questionnaire was used to verify whether English teachers really put into practice the activities prescribed in the teacher’s guide during the while-reading activities. Classroom observation was used to obtain direct information about the teachers’ actual classroom practices, and interview was used to gather data on factors, which had an impact on teachers’ classroom practices. Interview was also used to supplement the questionnaire and observation data. Questionnaire data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Data from observation and interview were analyzed qualitatively. Findings of questionnaire data indicated that the great majority of the respondents claimed that the teachers did not make their students practice the while-reading activities during reading comprehension; results of classroom observations confirmed the respondents’ response. As interview findings indicated, shortage of time, learners’ low language proficiency level, unmotivated students, became some of the contextual factors, which influenced teachers’ classroom practices of while-reading activities. The findings call for all ELT stakeholders’ participation to solve this critical problem.
Social Mediaas an Information Dissemination Armto Promote AgriculturalKnowledge Among Farmers in Time of Pandemic
Yobhel Louisse P. Beltran1, Darwin Dela Cruz2, Danilo S. Vargas3
The main focus of this study is to determine the benefits of social media in exchanging information by farmers and how this information will contribute to their farm productivity. The researcher used the process of Descriptive Method in analyzing, organizing, and interpreting the data for each question The study participants are bona fide individuals who are members of the farmersassociation.They were selected through purposive sampling. The collection of data was done through online interviews via messenger and calls.Social Media plays a significant role in the agriculture sector, especially on existing farmers’ associations in the country; the dissemination of agricultural information is highly required to maintain the connection of the members and agencies that help them. Farmers were found to have a positive attitude towards using social media platforms to improve their agricultural knowledge. They also find social media beneficial not only as a source of information but also a method that opens the door of opportunities for them individually and for the development of their association; from promoting their agricultural products through social media platforms such as “Facebook” to the process of acquiring information and sharing their knowledge to the expert and co-farmers. Farmers’ use of social media enables them to access information that will help them learn about strategies and techniques they can apply in the farm area. Still, it does not only help them individually but also contributes to the development of their association; it was revealed in this study that through the help of the farmers’ association, they got the chance to be recognized by other agencies through social media platforms and helped them provide their needs in the farm such as seedlings, fertilizers, and machinery.
Investigating the Role of Technology in English Language Teaching: A Case of Afghan Universities
Fahim Rahimi & Professor P. Rajendra Karmarkar
Technology is playing vital role in today’s education. As we know the emerging of technology effect all aspects of our life from business, health, traveling, food and more. Education is also largely impacted by technology. It changed the way of learning, teaching and assessments. The role of technology has not been investigated in language learning in Afghanistan. The main objective of the study is to find the role of technology in English language teaching in Afghan Universities in order to achieve effective role of technology in English language classrooms. The study is descriptive in nature and the data has been collected through prepared questionnaire. The questionnaire shared through google docs with the instructors of English language Departments of Afghan universities. The data were analyzed using frequencies. The result of the study shows that technology plays important role in English language teaching and learners can achieve better outcomes.
Perceived Influence of the Celebrity Blog on the Political Stand of Development Communication Students
Camilla Jane D. Soliman1, Danilo S. Vargas2, Parsons N.Hail3
The perception of Development Communication students was obtained in the study to stimulate their knowledge and awareness towards the celebrity blog. The study uses a survey to present the findings in an understanding manner. This study has been done following the safety protocols thus the participants are well cared for during the conduct of the study and have no intention to harm. The researcher uses a questionnaire as an instrument of the study to gather responses from the subject. The timeframe was conducted fromMay to December 2021. Following the development of different social media platforms and their function to disseminate information and use it as a political platform. The researcher surveyed to know the perception of development communication students towards the socio-political content of the celebrityblog. The researcher found out the various variables contribute to the perception development of the participant in the concern of celebrity’s blog. In learning the different variables, the researcher identified the perceived development of communication students toward the socio-political issue on the said blog. These variables include Knowledge, Awareness, Socio-Political, Participation in Political Exercise, Socio-Political News Content, and the Uses the Social Media Platform.Based on the results and objectives of the study, the Development Communication students of Central Luzon State University are moderately knowledgeable regarding the Celebrity Blog and were aware of the Celebrity Blog issues. Respondents disagree that they were influenced by the Celebrity Blog on their political stands. The respondents participate moderately in political exercise having indicatedthat they strongly agree that the contents of the Celebrity Blog are biased and only favor Duterte’s propaganda. However, the respondents disagree that social media platforms, mainly the Celebrity Blog, should be utilized in disseminating information.
The Theory and Practice of Political Transition in the Post-2018 Ethiopia
Birhanu Bitew Geremew & Asabu Sewenet Alamineh
This article critically reflects on the nature of the 2018 political transition in Ethiopia and how intense political competition derailed the success of the transition. Drawing the country’s prior experiences of political transition as an analytical framework, the paper entangled the current political crisis into the lack of democratic political experience. Although reformist leaders introduced ambitious political and economic reforms – open the political space, release political prisoners, welcome exiled opposition groups and liberalise the economy – polarised political interests reduced the tendency to full-heartedly implementing it. Hence, the transitional period has been orchestrated by hateful ethnic propaganda, contestation between political forces and the reclaiming of authoritarianism by the ruling class. Recurrent ethnic tensions, competing political interests and authoritarian response to the challenges of law and order manifesting the transitional period has historical antecedents. Much of Ethiopia’s history was dominated by authoritarianism, elite rule and patrimonial system, which negatively shaped the political atmosphere of the contemporary Ethiopia.
Integration of Labour Rights Issues into Bilateral Investment Treaties: Particular Emphasis to Bilateral Investment Treaties Ratified By Ethiopia.
Elias Tujuba Hota
This article aims to examine the integration of labour rights provisions under the BITs ratified by Ethiopia and the extent of labour rights consideration in those treaties. The study is based on purely doctrinal legal research and adopts a qualitative method of data analysis. The researcher used primary data sources such as ILO Conventions and BITs concluded between different countries, and books, journals and reports are used as secondary data sources. The study found that most of the BITs ratified by Ethiopia do not have any labour rights provisions in any part of the treaty. Those treaties integrated labour rights issues are not addressing the matter sufficiently, and almost all are not in force. As a result, the writer concludes that the internationally recognized labour rights issues are not integrated under most of the BITs that Ethiopia is a party and those tried to address are not effective nowadays. Such a vacuum may affect the workers' rights and make the government liable to investors at investment tribunals if the government moves to take labour measures that may affect the investor's investment. So, the Ethiopian government has to integrate labour rights issues into BITs.
The Effect of Interactional Justice on Organizational Commitment: The Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction
Yilak Alamrew Fentie & Professor N. Kishore Babu
The relationship between interactional justice and organisational commitment was investigated using satisfaction as a mediator in this study. Organizational justice, which is based on the principle of equality, has a significant role in influencing employee actions, which is seen to be a factor of job satisfaction and organisational commitment. This study involved 368 people, all of whom worked for the University of Gondar. Data was acquired by questionnaire and analyzed using mean and standard deviation for descriptive part and structural equation modeling (SEM) for inferential one. Interactional justice has a strong positive effect on job satisfaction, according to the findings of this study.Organizational commitment is significantly influenced by job satisfaction. Hence, satisfaction fully mediates the connection between interactional justice and organisational commitment which implies that interactional justice has a large indirect effect on organisational commitment via the mediator variable, job satisfaction.
Psychological Well-being (PWB) of Men and Women Employees during Covid-19 Pandemic: The Case of the Philippine Carabao Center
Sonia D. Pol1 and Danilo S. Vargas2
In general, the study aims to provide information on the psychological well-being (PWB) of men and women employees of PCC while working during the Covid-19 pandemic. Data were collected using online. survey method. A total of 72 respondents answered the survey and the majority belong to the young adults’ category. With regards to gender, 61.0% are females. Half of the respondents are married and forty-two percent (41.7%) belong to 3 to 4 family members. Fifty-one percent (51.0%) graduated with Bachelor’s degree and forty-seven percent attained a graduate degree or higher. Most of them, have a monthly income ranging from 21,914 to P43,828 (56.9%) and only 4.2% belong to the rich income group. In general, the result shows that men and women employees of the Philippine Carabao Center have very high to high score levels on the six components of PWB and generally experience happiness termed as Hedonic well-being. Results also showed high scores on the purposeful aspect of PWB termed as Eudaimonic well-being, which has six components with high scores that indicate positive psychological well-being (PWB). This result reflected that the respondent's six components of PWB on self-acceptance, autonomy, purpose in life, personal growth, positive relations with others as well as environmental mastery have been equally stable among men and women employee respondents during a pandemic. Moreover, the result can also be attributed to the influence of the work environment and psychological environment being experienced by the respondents during the Covid-19 Pandemic. The work environment is considered favorable if it seems to have positive impacts on the psychological well-being of workers being demonstrated when they are happy. The result also showed that there is no statistical difference in the psychological well-being (PWB) of men and women employees working at the Philippine Carabao Center during a pandemic. Results show that despite the much evidence being reported on the impact of the pandemic on individual mental health and well-being, the PCC men and women employees generally have positive PWB. This result seemed to be related to many findings from many types of research that reported many cases of employees who experience good quality working relationships (positive relations with others) with supervisors and co-workers still find their jobs enjoyable despite pandemic, hence, work becoming less stressful even with the pandemic.
Women Participation in Agricultural Production in Lofepaco in Beni-Lubero, Republic Democratic of Congo
Manyonzo Mwatsi1 Danilo S. Vargas2
This study aimed to determine the level of women's participation in agricultural production through farming organizations. The purposive sampling procedure was employed to identify 367 active participants from farmer organizations. A survey was used to collect data, and the analysis was facilitated by descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis. The results indicated that the majority of respondents were between bracket ages of 31 and 50 years old. The result shows that the majority of the respondents were married, The mean household size was seven people per household. All the respondents were female, The mean average of years spent in the farming organization was 10, with a standard deviation of 8.7. The first three reasons claimed by respondents that led women to join agricultural organizations were consecutive: input access, credit access, and market access. The correlation between socio-demographic profiles variables and participation in crop production showed that there is a negative correlation between the level of education and crop planting as well as harvesting. The results show a negative correlation between household size and land preparation. While, there is a significant positive correlation between respondent marital status and land preparation, crop planting, weeding, harvesting, threshing, storage of the harvest, sales of harvest. On the other hand, there is a significant positive relationship between the length of membership and crops planting, weeding, storage of the harvest, sales of harvest. The finding reveals the highly ranked participation of respondents in the household’s activities was as follows; food preparation, taking care of children, washing clothes, washing dishes, and sweeping the house. Results indicate that respondents' participation in meetings and training was high. A high level of ownership of agricultural assets by the respondents was also revealed. A significant positive correlation between the respondents’ regular activities in the household, such as washing clothes, washing dishes, buying clothes, cleaning the house, fetching water, food preparation, collecting firewood, maintenance, and repair and agricultural land ownership was established. Findings show that there is a significant positive correlation between the respondent's frequent household duties such as washing dishes, washing clothes, fetching water, maintenance, and repair, and the small livestock possession. There is a significant positive correlation between respondents’ ordinary household activities such as washing dishes, fetching water, cleaning the house, maintenance, and repair, washing clothes, and minor livestock ownership. Findings show that there is low access and ownership of women to the assets. While the majority of respondents had a high decision contribution to control and transfer of their products and assets. Household maintenance and repair leads to affect the dependent variable. This means that respondents had only 7.1`% of their households’ maintenance and repair activity that affect their participation in farmer organization’s meetings. Data also show that, regardless of the household activities of respondents, at 92.9 %, they were still attending organization meetings. The household activity of buying clothes affects women’s participation level, Crop production, harvesting, and household buying food.
Bank Specific Determinants of Non-Performing Loans: The Case of Selected Ethiopian Commercial Banks
Odda Yadeta Dibar & Prof. M. Sandhya Sridevi & Prof. M. Uma Devi
Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate bank specific determinants of nonperforming loans of selected Ethiopian commercial banks. The study used both primary and secondary data over the period of 2010 to 2019. To support the prospect, purposive sampling, was employed and, accordingly, 13 commercial banks were selected out of a total of 17. The necessary data were collected from bank audited financial statements, the National Bank of Ethiopia (NBE), the Central Statistical Agency (CSA), and the Ministry of Finance and Economic Cooperation (MOFEC), in that order. To get primary data, an unstructured interview was held with sampled bank officials. The collected data were tested for heteroskedasticty, normality, serial correlation, and multicollinearity problems. For the analysis of secondary data, multiple regression analysis was used, and the output of Fixed Effect Model was employed accordingly. Eventually, the study found that CAR, ROA and ROE significantly and negatively affect NPLs while loan to deposit ratio, growth in number of branches, bank inefficiency and loan growth rate positively and significantly related with emergence of NPLs. Finally, study reveals positive and insignificant impact of bank size on NPLs.
Perception and Attitude of Academic Community Employees Using Computer-Mediated Communication in Information Sharing During the Covid-19 Pandemic
NIkki Ann V. Macabontoc1, Danilo S. Vargas2, Chrysl Avegail N. Vallejo3
To determine the respondents’ perception andattitude of academic community employees using computer-mediatedcommunicationin information sharing during the Covid-19 Pandemic.The respondents of this study were the teaching and non-teaching employees of Bulacan Agricultural State College (BASC). This study used a mixed-method of quantitative and qualitative research. The total number of respondents for the teaching staff was 116, while the respondents for the non-teaching team were 75. Most of the respondents are female in terms of sex and age, ranging from 31-to 35 years old.For the educational attainment, 24.6% earned units in their Master’s Degree; in terms of years in service,22.5% of the respondents have been working with BASC for 1-5 years, while for the academic and administrative rank, 43.1% of the respondents are under the academic rank as Instructors 1-3, while for the executivelevel, 47% are under the category as support staff.Regarding the respondents’ attitude towards thecomputer-mediatedcommunication(CMC) platforms used in their organization, the statement “I am very knowledgeable in using Group Chat, Email, Facebook, Text Messaging and Zoom/Google Meet as a form of communication” had the highest mean recorded. Unlike perception, different statements had obtained the highest mean per platform for the attitude variable. The following comments were as follow: GC - “I am more fond in using GC than other forms,” Email – “I don’t enjoy using email in our organization,” Facebook – “If I can avoid using FB for communicating, I do,” and for Text Messaging and Zoom/Google Meet – “I look forward in composing messages using text messaging and Zoom.”For the respondents’ CMC preferences in sharing new policies to be implemented by the BASC Administration, the respondents chose Group Chat (GC) followed by Email with,Zoom, and Google Meet. Most respondents preferred using Group Chat and Facebook to share information about the pandemic college announcements and personal concerns.
The Effect of Innovation Orientation on Employees Creativity and Organizational Culture (A Study on Textile Factories in Amhara Region, Ethiopia)
Minbiyew Mekonnen Dessie & Prof. N. Kishore Babu
Businesses' ability to stimulate and sustain innovation within their organisations is critical to their survival and success in dynamic circumstances. The study's goal is to look at the impact of innovation orientation on employee creativity and the culture of the company. The study used a cross-sectional survey strategy to conduct quantitative research. The study's target demographic was production workers, who were picked using a basic random sample procedure. A five-point Likert scale questionnaire was utilized to collect data, and descriptive and inferential statistics were employed to evaluate it. Structural equation modelling is used to test the direct effects.The findings revealed that in textile factories, innovation orientation has a positive effect on employee creativity and organisational culture, and that firms should improve their innovative capability to increase employee creativity by developing appropriate innovative organisational culture in order to survive and expand in today's complex business environment.
Firm, managerial characteristics and internationalization barriers on export performance: a structural analysis evidence from textile and garment enterprises in Ethiopia
Sintayehu Assefa 1*, Prof, Abebe Ejigu 2 and Dr, Gemechu Nemera 3
Firm, managerial characteristics of enterprises are significant for the growth of developing country’s economies. The objective of this study is to examine internationalization barrier of medium, and large-scale Textile and Garment enterprises export performance in Ethiopia. The study analyzed data from 252 questionnaire?based surveys of managers from medium, and large-scale textile and garment enterprises in Ethiopia using PLS-SEM model. The Model identified seven significant internationalization barrier factors and it reveals that all the relationships in the hypothesized model were significant at p < 0.05 and this shows that all constructs of internationalization barriers affect export performance. The latent variables, marketing knowledge barriers (P= 0.000), human resource barriers (P= 0.010), financial resources barriers (P= 0.000), product quality barriers (P= 0.000), competition barriers (P= 0.027), government policy barriers (P= 0.001) and economic barriers (P= 0.000) significantly affect export performance, and the latent variable procedural barriers (P= 0.328) were reported insignificant. The study finds empirical evidence suggesting that several managerial, organizational and institutional barriers influence performance of enterprises in developing countries.These findings point to the need for business organizations and policymakers to address these challenges, thus improving the contribution of these firms to economic development of developing countries and the result of the studycompletes the findings for, practice policy, and research endeavor.
Determinants of Urban Unemployment and Its Consequence in Ethiopia
Adamu Mulu Ketema *1, Girma Ajebi Yadesa *, Gadisa Worku Hordofa**, Yomif Feye Senbeta**
This study aims to identify of Determinants Urban Unemployment and Its Consequence in selected urban towns of north Shoa Zone oromia Region. Identifying determinants is important for policy makers at zone level and serves as an input at national level. This study used descriptive, inferential and econometric analysis. Binary logistic model is used for econometric part. The data that is collected from 399 respondents in Oromia region north Shoa Zone from selected town. Based on the result logistic regression availability of the job, work experience, father education, educational level, and age affects employment status significantly and positively whereas marital status, household income affects negatively employment status of the respondents in the study rea. The study recommend concerned body should promote resources available for investors and participate in social activities to really understand the society problem and giving a solution, practicing non-agricultural activities in urban areas to overcome urban unemployment, focus on the provision of infrastructure especially on education Improvement, the experience form short training, and on job training which makes them to change their attitude and Informing the residents on how to use household income for productive purposes that would reduce urban unemployment and promoting resources to the investors.
The effectiveness of arbitration in settling investment disputes in renewable energy contracts
Dr. Ghasanobaid Mohammed Nisreen Hasan Koni
Arbitration is one of the main means in settling renewable energy contract investment disputes due to the adherence of multinational companies to it, as it is the best way for them to be able to resolve the dispute in confidentiality and speed commensurate with their commercial purpose, and because of the freedom that arbitration gives them by choosing the most appropriate procedures and laws to resolve disputes that may occur in These contracts, however, the state, on the other hand, may stand in the way of the means of arbitration because of its belief that it affects its sovereignty and judicial immunity and exposes it to danger or threat first, and because of the fear of violating the supreme rules that it sets for the environment in which it enters, i.e. the rules of public order. Second, and the best evidence of the validity of the state’s concerns about the conflict of arbitration for the public system in it is the decision that it may issue not to allow the state to expropriate the foreign investor’s ownership of the lands of the investing state and cancel such a decision in the event Imposing its issuance and obligating it to compensate as a result of its arbitrariness by issuing such decisions.
Investigation on Macroeconomic Determinants of Non-Performing Loans: The Case of Ethiopian Commercial Banks
Odda Yadeta Dibar & Prof. M. Sandhya Sridevi
This study was undertaken to examine the macroeconomic determinants of nonperforming loans in the case of Ethiopian commercial banks. The study used both primary and secondary data over the period of 2010 to 2019. Non probability sampling, particularly purposive sampling, was employed and, accordingly, 13 commercial banks were selected out of a total of 17. The necessary data were gathered from audited financial statements of selected banks, the National Bank of Ethiopia (NBE), the Central Statistical Agency (CSA), and the Ministry of Finance and Economic Cooperation (MOFEC), in that order. To get primary data, an unstructured interview was used. Concerns about heteroskeda sticity, normality, serial correlation, and multi Collinearity were all assessed on the data. For secondary data, multiple regression analysis was employed, and the Fixed Effect Model (FEM) was used accordingly. The study discovered that the gross domestic product has a negative and substantial impact on non-performing loans, but the real lending rate, household income distribution, money supply, inflation rate, exchange rate, and public debt have a positive and significant impact on NPLs. Furthermore, the results of the interview show that these external factors influence NPLs.
Tax assessment and collection problems of category "c" business income tax payers: evidence from Nekemte city, Oromia, Ethiopia
Adugna Megenasa Biru
This study was conducted to investigate tax assessment and collection problems of category “C” business income tax payers in Nekemte City. The study has employed descriptive survey research approach. A total of 317 tax payers and 35 employees of revenue office have participated in the study as a source of information. Simple random sampling method was used to select tax payers and censes method was used to select employee of revenue office. Structured questionnaires and interviews with management bodies of tax authorities were used to collect primary data. The descriptive statistical methods were used to summarize and present the study results. The findings of the study revealed that, lack of awareness of taxpayers about tax, subjectivity of tax assessment team, lack of clarity in tax assessment and appeal procedure to tax payers, charge payment on tax payers beyond their ability to pay, insufficiency and unskilled tax collection staff, engagement of tax assessment team in corruption and tax payers conceal of their daily income are major challenges of tax assessment and collection with regard to category “C” business income the taxpayers. The study recommended that management of tax revenue authority has to work on improvement of tax assessment and collection system.
Factors Affecting Effective Utilization of Public Funds in Addis Ababa City Government, Ethiopia
Mata Maldaye Masaro & Professor P.Venkateswarlu
In a dynamic modern environment with diverse and increasing citizen demands and preferences, effective use of limited public financial resources is critical for achieving the intended goals and bringing change and development. This study explored the effect of financial management practices on the effective use of public funds in the Addis Ababa City Government of Ethiopia. The effects of financial records management practices, internal financial control practices, accounting and financial reporting practices, and financial accountability on the effective use of public funds were mainly considered. In line with this, an explanatory research design was adopted and conducted at Addis Ababa city government finance and economic development bureau and offices, using 853 financial officers as participants. To participate in the study, 265 financial management personnel were selected as a sample. Data was collected using five-point Likert scale administered questionnaires distributed to sampled respondents, and descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the results using SPSS Version 26. Financial records management, accounting, and financial reporting practices did not have a significant effect on the effective utilization of public funds. On the other hand, internal financial control practices and financial accountability have a significant effect on the effective use of public funds. This leads to the conclusion that public financial management is responsible for prudently managing public funds to achieve the intended target through giving special attention to and maintaining sound financial control and financial accountability, beyond effective financial record management, accounting, and financial reporting practices.
Causes of Credit Default Risk & Its Impact on Financial performance of bank. A Case Study on Commercial Banks in Ethiopia
Diriba Girma Abebe
The aim of this study was to bring an insight about causes of credit default risk & its impact on the performance of commercial banks in Ethiopia. In order to do that, the researcher tried to investigate causes of credit default risk from bank specific, borrowers’ specific and macroeconomics perspectives by using descriptive research design and examined the impact of credit default risk on performance of bank by employing random and fixed effect. Survey method was employed to get good picture on causes of credit default based on primary data collected from both government and private banks in Ethiopia. The study also used secondary data to investigate the impact of credit risk on the profitability of banks under the investigation-based data obtained from balance sheet & Income statement of each sample banks for eighteen consecutive years (2002-2019 and analyzed by employing panel data regression analysis using stata version 13. The finding obtained from primary data analysis shows bank specific, borrowers and macroeconomic specific factors contributed to loan repayment default during the study period. Results obtained from random and fixed effect panel regression have also tended to reveal adverse impact of credit default risk on the financial performance of banks under the investigation during the study period. The findings of the study suggest that it more advisable for banks to pay due attention to both internal and external factors that trigger loan repayment default to reduce credit default risk exposure and its adverse effect on the financial performance of banking industry.
Empirical Investigation on the Impact of Liquidity on bank Profitability: Evidence from Commercial banks in Ethiopia
Diriba Girma Abebe
This study sought to investigate impact of liquidity on profitability of commercial banks in Ethiopia from 2002 to 2017. The study used return on asset, return on equity & net interest margin ratio to measure bank profitability &liquid asset to asset ratio, liquid asset to deposit ratio, credit to deposit ratio& deposit to asset ratio to measure bank liquidity based on secondary data obtained from income statement and balance sheet of six commercial banks. The study used panel data regression analysisby applying random & fixed effectas estimation techniquesto analysis data. Findings obtained from regression analysis revealed positive impact of LAR on ROA &ROE both under random & fixed effect regression analysis. However, LAR was found to have a negative impact on NIMR under random effect & fixed effect. Findings of the study also revealed negative impact of LDRon ROA &ROE both under random effect & fixed effect. On the other hand, it was found to have a positive impact on NIMR both under random and fixed effect respectively. Findings of the study also revealed positive impact of CDR on ROA & NIMR & negative impact of on ROE under random effect&positive impact on ROA, ROE & NIMR under fixed effect. Findings of the study further revealed that a negative impact of DAR both on ROA & NIMR &positive impact on ROE both under random &fixed effect respectively.The study recommends that it wouldbe moreadvisable for banksto formulate and implement financial policies that will help them tomaintain appropriate balance between liquidity and profitability.
The Effect of Transformational Leadership Style on Employees Motivation and Organizational Commitment
Tadesse Kabtamu Tefera & Professor B. Mohan Venkata Ram
Leadership styles are important in organization antecedents to influence employees. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of Transformational leadership style on employee organizational commitment and employee motivation. The sample size was targeted to 360 academic staff of 19 technical, Vocational, Educational and training college in Ethiopia. The survey was conducted by using questionnaire. Research method used was descriptive and inferential data analysis was performed by Structural Equation Model using AMOS software and SPSS version 23. Using AMOS graphic the standardized and unstandardized estimate regression weight output the Correlation and hypothesis are tested. According to the result, there was a significant relationship between Transformational leadership style and both organizational commitment and employee motivation.
The Effect of Laissez-faire Leadership Style on Employees, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment
Tadesse Kabtamu Tefera & Professor B. Mohan Venkata Ram
In order to influence personnel, leadership styles are critical in organizations . The goal of this research was to see how a laissez-faire leadership style affected employee organisational commitment and job satisfaction. The sample size was set at 360 academic staff members from Ethiopia's 19 technical, vocational, educational, and training colleges. A questionnaire was used to conduct the survey. The descriptive and inferential research methods were applied. Structural Equation Model was used to analyze the data, which was done with AMOS software and SPSS version 23. The standardized and unstandardized estimate regression weight output of the Correlation and hypothesis are tested using the AMOS graphic. According to the findings, there was a substantial association between employee organisational commitment and job satisfaction and laissez faire leadership style.
Organizational Politics and Organizational Commitment: The Mediating Role of Work engagement
Abay Tekalgne Chana & Professor J. Ravi
The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of organisational politics on employee organisational commitment and how work engagement mediates this relationship. A survey of 390 commercial bank employees in Ethiopia's Amhara region was used to collect data for the study. Structural equation modelling techniques were used to examine the results. The findings suggest that perceptions of organisational politics have a negative and significant effect on organisational commitment. Furthermore, the outcomes of this study revealed a negative and significant association between perceptions of organisational politics and workengagement. Work engagement and organisational commitment were also found to have a positive and significant relationship in this study. The results of this study found that work engagement partially mediates the relationship between perceptions of organizational politics and employee organizational commitment.
Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility on Project Performance of Cooperative Bank of Oromia
Beckham Berhanu Mulgeta & Dinkisa Keno Wakene
This study intended to examine the effects of Corporate Social Responsibility on project performance of Cooperative Bank of Oromia (CBO) Projects and identify which corporate social responsibilities practices significantly predict project performance. This research made use of a mixed research approach along with descriptive and explanatory research designs. Interview and questionnaire were employed for qualitative and quantitative data respectively. The result from the interview? Descriptive as well as inferential analysis made by SPSS software version 26, shows that corporate social responsibilities has a significant effect on project performance. The study reveals that the R-square value is 0.53, which explains 53% of the variation in project performance is explained by corporate social responsibilities. From the total of five study variables, three variables? Ecological, Legal, and Philanthropic Responsibilities had a significant positive effect on Project Performance. Based on the findings, it is recommended that the bank should consider prioritizing the above-mentioned three significant corporate social responsibilities while conducting and implementing projects. However, further research is necessary to consider other factors in predicting project performance.
Teachers' Perception and Practices of Communicative Language Teaching in EFL Classroom: The Case of Four Secondary Schools, West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia
Olansa Duguma Daba & Prof. Rajendra Karmarkar
The main objective of this study is to investigate teachers’ perceptions and practices of Communicative Language Teaching in EFL classrooms of four selected secondary schools in Ethiopia. To this end, sixty eight EFL teachers were selected through census survey and included in the study. Moreover, the study employed mixed research method with descriptive design. The data collected via questionnaire were entered into SPSS and then, different statistical analyses such as frequency and percentage were conducted while classroom observation was analyzed qualitatively based on emergent themes. The results of statistical analysis were presented in tables. In addition, data obtained from interview were transcribed and categorized according to related themes. Accordingly, the findings of the study revealed that: firstly the majorities of informant teachers have good perceptions of CLT principles. Secondly, the degree CLT principles being practiced in the sampled schools was found to be very low due to Teachers’ lack of sufficient spoken English, Students’ low-level English proficiency, Students resistance to communicative class activities, Large class size, Lack of training in CLT, Lack of effective and efficient assessment instruments of communicative competence. Thus, the researcher concluded that secondary school teachers do not have perception problems, but a short of realizing their perception to their respective classes. Thus, it was recommended that policies and regulations be put in place to promote teachers' and learners' English proficiency at all levels; the government, the public, and stockholders should provide schools with necessary educational facilities; faculty and departments should maintain a balance between student allocation per class and available resources; and follow up on practices at a closer range with thrifty use of available educational resources.
Teachers' Perception and Use of Context Clue Strategies in Vocabulary Instruction: The Case of Ginchi Grade Ten Secondary School Students, West Shoa, Oromia
Olansa Duguma Daba & Prof. Rajendra Karmarkar
The purpose of this study is to investigate how teachers perceive and practice vocabulary teaching based on context clues. This study employed a descriptive survey design that includes both quantitative and qualitative Methods. Taro Yemane (1967) formula was used to determine the sample size. Thus, by using simple random sampling selection process, 120 students and ten teachers were chosen based on the available sampling method. The data collected via questionnaire were filled into SPSS and then, different statistical analyses such as frequency and percentage were computed from the data in the SPSS. The results of statistical analysis were presented in tables. Besides, data obtained from interview were transcribed and categorized according to related themes. Accordingly, the research revealed that vocabulary is not given enough attention, and teachers are not thoroughly practicing context clue strategies, which are utilized to find out the meaning of unknown terms. Furthermore, the study discovered a mismatch between teachers' perceptions and practice of the disparity between the teachers' beliefs and their actions. Despite teachers' belief that vocabulary is the most important component of a language and a strong desire to assist their students in expanding their vocabulary, their practice did not support this belief. The finding of the study also revealed lack of sufficient training for teachers in colleges, as well as the way textbooks are Prepared, have been recognized as contributing causes to the occurrence of the disparity between teacher belief and practice.
Market Orientation Practices and Its Effect on Performance in case of Basic Cooperative Enterprises in South Gondar Zone
Yissa Hassen Kasim & Kindye Essa Mustofa
Appropriate alignment between firm strategic orientation is crucial because of its impact on performance. For the last some decades, strategic orientations gained substantial attention from scholarly interest and literature. Entrepreneurial orientation and market orientations are strategic orientations, which are believed to significantly affect firm performance. The purpose of this study is to investigate The Effect of market orientation on cooperative enterprises’ performance in case of south Gondar zone of Amhara Region, Ethiopia. 174 self-administered questionnaires were filled by the manager and/or employees of cooperative enterprises. In this study, both descriptive and inferential data analysis technique were employed. The result shows manager and/or employees in cooperative enterprises are male-dominated.Furthermore, market orientation dimensions of customer orientation, competitor orientation, and interfunctional coordination have a significant and positive effect on cooperative enterprises’ performance.More importantly, the different magnitude of market orientation dimension effect on cooperative enterprise performance indicates firms must be vigilant in investing their scarce resources and involvement in activities that leverage market orientation in a way that contributes to performance. However, level of competition was not found to moderate the effect of market orientation of performance. small and medium enterprises.The findings reveal that the performance of cooperative enterprises is affected by market orientation that justifies the managers/employees of cooperative enterprises needs to be more market oriented to create a well-built market orientation environment that enables them intensively competitive in the fast-changing market environment and to improve their performance. This study could serve as a framework for policymakers and stakeholders to set up a strategy towards cooperative enterprises are more strategically oriented. This study can also provide an opportunity to expand the research on other.
Barriers of e-commerce Adoption in Ethiopia; Large and Medium Scale Manufacturing Industries
Kindye Essa Mustofa
The practice of e-commerce has become familiar in developed countries long years ago, but it is still at infant stage in developing countries. In Ethiopia, despite the fast growth of ICT infrastructures the practice of e-commerce is still in the first stage. Many factors could be a cause for low level of e-commerce adoption. This study is aimed at identifying the most important barriers that influence large and medium scale manufacturing industries in Ethiopia in order to adopt e-commerce. In this study, 330 large and medium scale manufacturing industries were selected using simple random sampling method. The data was collected from company managers using self-administered questionnaires which incorporated 26 barriers organized in to social & cultural, technical, economic, political, organizational, and legal & regulatory barriers. The finding of the study shows that the top barriers identified were related with lack of e-infrastructure, lack of e-trading legislations, external environmental factors and insufficient awareness about the benefit of e-commerce. In addition, the result from the t-test claimed that barriers identified in the study has a more influence on non-adopters than adopters. The paper has suggested recommendations for overcoming the barriers of adopting e-commerce in Ethiopia. This paper also contributes a lot for researchers who are interested to investigate about the barriers of adopting e-commerce in others sectors.
Communication Systemin the Implementation of Forest Laws in Caraballo Mountain in Central Luzon,Philippines
Mary Joy Y. Juan and Danilo S. Vargas
This study aimed to determine the communication system in the implementation of forest laws using the descriptive research method. Therespondents utilize 12 communication media, their message format is informationalusing Filipino language containing Forestry Reform Code of the Philippines.The frequently used media was a television with an exposure of four days a week.The respondents were fully aware of the memorandum on cutting down trees; while the Chainsaw Act was not known. Respondents wereinvolvedin the implementation of the law.Only 47.50% of the respondents said that they do not let others violate the forest laws indicated. It can be seen that the CENRO-NNE has no direct link to the city or Municipal Environment and Natural Resources Office (MENRO) since these offices are under the Local Government Unit (LGU), their relationship was on coordination or partnership alone. The office utilizes 12 communication media together with strategies, their message format is mostly plain informational with minimal release or holdings.Overall, CENRO-SJC had 9 communication media and strategies with message format of mostly pain informational and encouraging/advocating; and, a monthly airing on broadcast media, a yearly release on all print media, and a few on the forum but more than twelve times on meeting.The MENRO-Lupao utilized 5 media and strategies. All their print media had plain informational and warning message format, released yearly, reaches a municipal level, all in Tagalog and English language contains information about PD 705 (Forestry Reform Code of the Philippines), and would all undergo monitoring and evaluation activities twice a year.There was a highly significant relationship between the use of the internet to the act of stopping others violate the law.And there was a significant relationship between the use of the internet and the reportage of violations; in addition, the same went with exposure to banners and abidance of the law respondents.. The highest number of violations in a year was 16 which were recorded in CENRO-SJC, while the lowest was 2 from CENRO-NNE. Most of the violations were in the provisions of PD 705 and EO 23 however, not all filed violations were apprehended.On average, the respondents were fully aware of the EO23 which is the memorandum on cutting down trees; while RA 9175 or the Chainsaw Act was not known. Following what the law says was the frequently done actions by the respondents to show their practice and involvement in the implementation of the law, 92.50% of the respondents said so.For the offices that are enforcers, there is a need to make their communication system and implementation into a more active and comprehensive one. One way is to upgrade the offices’ budget, equipment, and manpower to be able to create more programs and campaigns. And encourage community involvement and participation in managing and implementing forest laws.
A study on the Ras tradition of Manipur
Jyotika Deka & Luna Borah
The history of the performing arts is quite interesting area of study, from the historical purpose to know the culture of a particular society. It bears so many historical aspects that could fill the empty accounts of different aspects of humankind of different regions of India. It has its own uniqueness with formative data regarding one particular society. These arts carried the cultural as well as socio- religious information, detailed of the people that belonged to a specific area. One of the famous performing arts from the North- East Indian is the Ras performance and this tradition of ras is so popular among the North-Eastern people, with its different features that followed in different regions. This article is about the Ras tradition of Manipur and it will discuss on the origin, growth and present scenario of the Ras tradition in that land. The religious, cultural and the social impacts on the performing art of Ras in Manipur will discuss in this article as well.
Analyzing the Techniques of Teaching Speaking Skills in Grade Ten English Textbook
Wubshet Mengistu Mekonnen (TEFL)
Issues: The purpose of this study was analyzing the techniques of teaching speaking skills and identify the types of classroom organization in grade ten English textbook.Methods:To achieve the purpose of the study both qualitative and quantitative research methods were employed. The study used textbook analysis and semi -structured interview. For this study, all 51 speaking lessons and all English language teachers who were teaching English in Mustahil and Ferfer secondary and preparatory schools were taken as participant of the study. The data were analyzed and organized thematically.Findings:The finding of the study depicted that the majority of the speaking lessons require learners to apply discussion, picture describing and role-play techniques of teaching speaking skill. It also showed that the majority of the speaking lessons are done using group and pair work types of classroom organizations. Furthermore, the techniques of teaching speaking lessons are integrated with the students’ real-life situations.Conclusion: To sum up, the author of the textbook should prepare lessons that require learners to apply storytelling and re-telling, communication game, picture narrating and debate techniques to make the techniques fairly distributed in the speaking lessons.Moreover, toimprove the students’ speaking skill using group and pair work types of classroom organizations teachers had better motivate and encourage learners actively to involve in the activity to make the lessons fruitful.
Foreign Direct Investments and Industrial Development in Nigeria [1988-2018]
*Njoku, Charles Odinakachi Ph.D & Nwadike, Emmanuel Chijioke & Chukwuemeka, Kamsi Nzube
This study investigated the effect of foreign direct investment on industrial development in Nigeria from 1988-2018. The study employed times series data and ex-post facto research design and the data were gotten from World Bank Development indicators for Nigeria for the period of the study. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test was used to test the stationarity of the variables which revealed that the variables; Foreign Direct investment inflow, Foreign Direct Investment Outflow, Exchange Rate and Lending Rate all become stationary at first difference or integrated at first order. The Johansen cointegration test was used to check for long run relationship among the variables in the model and it suggested the presence of a long run relationship. Furthermore, a Vector Error Correction Model was employed to validate, confirm and determine the nature of the adjustments in the coefficients in the short-run and also to specify the long-run model of the variables in the model. This test showed the presence of a positive and significant relationship between Foreign Direct Investments outflows and Lending rate on industrial development while Foreign Direct Investments inflows had a negative and significant relationship with industrial development. Exchange rate on the other hand had a positive and insignificant relationship with industrial development. The long-run model was specified, the variables were normally distributed and there was absence of both Autocorrelation and Heteroskedasticity among the variables in the model. The study recommended from the result that the government should provide basic infrastructures that boost the performance of the industrial sector performance as it will go a long way to position them attract and retain foreign investments.The research also recommends foreign direct investment incentives like: low corporate tax rates, tax holidays, special economic zones preferential tariffs etc. that will attract and enhance foreign direct investment inflow into the country
Occupational Risk Perceptions of Needle Stick Injuries among Nurses: Across sectional study
Shereen Ahmed Ahmed Qalawa
Background: Needle stick injuries (NSIs) are a common occupational hazard with potential physical health effects, including viral infections such as hepatitis and HIVplus the psychiatric consequences of NSIs as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and adjustment disorder (AD).Aim : To investigate occupational risk perceptions of needle stick injuries among nurse in selected hospital in Port-said city at Egypt. Subject and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional research design using a convenience sampling of 210 nurses using an adapted three parts tool that gathered sociodemographic data of nurses ; data about nurses's perceptions and attitude regarding needle stick injuriesResults: there is a revealed that there are a highly significant relation were found between nurse's total scores of perceptions regarding needle stick hazards and their sociodemographic and job characteristics mainly in items related to age ,gender years experience in nursing career and department with p= (0.000,0.001) respectively. While a significant relation were found between nurse's total scores of attitude and their sociodemographic and job characteristics mainly in items related to level of education and Experience of contact to Infection with p= (0.177, 0.147) respectively . Conclusion: There is an acceptable occupational perception's level among nurses regarding NSIs with good attitude regarding needle handling which going to necessary needs for maintain implement educational programs that maintain and updated awareness of universal precautions especially regarding needle stick injuries Relevance to Clinical Practice: the study adhere to occupational risk exposures and hazards that affect quality of nursing outcomes and infection control measures policies of needle stick handling and closely contact .
Perceived Organizational Support and Employee Engagement: Mediator Role of Extrinsic Factors of Job Satisfaction
Chandrakant Varma & Dr. Chandrahauns R Chavan
The study examined the relationship between Perceived Organizational Support (POS) and Employee Engagement (EE). The study also tests the mediating role played by Extrinsic factors of Employee Job Satisfaction (EJS). The study focuses on factors playing a significant role in enhancing Employee Engagement and building positive perception towards organizational support such as Pay, Promotion, and working conditions. Further, it studies the factors showing the level of employee engagement through Employee Absorption, Dedication, and Vigour experienced by employees in his/ her job. The sample of employed professionals (n=436) completed the survey. Results of the data collected suggest that POS significantly affect EE and EJS. The study findings showed that extrinsic factors of employee job satisfaction mediate the relationship between perceived organizational support and employee engagement. The study has important implications for developing organizational policies and practices for employee management.
Meat Prices Change Trends in Ethiopia: Focused on Twenty Two Beef and Chicken Markets
Amalo Soga Mago & Professor V. Krishna Mohan
The objective this study is to investigate the beef and chicken price change trends in Ethiopia in the last ten years. It focused on the twenty two markets that included in the study from north, south, southwest, west and east regions. Quantitative research approach was applied to analyze the data. The data source was central statistics agency databases. One sample and independent sample test were used. One-way ANNOVA also used to test price change disparity between twenty two markets. After all data were collected and checked, Statistical package of social science version 20 applied to calculate and analyze the finding. The result shows that the beef price was 280.82 percentage and chicken price was 273.54 percentage higher than the base year in the study markets. The price change of both items was widely experienced in all twenty two markets. Even though there were market integration between studied markets, the highest beef price change recorded in the eastern markets such as Haromaya, Hareri, Adama and Diredawa but the lowest change was recorded in Melka Werers in Afar region and Addis Ababa. In the case of the chicken, Debrebirehan, Hosana and Asosa recorded highest change but lowest change recorded in Afar region at Melka Werers and Awash Sebat killo markets. There were significant difference of an average retail prices between twenty two chicken markets but not on the beef. However, relatively an average higher beef prices were recorded in southern and eastern markets like Hareri, Diredawa, Moyale, Jigjiga, Negeleborena and Haromaya. The lowest retail price recorded in Adwa and Asosa. In the case of the chicken, the higher price recorded in the Gambella, Mekele, and Asosa. The lower prices were recorded in the eastern markets like Melka Werers, Haromaya, and Harari. Conclusion: Overall beef and chicken prices were highly increased in the studied markets in the last ten year.There was market integration on both beef and chicken markets. Finally recommendation was forwarded to policy makers to be high alert to react actively for the highly increase of beef and chicken prices and should have strategy to narrow the meat price change which help to enhance faire consumption between consumers who highly valued for the beef meat and chicken, and work to ensure affordability of the animal proteins. Second the researchers should come with the research question why high beef and chicken prices in the country that has high animal population. This question is very an important for further research.
The effect of risk management practice on the financial performance of Ethiopian commercial banks
Aron Abraham Babulo and Professor P.Viswanadham
This study aimed to identify effects of risk Management practice on the financial performance of Ethiopian Commercial banks over the period from 2009 to 2020. The study used secondary data that sampled bank specific data were obtained from the audited financial statements of the national bank of Ethiopia. Besides to this, balanced panel data were employed in the study. Thus, by employing purposive sampling method only ten commercial banks out of seventeen commercial banks operating in Ethiopia were included in this study to achieve the objected of this study is subjected to two dependent variables ROE and ROA were identified as the basic measures of financial performance of commercial Banks. The independent variables such as credit risk, liquidity risk, Operation risk Capital Management risk and marketing risk were included in the model of this study. Qualified model to achieve this study objective was Multiple Linear Regressions Model which is grounded on the orderly least square (OLS) estimation techniques while the estimation process was carried SPSS-20. The result is reveals that Credit risk has shown a positive significant relationship with dependent variable the financial performance of commercial banks in Ethiopia and it is statistically significant and liquidity risks have negative effect on Ethiopian commercial banks financial performances(ROE and ROA)Further, the econometric coefficient such as Operating risk and marketing Risk found to have negative and positive vise versa insignificant effect on the financial performance(ROE and ROA) of commercial banks in Ethiopia. The results suggest that banks hold capital. Similarly, the coefficient liquidity risk is also statistically significant which clearly reflected Negative relationship with the performance Management and statistically significant. Organizations must build and develop an organizational database that tracks, monitors, and evaluates each process to enable managers to identify and control risk, and to help the organization address any negative effects caused by it.
Assessing the internal factors that hinder the performance of Small and Micro Enterprises in Ethiopia: the case of Ficthe town
Tolossa Dadi Wedajo
The purpose of this study is to examine the internal factors that affect the performance of SMEs in Ficthe town. The performance of SMEs is crucial to create competitive and profitable business sector and to support the National Economic development. Hence, this study was focused on the internal factors that hinder the performance of SMEs. In doing so, the researcher used descriptive and explanatory type of research and the primary data gathered through interview and questionnaire while the secondary data were collected through document review. The study result indicated that the internal factors were seriously affecting the performance of SMEs. Therefore, the study summarized that SMEs were affected with internal factors like lack of marketing management, financial management, human resource management, material management, general management and business planning skills. It is recommended that, the concerned government body should facilitate and provide capacity building training to SMEs owners and managers so as to increase the performance of the sector.
Financial Performance Trend Analysis of Micro-Finance Institutions: A case of Oromia Credit & Saving share company, Ethiopia
Berhanu Gemule Korje & Professor P. Viswanadham
The emphasis of this research was on the financial performance trend analysis of Ethiopia's Oromia Credit and Savings Share Company. The study used a quantitative research method and acquired secondary data from the firm. The Oromia Credit and Savings Share Company in Ethiopia was the study's target population. The sample consisted of Oromia Credit and Savings Share Company's audited financial statements for the ten years. Selected SEEP model ratios were used to analyse the data. The study's findings suggest that Oromia Credit and Savings Share Company's financial performance, as assessed by sustainability/profitability, and asset/liability management, has been unsatisfactory. According to the study, lowering operational expenditures can enhance sustainability/profitability as evaluated by ROA and ROE ratios. The report also suggests that the company maintain an adequate liquidity ratio to cover short-term payments, as well as manage its debt-equity ratio and portfolio of assets, in order to maximise profitability and revenue.
Social Media and Travel Websites use on Leisure Traveling Among Millennial
Mark Christopher C.Viuda & Danilo S. Vargas
This research was conducted to study the social media use on leisure traveling among salaried individuals who are, at the same time, members of the Millennial cohort. Survey research design and stratified sampling were used for the research, in which therespondents were classified according to age and sector. 131 respondents administered the prepared instruments. The results reveal that female respondents garnered the biggest percentage compared to their counterparts. The average age of the respondents encompassed 20-25 years old. In terms of educational attainment, 95.42% are college degree holders. And 61.83% are taking teaching jobs, employees whose line of works is in the education system. The monthly salaries of the respondents are mostly 11,000 to 20,000. Approximately, the average budget is reserved for leisure travel is 400 to 1,500. And the highest portion of salary/income being set aside for leisure travel is ›6,000. Apart from receiving government salary, some have other profits, wherein, their average monthly earnings are 2,001 to 4,000 and ›8,000. Lastly, for socio-economic characteristics, there is a high percentage of permanent than contractual and part-time millennial employees. Facebook, Youtube, Skype, and Google are the general social media accounts of Millennial employees. But Facebook is the only social media account actively use by all. Meanwhile, Facebook is the Rank 1 account being utilized for leisure travel purposes. That most of the respondents are mainly receiving travel information from their friends and relatives on social media. But apparently, only a few are familiar with Airbnb, a website from forbes.com’s top travel websites list. Another result confirms that the usual reason of the respondents behind their consumption of social media on leisure travel is because it is easy to access. In terms of the frequency of utilization; Facebook, Youtube, and Google are the ones frequently consumed in the acquisition of travel information. In the realm of travel, Facebook, as the highly consumed social platform, is utilized everyday by 19.85%, and at least once a week by 26.72% of respondents. To get travel data, 47.3% are only spending 15-30 minutes. Travel package is mostly searched on social media. Millennial employees are typically going on leisure travel once a year. In terms of the planning session, most are arranging their outings just by themselves. The respondents have a high preference for a domestic trip. A high percentage of respondents specified Japan as a dream global destination and Palawan asa local destination. The respondents typically prefer water or coastal areas for leisure travel. Some also prefer highly urbanized areas or the metropolis. But in all fairness, ?beach? is the respondents’ most desired setting. The primary activities of respondents while on vacation are sightseeing and swimming. Only the age of the respondents established a significant association to the results of selected leisure traveling practices.
Analysis of marketing system for garlic traders: in the case of Shashamane and Kore cities in Oromia regional state, Ethiopia
Mr. Desta Feyisa Geda & Professor Hemal B Pandya
This research attempts to examine Garlic marketing in Shashamane and Kore city of Ethiopia with the specific objectives of identifying marketing channels, and the role of marketing agents. It also aims to quantify costs and margins for key marketing channels and identify constraints of garlic marketing. The structure, conduct, and performance approach was used to examine Garlic marketing channels and the function of marketing agents. This survey also examines Demographic Variables of the Garlic marketing participants using Mean, standard Deviation, Standard error, t-test and chi-square test. Shashamane and Kore markets were inefficient and dominated by oligopolistic market structure, concentration ratios were 79% and 61%, respectively. the market structure demonstrates that while licensing, trading experience, and capital did not prevent entry into the garlic business, while education was one of the bottlenecks to entry market. Profit margins for Traders for urban assemblers 7.2% and 19%, farmer trader 14% and 21.2%, regional wholesaler 19.5% and 13.5%, urban wholesaler 20.6% and 25.5%, and retailers 11% and14.3%in Shashamane and Kore respectively.in order to diminish the oligopolistic market, structurean effective market information service should be established to provide traders with accurate and timely information on current garlic output, demand, and prices at the national, regional, and district levels.
Why unbanked? Demographic factors, Awareness and Other reasons
Dinkisa Keno Wakene (PhD)
Nowadays, banking the unbanked has become critical for developing countries like Ethiopia, as most of the households do not hold bank accounts with conventional banks due to several factors. As a result, a huge amount of money circulates outside the banking system and limit the intermediation role of banking institutions. This study aims at determining unbanked individuals’ banking services level of awareness, reasons for being unbanked and the effect that demographic factors has on their intentions to use banking services in Ethiopia. The study was conducted in selected three regions of Ethiopia using multi-stage cluster sampling technique. Questionnaires were distributed and collected from 384 unbanked respondents in the three regions. Factor analysis, t-test and ANOVA tests were adopted in order to analyse the data. The findings indicate that the degree of awareness of both conventional and e-banking services by the unbanked individuals is significantly very low. In addition, the result indicates language barrier, financial literacy, a lack of physical access to banking, a low income relative to the cost of services, limited services offered, no proper networking and lack of awareness are the main reasons for being unbanked. Moreover, unbanked individuals’ level of education and occupation significantly affect their intention to use banking services. Therefore, Ethiopian banking sector should consider these factors while taking measures to bring the unbanked to the banking system and ensure that the bank services meet the requirements of the people at their respective levels of awareness, occupation and literacy. Additionally, it is recommended that the banking sector should develop financial educational programmes and work extensively on creating accessibility for the community to bank the unbanked.
The effect of emotional intelligence on job performance : A study of commercial bank employees in Amhara region, Ethiopia
Abay Tekalgne Chana & Professor J. Ravi
The objective of this study was to find out how emotional intelligence affects job performance. Primary data was collected via a self-administered, closed-end questionnaire. SPSS AMOS version 26 was used to process and analyse the gathered data. A two-step approach for structural equation modelling was employed for data analysis. First, confirmatory factor analysis was used to establish the measurement model's validity. After that, structural equation modelling was used to investigate the causal linkages between the variables. Emotional intelligence has a positive and significant effect on task and contextual performance, according to the findings. As a result, bank management should consider about how emotional intelligence might help workers perform better at work.
Coffee marketing system analysis: The case of Gedeo zone, southern Ethiopia
Wendmagegn Belete Debele and B. Lilly Grace Eunice (PhD)
This study deals with the marketing system analysis of the coffee commodity in the Yirgacheffe and Dilla-zuria districts of southern Ethiopia’s Gedeo Zone. The production of coffee in Ethiopia is among the strategic crops where the economy depends on its export earnings and employment, and the Gedeo zone is one of the prominent coffee producer areas in the country known for its highly valued distinctive coffee varieties. The study was conducted using descriptive statistical analyses based on data collected from sampled 200 smallholder producers and 38 traders. Accordingly, the study identified input suppliers, smallholders coffee producing farmers, coffee traders (collectors, wholesalers, processors and retailers), cooperatives and Yirgacheffe coffee producers cooperatives union and customers whose ultimate objective is consumption as main actors in the coffee marketing system. The marketing margin analysis also revealed that collecters created 27.4 birr value addition and wholesalers made an additional value of 109.1 birr in the first channel. On the other hand, both the participants were better off in the second channel. As a result, producers get 14.6 birr in addition to the sales price per kg, and wholesalers earned 121.9 birr more per kg than the first channel.  Ethiopian currency
Employee Motivation and Performance: The case of Ethiopia Health Insurance Agency
Geletaw Temeselew Lake & Endashaw Sisay Sirah & Wondimhunegn Atilaw Woldetensay
Training and development are very important in achieving new technical skills and knowledge in the various aspects of an organization. No one works for free, nor should they. Employers want their employees to feel they are earning reasonable salaries and payments, which is why this study explored employees' motivational performance at Ethiopian health insurance agencies.The study used both primary and secondary data, and a sample of 133 employees from the total population was selected using a simple random sampling method. Data from the questionnaire were analyzed using the statistical package for social science data analysis tool. The management of the organization and the human resources department were interviewed. The purpose of this study was to determine why professional employees leave organizations and why they do not stay with them. Consequently, the study reveals that employees leave the organization due to poor promotions, insufficient salary payments, and unfair internal transfers and redeployments.Motivation is linked to all of these factors. Therefore, it is recommended that the Ethiopian health insurance agency improve employee motivation by, rewards, job security, empowerment, training and development, feedback, leadership, recognition, promotion opportunity, objective setting appraisal, increased responsibilities, the loyalty of management to workers, medical care services, and sympathetic understanding of their problems.
An Empirical Study of the Long and Short Run Causation between Being without a job and Inflation in Ethiopia
Endashaw Sisay Sirah & Wondimhunegn Atilaw Woldetensay
A country's unemployment rate is an essential macroeconomic indicator. It is seen as a red flag that prevents the key resources from being allocated for the creation of the economy. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate both long and short-term causality between unemployment rate and macroeconomic factors. After applying the augmented dickey-fuller for unit root detection, this investigation used the auto regressive distributed lag model testing approach and the vector error correction model for granger causality analysis. The time arrangement information between 1984/85 and 2018/19 is examined. The result suggests that unemployment rate and macroeconomic variables have been connected for a long run. Foreign direct investment, inflation rate, and unemployment rate all have a direct causal effect on the short run. Furthermore, unemployment drives real gross domestic product to decline and external debt to rise. Finally, the study recommends that government should build the degree of total harmony, create a favorable business climate that entices more foreign direct investment, and borrow just for good reasons to acclimatize a cost pool of unemployed people.The government should reduce spending on cosmetic projects that are not profitable.
An Assessment of Beneficiaries Satisfaction Toward Subsidized Sugar and Edible oils Supplies in Hawassa, Southwestern Ethiopia
Amalo Soga Mago & Professor V. Krishna Mohan
This study aimed to investigate beneficiaries’ satisfaction toward the subsidized sugar and cooking oils in Hawassa, the centre for two regional states in Ethiopia. All data were collected from primary sources through survey and interview techniques. Among the subsidized beneficiaries, 381 informants participated in the survey, and twenty-seven informants were interviewed. Qualitative data were described and interpreted qualitatively. The Likert scale was used to measure survey responses. Descriptive statistics were applied to analyze data that were collected through a survey. Overall satisfaction of the beneficiaries was analyzed by satisfaction index, butchi-square test was applied to test satisfaction variation on the householdsize and income level differences of beneficiaries. The result shows that beneficiaries were satisfied with subsidized sugar quality but notquality of cooking oils. They are also satisfied withboth goods’ retail price change in the last ten years. On the other hand, beneficiaries were dissatisfied withquota allocation, availability of the supplies keeping scheduled time, information about the availability of supplies, and sufficiency of quota for monthly consumption. In addition,there was satisfaction variation toward the quota allocation techniques on both goods. Regarding income variation, there was no association between satisfaction and income variation on sugar, but there wasdifferencein satisfaction on the income level of beneficiaries. The recommendation was forwarded to Hawassa cityadministration to revise the subsidized sugar and cooking oils quota allotment technique to make fairness of the consumption. In addition, the suppliers should supplyquality cooking oils to increase the satisfaction of all beneficiaries. Besides, suppliers should improve the availability of the both goods as promised time schedule and should communicated transparently for the beneficiaries.
Rural households food security status and its determinants in face of climate change and variability in Simadaworeda, Northwest Ethiopia
Workie Mesfin Wale & Getie Derbew Ayalew
It is widely recognized that climate variability and frequent droughts resulting from El-Nino phenomenon are among the major risk factors affecting agricultural production that might contribute to hunger and food insecurity in East Africa in general and Ethiopia in particular. Food security is a serious issue around the globe, especially in developing countries including our country Ethiopia. The objectives of this study were to assess the food security status and its determinants of rural households in the face of climate change and variability among 368 randomly selected households in Simadaworeda using household survey, focus group discussion and key informant interview data collection methods. Descriptive statistics (mean and chi-square test), Core Food Security Model and binary logit econometric model were used to analyze the data.The Core Food Security Model result showed that 67.9% of the households are food insecure, while the remaining 32.1% of the sampled respondents arefood secure. The binary logitregression results revealed that farmland size, agro ecology, rainfall variability,family size,distance to market, drought tolerant seed and livestockownershipwere found to besignificantly affected household’s food security. The findings indicate that majority of the households are food insecure where its improvement can be addressed through appropriate policy, institutional and technological options.The finding also demands for action to all stakeholders including the local community, government and nongovernmentorganization interventionthat needs to mainstream the issueof climate change.
Midwifing Democradura or Democracy? Narrating the Administration and Performance of the Election Umpire in the post-dictatorial State of The Gambia
Democratic recession across the continent of Africa has created multiple effects on public governance. Central to the entrenchment of democratic projects and public governance is the election management body. The viability of this institution is expected to lay a foundation for good governance in any democracy. This study, therefore,examines the statutory roles of IEC in elections in The Gambia and assessesthe performance of IEC in election administration. It employs primary and secondary data. The total population for the study is two hundred and five thousand, one hundred thirty-nine (205.139) respondents, out of which five hundred and forty-four (544) sample size was taken using a multistage sampling technique. In the first stage, a purposive sampling method was used to select election-related Institutions such as IEC, APRC, UDP, NRP, PDOIS, GDC, Ambassadors of Peace, WANEP and Talinding South Ward Polling totaling 205.139. In the second stage, the respondents were randomly chosen through the balloting process. In doing this; 20% of the total senior staff from each institution above were selected to ensure equal representation. This population included 50 staff at Independent Electoral Commission’s (IEC) Head Office, 33 supporters of Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation and Construction (APRC), 35 supporters of United Democratic Party (UDP), 11 supporters of National Reconciliation Party (NRP), 10 supporters of Peoples Democratic Organisation for Independence and Socialism (PDOIS),11 supporters of Gambia Democratic Congress (GDC), 10 members of the Ambassadors of Peace, 8 members of West Africa Network for Peace Building (WANEP) and 376 voters of the Talinding South Ward polling number 544. The study, therefore, concludes that voter understanding has increased through institutional awareness programmes and that the performance of the election management body in the Gambia has not been done as expected but has shown greater commitment to democratic management in the country.
Strategic banking industry competences and resource management for sustainable development in Nigeria
Andrew Omosioni. Agbada & Casmir Chinemerem Osuji
The Nigerian banking industry has been consistently faced with challenges of distressesand failures of firms leading to merger and acquisitions and ultimately toliquidation for over four decades. Indeed, a number of reasons are responsible for the downturn of activities and performance in the industry. Presumably, acardinal reason maybe as a result of not identifying and matching the right Competences with job tasks in the course of operations such that incompetence has played out as distressing syndrome in the industry. It is against this backdrop that this study seeks to explorestrategic banking industry Competences and Resource Management for sustainable development.The intrinsic and intellectual properties in employees such asindustry Knowledge, Skill and Attitude are used as proxies for Competences to explain efficient Resource management. Survey research design was employed in sourcing data analyzed using Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMCC) or ‘r’ and the Coefficient of Determination (r2).The findings were quite robust as results revealed that Competence variables exhibited distinct characteristics. The ‘Knowledge’ variable passed the test of significance, implying that knowledge can be acknowledged as a relevant input for formulating policies to influence Resource management for sustainable development in the Banking industry in Nigeria. The ‘Skill’ variable, though passed the test of significance, the results suggest that it had a mild impact on Resource management in the industry on ground of its medial values of coefficients. The variable, ‘Attitude’ failed the test of significance suggesting that the variable impacted very minimally on efficient Resource management for Sustainable development. This result however counters apriori expectation as literatures revealed that a winning attitude is a prerequisite for efficient performance. The results thus compelled us to conclude that though Competences are relevantto Resource Management for sustainable development in the Banking industry in Nigeria, its application has not been effective enough. The resultsbrought to fore some knowledge, skill and attitudinal gaps and that led us to recommend consistent on-the -job training and re-training of employees to bridge these gaps and institute competence-based job allocations in order tosustain performance and development in the industry.
External and Internal Determinants that Affects the Roles of Principalship in Secondary Schools of Hosanna Town Administration, Ethiopia
Jabe Bekele Hirgo & Dr. T. Sharon Raju
: The main intention of this research was investigating the external and internal determinants factors which affect the roles of principals in secondary schools of Hosanna town administration, Ethiopia. To attain objective descriptive survey design was employed. The schools which participate in the study area were all government secondary schools (Bobicho, Wachemo, Heto and Yekatit 25/67) of Hosanna town administration. The sample consisted of 378 students from 6902 of population, 219 teachers from 481 total population and all (13) principals’ were involved. Purposive sampling technique was employed to select the target schools. Stratified sampling technique based on grade level was used to select sample students, while systematic random sampling technique was employed to involved teachers in sample. And, Comprehensive (availability) sampling technique was used to gather data from principals. To collect necessary data, questionnaires for students and teachers and interview for principals were used.in analyzing the data mean, standard deviation, and independent sample T- test were employed. Data collected through questionnaires from the students and teachers, through five point likert scale were scored and categorized, then entered into the statistical package for the social science (SPSS version 26) software for analysis and data collected by the interview were analyzed qualitatively. The study disclosed that both internal and external factors were highly affecting the roles of principals. Moreover, the role of principals significantly affected by inadequacy of facilities,teaching-learning materials, turnover of teachers and Lack of capacity to guidance and counselling teachers and student were highest along the factors of continuum.Accordingly, the school principals should be arrange, capacitate/building/, and updating-upgrade themselves, and responsible organs should take to alleviate the schools from these factors.
Andrographis paniculate mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antibacterial activity against human pathogens
Yamuna Rama krishanan & Dr.M.Vinothini
Development of reliable biological route to synthesis nanoparticles is essential for their potential applications in diverse fields, especially in antimicrobial activity against human pathogens. The present work is also evidencefor the plant mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles showing a greater consequence against microbes.This study deals with the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by treating silver nitrate with aqueous extract of Andrographispaniculata at room temperature. The effect of the Andrographis paniculataaqueous extract on the formation of silver nanoparticles was characterized by UVvisible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray Diffraction Spectrum (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX). The UV spectra results show a strong resonance centre and surface of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at 443 nm. XRD and SEM studies revealed that the synthesized AgNPs shows spherical shape.
Nanotheranostics: a Kaleidoscope to the future -A review
Yesoda Aniyan K
Need: Nanotheranostics encompasses the combined efforts of diagnostic imaging and therapy in one system. It is also a science of which adequate awareness and research is still lagging. It is a type of personalized medicine, wherein molecular understanding of the disease and conforming the treatment, is based on the patients’ genes, proteins and metabolites. It uses nano-sized particles in various polymer conjugations, dendrimers, micelles, liposomes, metal and inorganic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, nanoparticles of biodegradable polymers for uninterrupted, restrained and targeted co-delivery of agents.Methods:A current literature search of the entire database was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed/ Cochrane with “nanotheranostics”, “nanotheranostics in dentistry”, “nanotheranostics in imaging” and “nanotheranostics in diagnosis and therapy” as key words, in March 2019.Discussion:As of current literature, it has forayed into cancer detection and management, diagnostic imaging as well as autoimmune disease remedies.This review of literature aspires to address the importance of such approach, a boon to Oral Medicine and Radiology.
Size, Concentration and Innovative Activities: A Developing World Perspective
Dr. Abdul Waheed
Issues: The impact of firm size and market concentrationon firm-level innovative activities have received considerable attention in developed countries, but still lacksfocus in developing world, despite theimportance of innovation for growth of developing world in today’s knowledge intensive era. This scarcity leads to the lack of innovation policy guidelines by keeping in view two very important contributors towards innovation. Methods: The impacts of firm size and market concentration on firm’s innovative activities are investigated by using Heckman selection two-step procedureand Probit model. The data used for this study was taken from the Enterprise Survey data of the World Bank administered on fourteen Latin American countries. Findings: Our analysis reveals that firm size increases the likelihood of R&D and product innovation, and influence R&D expenditure positively but at a less than proportionate rate. Conclusions: The size-innovation relationship in developing region of our study is almost same as the relationship of developed countries. The effect of market concentration has some interesting discrepancies. JEL Classification: L11; L12; L13; O3
Factors affecting Tax Collection of Category Business Profit Tax payers of selected Oromia Regional State cities, Ethiopia
Berhanu Gemule Korje & Professor P. Viswanadham
The objective of this study was to find out what factors affect tax collection among category "C" business profit taxpayers in Ethiopia's Oromia regional state cities. The data was collected using a questionnaire. The study's entire target population was comprised of 88,203 zonal level city Category "C" taxpayers and revenue authority personnel. For taxpayers, random sampling was used, while for workers, selective sampling was used. The sample size was 276 respondents. The information gathered was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study's findings demonstrate that the three factors of equity/fairness, convenience/certainty, and simplicity principles have a significant impact on the tax collection of Oromia regional state zonal level city category 'C' business profit taxpayers.The revenue authority advised including taxpayers in calculating daily sales or revenue in order to address the issue of fairness and equity and promote voluntary compliance behaviours. The study also advises revenue authorities to use a variety of cash collection methods, such as mobile banking, to promote technologies that make payment and collection easier and to make the tax system for category 'C' taxpayers understandable, simple, and plain in order to increase taxpayer willingness to pay tax and reduce tax avoidance.
Assessment of the Impact of adoption of improved maize variety on commercialization using Propensity Score Matching
Debela Geleta Dibaba (PhD)
Commercialization of agricultural output, generally speaking, refers to an economic behaviour of farmers whereby theyare engaged in selling their agricultural produceregardless of giving prime importance to meet their own need for consumption. Rural farm households, at subsistence level, also participate in commercialization by supplying certain proportion of their output to the market to make some of their ends met. The underlying assumption of the study is that small holder farmers differ in their decision of commercialization and it is quite intuitive that improved seed matters a lot in this regard. Thus the study attempted to reveal, empirically, whether or not adoption of improved maize seed matters a lot insofar as commercialization is concerned. To this end the study used primary data from a randomly selected 223 rural farm household heads from Boricha woreda.The Average Treatment effect on the Treated (ATT) unveiled that adoption of improved maize varieties positively and significantly affected the level of commercialization.
The Effects of Supply Chain Management on Customer Satisfaction in Small and Micro Enterprises, Tigray Region, Ethiopia
Gebeyehu Jalu & Dr Gurudutta Japee
Since competition is no longer between firms, but across supply networks, effective supply chain management strategies have become a potentially valuable way of achieving competitive advantage through customer satisfaction. The effects of SCM practices on customer satisfaction were investigated using five elements of SCM practices (company integration with suppliers, company integration with customers, information sharing practices, internal integration, and logistics design practices). The study's data was gathered from 50 managers/owners of small and micro enterprises in the Tigray region, and 200 customers were given a questionnaire to collect data. A Pearson correlation was used to test the framework's stated linkages, and regression analysis was used to examine the causal relationships. According to the findings of the study, there is a strong link between customer satisfaction and each of the SCM practices (companies' integration with suppliers, companies' integration with customers, information sharing practices, internal integration, and logistics design practices). As a result, in order to improve long-term marketing and financial performance by increasing customer happiness, it is preferable for the firm to place a greater emphasis on the implementation of those supply chain management practices. In light of these, the research attempted to shed light on how policymakers and respective enterprises can make the best out of it to ultimately achieve the growth and transformation plan through creating Ethiopian small and micro enterprises that successfully compete at an international level.
Economic Incentives for Environmental Protection: Analysis of Ethiopian Environmental Pollution Control Law
Elias Tujuba Hota
The right to a clean environment is recognized as a human right under different human rights instruments. The government should issue environmental laws and policies by incorporating different environmental regulation techniques to make the environment clean and suitable for humankind. The main environmental regulation approaches are the traditional command and control and the economic incentives. Because of the less effective command and control,some states have adopted economic incentives to protect the environment better. This study aimed to assess the integration of the economic incentive approach under the Ethiopian environmental pollution control proclamation. The study is doctrinal legal research and adopts a qualitative method of data analysis, and utilizes an explanatory research design. The researcher used both primary and secondary data sources. Primary data are legislations, while secondary data are journals, books and reports. The study found out that, under the Ethiopian environmental pollution control proclamation, only the traditional command and control mechanism of environmental regulation is adopted, and there is no economic incentive arrangement to give more protection to the environment. The OECD countries experience shows that they are applying various economic incentive instruments and achieving a better result. Lastly, the researcher concludes and suggests that the application of economic incentives in addition to the command control approach will make the environment cleaner, and Ethiopia should adopt the approach.
Challenges of Covid-19 pandemic and the road ahead: Evidence from star rated hotels in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
Belachew Kassahun Ayele & Lake Abebe Ayele
Given theincreasing number of travel restrictions along theCOVID-19 outbreakhasdealta crippling blow to the hotel industry.This article discusses the practices and challengescombating COVID-19 pandemic and impacts on star rated hotel operation. This study aims to identify the practices ad challenges combating COVID-19 pandemic crisis and impacts on star rated hotel operation. Datawerecollected through interview and focus group discussion from star rated hotelmanagers, city’s culture and tourism officers, and ARSTCPB officers in Bahir Dar. Follow-up direct observations by the researchers were conducted to validate the results of the study. The finding of this paper presents practices and challenges combating COVID-19 pandemic and impacts on star rated hotel operation. The practices as local cooperation in priority settings, preventing the pandemic of COVID-19, encouraging employees proactively and orderly participate in this battle against COVID-19, limiting the number of customers at a table, and commencement of COVID-19 vaccination; challenges as lack of relief materials and human resources, health emergency discipline is underdeveloped, flustered and lacks awareness between public, Shortage of COVID-19 Vaccine, and People’s Responses to the COVID-19 Vaccine; and impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on hotel business are identified. Thisis an in-depth analysis paper and recommend sadvancing the knowledge base to help hotels to combat and recover from the COVID-19pandemic.
Effect of Strategic Management Practices on Affective Commitment of Academic Staff in Public Higher Education Institutions of Ethiopia
B. Mohan Venkata Ram & Ali Hussien Edris
Strategic management practice and organizational commitment are two essential elements for the success of an organization. The two concepts have received researchers’ interest in academia and outside (corporate researchers). The reasons for more investigation of strategic management and organizational commitment are their association with performance, achievement of organizational goals, and the interest of researchers to explain and understand how an employee commitment and strategy contributor to organizational performance.This study was carried out in this vein setting sights on the Ethiopian public higher education institutions setting.With the overall aim of investigating the effect of strategic management practice on the affective commitment of academic staff,four publicly owned universities in the North cluster were targeted in this study. A quantitativecross-sectionalsurvey was conducted employing a structured questionnaire which was administered to 372 respondents proportionally selected from targeted universities.The collected data was quantitively analyzed by using descriptive as well inferential statistics. Hence, the study’s findings revealed that strategic management practices manifested in environmental scanning, strategy formulation, strategy implementation, and strategy evaluation are positively correlated with the affective commitment of academic staff in NCPUs Ethiopia. Moreover, strategy formulation, strategy implementation, and evaluation significantly impact the affective commitment of academic staff. At the same time, the research failed to show the significant effect of environmental scanning on the affective commitment of academic staff in NCPUs of Ethiopia. Public higher education institutions in the north of the country need to use strategic management practice as a management approach to better engage their academic staff.
The Principle of Non-Discrimination under WTO Regime: Analysis of Like Products in Focus
Mulisa Mergo Bulto
This article tries to deeply analyze like products within ambit of the principle of non-discrimination under WTO system. The objective of the paper is to attract scholarly attention so as to invite inquiries and hence solve problem happening in connection with like products in international trade as it is one of the bottlenecks, as vivid from majority of WTO case laws, in the implementation of multilateral trade agreements particularly GATT 1994. Library research approach was employed to attain this objective. The findings of the study revealed that there is no clear meaning of like products either in clear or implied fashion nor a general formula is provided under GeneralAgreements on Trade and Tariff though what products are like or otherwise is problematic. To overcome the problem, the paper suggests for having definition of like products in the way it solves the problem and for ease implementation of the principle of non-discrimination as well as multilateral trade agreements particularly GATT.
Association between Perception, and Self-Care Practices among Patient with Pulmonary Tuberculosis through Using Health-Belief Model
Dr. Shereen Ahmed Ahmed Qalawa and Dr. Magda Ali Mohamed
Background: Tuberculosis (T.B) is considered as a single-agent infectious disease, which is the major source of death around the world. Approximately one third of the world’s population is infected with tuberculosis (TB) bacilli and at risk of developing active TB. Aim: The present study was carried to investigate association between Knowledge, perception, self-care practices among patient with pulmonary tuberculosis in Port-Said City. Subject and methods: A descriptive correlational study was carried out on 600 recent T.B patients whose attending outpatient clinics at Chest Hospital (ALmasah ALbahary) in Port-Said City during four months from the starting of data collection. Results: The study revealed Shows that there is a significant correlation were found between total scores patient's self-care practice with their knowledge, p= (0.001). Also (46.7%) of patient's perceived that advantages of pulmonary Tuberculosis treatment are to reduce transmission of disease while (57.2%) beliefs that stop medications according to doctor order. on the other hands, (63.3%) of them balance their diet with protein and fat. finally (86.7%) of them perceived that pulmonary tuberculosis can be cured. Conclusion: Based on the results of present study we can concluded that there are lacked of critical knowledge, perception among patients with T.B needed to understand their disease, self-care practice which affect their compliance of T.B. Recommendations: There are obvious needs for design health education program to patients with T.B regarding self-care practice to elevate their level of awareness, enhancing beliefs and attitude regarding tuberculosis treatment. Which correct TB knowledge is important for attaining successful treatment out comes.
Integrated reporting and performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria
Adebawo, Owolabi Olutokunbo. PhD1 & Owolabi, Sunday Ajao PhD2 , Adegbie, Folajimi Festus Ph.D3
Integrated reporting capitals emerged to combine the historical financials with non-financials in a single report to increase the value relevance of financial statements because the traditional audited accounts have failed to satisfy the information needs of the investors. This study investigated the effect of integrated reporting on the performance of deposit money banks listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange. The study was designed as explanatory research for the population of 16 listed deposit money banks which formed the sample size. Secondary data obtained from the audited accounts and NSE daily official price list for the period of 2009-2019 were used. Multiple regression models were used to analyze the data. Findings revealed that integrated reporting had significant effect on: ROA at Adjusted R2 =0.0903, F- ratio = 3.83, (6, 165), P-value = 0.0013; P/E ratio at Adjusted R2 = 0.3395, F-ratio = 15.65, (6, 165), P-value=0.0000. The study concluded that integrated reporting had a significant effect on ROA and the P/E ratio. The study recommended that the Government and Central Bank of Nigeria should mandate the banks and other companies to adopt an integrated reporting framework.
IFRS adoption and evaluation of total asset contribution to financial performance of listed insurance companies in Nigeria and South Africa
Adebawo, O. Owolabi PhD. & Adebawojo, A. Oladipupo PhD.
The international diversity which form the basis of differences observed in the financial reports produced by various countries of the world have hindered cross border investment opportunities hence, the need for harmonization of accounting standards and the eventual convergence on International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS). This study seeks to evaluate the effect of IFRS adoption and contribution of total assets to financial performance of listed insurance companies in Nigeria Stock Exchange (NSE) market and Johannesburg Stock Exchange(JBS) market, South Africa between 2001 and 2018. Ex-post facto research design was adopted and secondary data were obtained from the audited financial statements of the companies. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 5 insurance companies out of the population of 25 quoted on NSE market. While 5 were also selected from the population of 8 leading insurance companies operating in Johannesburg. Pooled OLS model with the aid of stata computer software were used to analyze the data. The findings reveals that, the total assets of insurance companies in both Nigeria and South Africa have significant contributions to the profit after tax at P≥0.000 at both pre and post adoption of IFRS. Furthermore, the extent of similarities of local accounting standard to IFRS determines the level of changes in dependent variable explained by the independent variable. Hence, for Nigeria, Adjusted R2 is 14% while South Africa is 82%. The study will assist the accounting standard setters (IASB) and insurance regulatory bodies by providing them with veritable tools to formulate appropriate standards and policies to tackle issues that may arise from post adoption of IFRS. It is a useful contribution to the body of knowledge upon which the foundation for future research in this area can be laid.
Synthesis, Optimization and Characterization of Bioplastic from Cornstarch Reinforced with Sugarcane Bagasse Cellulose Fiber
Gadissa Mosisa Gobana
Plastics are made into an array of important products offering significant consumer benefits, they can also litter the environment and harm ecosystems; notably, plastic waste constitutes the majority of ocean debris. There is an increasing need for biodegradable plastics because they are environmentally friendly and can replace petroleum-based non-degradable plastics which pollute the environment. Petroleum based polymers are not sustainable as they depend on depleting fossils. This work investigated the effect of bagasse (sugarcane byproduct) fiber weight fraction on starch based composite. This study also explored the potentials of sugar cane cellulose fiber and starch for bioplastic productions. The effect of oven drying and starch-cellulose fiber ratio was also studied. The experimental design was employed using design expert 7.0 with two factor three level central composite designs (CCD) including five replicates at the center point of optimization study requiring 13 experiments on the 3 responses were analyzed namely tensile strength, water absorption and elongation at break. Results have shown that the addition of cellulose fiber (5 wt%, 10 wt% and 15 wt%) to selected gram of corn starch(5g), the value obtained were for tensile strength (13.27MPa, 24.45MPa and 22.18MPa, respectively), water absorption (36.90, 23.6 and 24.01% respectively) and elongation at break (20.25, 5.268 and 9.58% respectively), these values are the averages of replication treatment. Starch-derived bioplastic reinforced with cellulose fiber at the optimal point of the responses namely tensile strength, water absorption and elongation at break, which are biodegradable, have been prepared and characterized for FTIR, compound microscope, Transparency, solubility, and density. From the analysis of experimental results the maximum and minimum value of tensile strength (26.81 and 11.55MPa), water absorption (39.02% and 20.45%) and elongation at break (25.99% and 4.32%) was obtained respectively. Results obtained under optimal condition were found that Transparency of reinforced bioplastic reduced by 5% with respect to the control. Also its solubility decreased from (14.78% to 10.17%) while density was increased from (1.059g/ml to1.069g/ml). Evidence of the existence of strong interactions between the starch matrix and the cellulose fibers was revealed from detailed Fourier Transform Infra-red and compound microscopic evaluation.
Effect of Financial Instability on Economic Growth: Evidence from Selected East and Southern African Countries
Temesgen Furi, Wondafarahu Mulgeta & Badassa Wolteji
This study examines the effect of financial instability on economic growth in Eastern and Southern African countries using Dynamic Panel-Auto Regressive Distributed Lag model, and sample 11 countries for the of period 1995-2019. The study used Credit to GDP gap ratio and financial instability index as proxy variables of financial instability. The Dynamic fixed effect estimator applied in the context of Panel-Auto Regressive Distributed Lag model reveal that financial instability index, money supply to GDP ratio and external debt to GDP ratio affects economic growth negatively in the long run at 1 percent level of significance, while remittance, population growth, capital formation and government consumption expenditure had positive effects on long run economic growth. Hence, the Central Banks supposed to improve control financial instability variables in line with the economies capacity through effective monetary and fiscal policy to reduce financial instability, debt burden and money supply to GDP ratio to promote economic growth. Providing identification cards that allow migrants access to financial institutions abroad, monitoring of remittance inflows, developing retail payment systems for households that help stabilize finance will increase economic growth in the regions. Moreover, creating positive investment climate through stable political, and macroeconomic environment are a potential for increasing capital formation and government consumption expenditure to increase economic growth in the long-run.
Multiple Intelligences and Work Styles
Mark R. Escobar1 & Danilo S. Vargas2
The primordial objective of this study was to determine the correlation between the multiple intelligences, work styles, and demographic attributes of the teacher-respondents. This study utilized the descriptive method of research.Data were collected using a questionnaire.Respondents of the study were high school teachers. When the respondents are grouped according to age, most of the teacher respondents are in the age range of twenty-six – thirty (26-30) which is 27.5%.Female teacher-respondents dominate the forty (40) sample size which is 60.0%.Most of them had teaching experience of 6-10 years,have master’s degrees. They have interpersonal intelligence followed by bodily-kinesthetic intelligence and mathematical-logical intelligence. The lowest are linguistic, musical, and intrapersonal intelligence.The work style of the teacher-respondents is geared towards autonomy with few references in leadership and managerial orientation.In general, findings revealed that there is no significant relationship between multiple intelligences and demographic attributes of the respondents,whilethere is a significant relationship between the multiple intelligences of the teacher-respondents with their work styles.
Communicating Behind Bars Under Pandemic (Covid 19) Conditions
Monica G. Buenaventura1 , Parson N. Hail2 & Danilo S. Vargas3
This study aimed to determine how inmates in San Jose City Jail manage to maintain a healthy relationship with their respective families amidst being incarcerated under pandemic (Covid 19) conditions.The researcher utilized a set of questionnaires to obtain data. Fifty respondents were selected via simple random sampling, while the interview schedule technique was employed to gather data as well. Descriptive statistics were used to interpret the data All the respondents were male. The majority of them were single and Roman Catholic. Their common age range is from 28-37 years old, 12 among the respondents were high school graduates, 37 of the respondents used tagalong language, and 25 of the respondents’ cases are about drugs.Regarding their communication medium, they all used television, and 29 of the respondents used it often. And out of 50 respondents, 39 of them did not useradios, 28 did not use newspapers, 42 did not use magazines, 33 did not use flyers, 44 used cellphones (for public use) and 28 of them used it very seldomly.Most of the respondents were visited very seldomly.While others were visited once a week, every Sunday, very often, every other day. Other respondents had no visits at all for some reason. Some of them were visited by their families especially their mothers, fathers, and children.The common topics every visiting hours were all about family affairs which are 58% of the respondents. Being industrious, thrifty, submissive, had long patience, dealing with inmates, repentance for their misdeeds, became god-fearing, and learning to pray were the changes of inmates in communicating now that they are in jail. By daily calls, the love, trust, understanding, care, respect for the families of inmates are still there. Also, inmates obey advice, and every visiting hour only happy moments while inmates do not make their family feel stressed are the ways of inmates to restore and maintain a healthy relationship with their families amidst being faced with the challenges of communicating behind prison bars. By visiting the inmates and if they are not able to visit, by calling, they give extra support and give what they need in jail like money and food. This makes inmates feel that they are still cared for and loved. Showing and telling inmates that their case is in progress makes inmates feel cared for. Every visiting hour, their families giving long buttireless preaching is the way of the family of inmates to restore and maintain a healthy relationship with the inmates even if faced with the challenges of communicating behind prison bars.
Pandemic Era (Covid-19) and Higher Education in the Philippines Against The World Perspective: A Literature Survey Analysis
Gil M. Parentela1 and Danilo S. Vargas2
The objective of the study is to analyze the situation of Higher Education during the Pandemic Era of Covid-19 in the Philippines from the World perspective. The literature survey analysis is limited to published articles and studies. Literature survey analysis is a type of literature review aimed as broadly described, more or less systematic, way of collecting and synthesizing previous chosen researches supposed identified in accordance to a chose focus. Popular search engines were used browsing through ScienceDirect, Research Gate, and Web of Science were used to generate the information. This health emergency of Covid-19 raised to a pandemic level had changed and kept on affecting millions of lives of astounding magnitude with multidimensional implications. The pandemic placed the whole world into a standstill, interventions putting countries into a shutdown as most if not all nation’s leaders chose strict quarantine restrictions to all social and economic activities. Higher education is one social institution affected just the same as others. The safety of students, teachers and administrators were put at a priority thus forcing the entire educational system into a challenge of continuing the teaching-learning process without compromising the health conditions of everyone involved in the process. Alternatives were identified towards the more impersonal and indirect methodology of continuing the learning process. Online education, distance education, e-learning, and other alternative modes of learning delivery by any means necessary just to be able to continue on with the “new normal” in the academic institutions. Technology were more than welcome into this alternative models. The internet, social media applications, and even the more traditional television and radio were utilized to supplement the more popular ones. There were also revisions made in the curriculum being implemented to suit the “new needs” as required by the restrictions and challenges of students and teachers being safely tucked in their home environments. Teachers and learners were also made to adopt the more “impersonal” means of communicating and connecting making the most of the present strategies to work into their own advantages. New competencies for teachers to teach online and students developing new skills to survive the virtual learning models made available by most schools and universities.
Tax Assessment and Collection Problems of Category A Tax Payers: The Case of Gulelle Sub City Revenues and Customs Authority Branch Office in Addis Ababa City Administration
Aron Abraham Babulo (Ph.D Candidate) & Professor P.Viswanadham
Taxation is defined as government revenue to fulfill public necessities. Despite the fact that taxation is not favored by many, it is vital that it is understood because it forms a critical element of how a government affects the lives of its citizens. Governments of developing countries struggle to create modern tax systems. However most of these developing countries are burdened with weak tax administration and tax payers’ resentment towards taxes. The goal of this study is to investigate Tax assessment and collection problems regard to category “A” tax payers found in Gulelle sub-city. The researcher distributed questionnaires to selected tax payers and tax officers. In addition the researcher used in- depth interview with management bodies. The study was based on descriptive analysis. The findings indicated that most taxpayers lack sufficient knowledge of tax assessment and collection Procedures, rules and regulations. There is lack of clear, transparent and up-to- date information and training. Moreover, tax assessment and collection officers are inefficient and insufficient in relation to number of tax payers in the sub city, tax officers are non-motivated, lack adequate skills. Due to this and other factors mentioned in the analysis of this study, negligence, delay in tax payment and evasion are taken by taxpayers as solution to escape from payment. This study suggests that the tax authority should provide continuous training both for tax payers and tax office employees, use advanced information technology (IT), make the collection procedures simple and transparent, and strengthen legal enforcement and penalties. In general, the tax authority should try to ensure tax fairness and equity so as to encourage voluntary compliance behavior.
The Mediating Role of Perceived Usefulness in Mobile Payment Services Adoption in Ethiopia
Tolosa Dadi1, Didha Bacha2
The use of mobile payment systems becomes essential in assisting day-to-day transaction of users.The central objective of the study is to identify the mediating role of perceived usefulness in the effects of perceived compatibility, social influence, and perceived ease of use on intention to continue the usage of mobile payment services in Ethiopia, specifically in Adama City and District. A correlational cross-sectional survey research design was deployed. A quantitative survey wasalso used. The sampling unit for the study is individuals who wereusers of mobile payment services delivered by M-Birr and HelloCash. The sample size,406 mobile payment services users, was purposively selected from 1,796,595 M-Birr and HelloCash mobile money system users. SEM was considered to test the proposed study model.In view of that, the study results show that perceived usefulness has a statistical significant mediating role between the effects of perceived ease of use, perceived compatibility, and social influence on continuous usage of mobile payment services.
Determination of the Impact of Working Capital Management on Profitability: An Empirical Study from Manufacturing Firms of Sebeta Town, Oromia, Ethiopia
Shibiru Tade Kidane Jifar
This study aims to find out the impact of working capital management on profitability of firms in Sebeta town, Oromia regional state, Ethiopia. Return on asset used as proxy of profitability while average collection period (ACP), inventory holding period (IHP), average payment period (APP), cash conversion cycle (CCC) and current ratio (CR) were used as proxy for working capital management. Secondary data was taken for a period of thirteen years i.e. 2004-2016. Random Effect model was applied to the data. The results presented significant impacts. It is concluded that working capital management has negative significant impact on profitability of firms. Finally, the study argued that well- functioning working capital management plays a critical role in profitability and growth of manufacturing firms.
Assess the knowledge regarding food adulteration among house wifes
Mrs. U. Palaniyammal M.Sc (N) & Dr. Mrs. S.Malathi Ph.D (N)
A descriptive research study was conducted to assess the knowledge regarding food adulteration among housewives. Data were collected from 30 samples and the data obtained was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Highest 77% of them were in the age group of 31 – 40 years and lowest 3% of them were in the age group of 50 - 60 years. Higher 57% of them were belongs to non-formal education and lower 3% were belongs to secondary education. Highest 90% joint family was Hindu and lower 10% of them were Christian. Highest 100% were lived in urban areas. area wise distribution of mean, standard deviation and mean percentage of knowledge scores shows that the highest mean score(2.312.1) which is 38.3% of total score for the area introduction and the lowest mean score(0.42.48)which is 20% of total score for the area of testing on food adulteration .the mean score for the area (0.94.7) which is 22.5% of total score for the health impact on food adulteration.Overall percentage was 4.6 ± 24.5 which is 30.66 shows that housewives had average knowledge on food adulteration.
The Paradox of Non-Violent Movement in Covid 19 pandemic era. The study of 2020 #EndSARS# protest in Nigeria
Ogele, Eziho Promise
The study examined the paradox of the non-violence movement in the Covid 19 pandemic era with a focus on the #EndSARS# protest in Nigeria. Nonviolent protest is not limited to Nigeria but a universal phenomenon. It has been used against empires, foreign entities, and dictatorial regimes even in modern states. The #EndSARS# protest commenced with a demand for the dissolution of the Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS) unit in Nigeria occasioned by police brutality and other criminal activities alleged by Nigerian youth. However, the #EndSARS# protest coincided with the period of socio-economic challenges emanating from the Covid -19 pandemic lockdown. The peaceful protest later metamorphosed into violence arising from the shooting of the armless group protestants at Lekki tollgate in Lagos State by Nigerian soldiers. This extra-judicial killing triggered violence in some parts of Nigeria, andthe subsequent looting of undistributed palliatives stocked in secret locations in some states, destruction of government infrastructure, the killing of Police officers, burning of police stations, destruction of personal properties, among others. The paper adopted Gene Sharps theory of Power as its theoretical construct. The triangulation method of data gathering techniques were used. The study unravelled that the protest was hijacked by a secessionist group in some parts of Rivers State. Second, the increase in unemployment and socioeconomic challenges in Nigeria arising from lockdown contributed to the breakdown of law and order. The study recommends amongst others that the state should reform the security institutions and create jobs to positively engage Nigerian youth.
Natural Flavanones A Target in The Treatment of ADPKD
V. Chitra & T.Naga Varalakshmi
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease [ADPKD] is a genetic disorder in a very dominant pattern, where it shows number of cysts in urinary system. Symptoms may vary in severity; sometimes symptoms develop in late 30’s. These symptoms get worse with time and age. ADPKD is most frequently caused by changes within the Polycystic Kidney Disease [PKD1 and PKD2]genes and fewer typically by changes within the GANAB and DNAJB11 genes. In recent years, attention has been focused on the use of natural sources of antioxidants in the prevention of chronic diseases. Flavanones are the examples of such substances. Flavanones-rich products include citrus fruits, grapes, cherries, parsley, oregano, etc. Flavanones exhibit a wide range of uses, such as prevention of chronic diseases, including metabolic disorders, renal disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, etc. because of their beneficial effect on blood lipids, blood pressure, plasma glucose levels, stabilization of athetosclerotic plaque, some types of cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, some viral infections, cataract, erectile dysfunction and inflammatory bowel disease. Consumption of Flavanones with diet appears to be safe. There is a growing body of evidence that a diet rich in these substances is beneficial for health and its promotion is thus justifiable.
The impacts of company performance in real estate market during the time of Covid-19 pandemic
Zuhal Hussein & Shaimanarisha Kamarudin
The outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic shook the property markets that experienced an unprecedented risk and uncertainty. This study could be a primary arrangement to determine the pandemic impact on real estate company performance. This study investigates the sales trend of real estate companies and determine the impact and implication of pandemic Covid-19 oncompany performance. This study uses secondary and primary data as a tool for data collection. Secondary data was collected from 4 different real estate companies in Kelantan. Online interviews through Google Meet were conducted with eight respondents, including real estate employees at the officer and managerial position level. The results showed that the impacts of company performance include no income was generated during the pandemic, a declining demand and internet marketing will slow down the demand in the real estate sector. In conclusion, customers and real estate businesses should be ready for future disruptions through innovative technology
Macroeconomic Determinants of Commercial Banks Deposit Growth in Ethiopia: A Panel Analysis
Shibiru Tade Kidane Jifar
The study examined macroeconomic determinants of bankdeposits growthby using Fixed Effect model (FEM) of 10 commercial banks over the period thirteen years (2008-2020). The study used relevant data from a sampled commercial banks and national bank of Ethiopia. Co-integration test was applied to estimate long run correlation among dependent and independent variables. And the Johnson co-integration test showed that, there was long run co-integrating relationship among the variables.A unit root test was also approved out using Levin, Lin and Chu test and variables have no unit root at level and first difference at 5% level of significance. Hausman test was made and fixed effect model was appropriate rather random effect model for this study. Finally,FEM results bring out allmacroeconomic/external determinants significantly influence the deposits growth including GDP, INR, EXR, PCI and UNR of commercial banks in Ethiopia.
Effectiveness of Planned Nursing Interventions on the Management of Menstrual Hygiene among adolescent girls
Dr. (Mrs).S.Malathi Ph.D (N) & Mrs. U.Palaniyammal M.Sc (N)
A quantitative research approach of pre experimental with one group pre and post-test design was chosen for this study. By using purposive sampling technique a total of 100 samples were included for the study. The structured teaching programme was given by researcher. Pre and post test was conducted by structure questionnaire. Data were recorded and coded. The data analysis was done by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between pre and post-test knowledge and expressed practice scores regarding sanitary napkin among adolescent girls at level P<0.001.
Assessing Grade 9 Female students Participation in Mixed and Single Sex Groups in ELT Classes with Reference to Beriso Dukale Secondary School
Obsa Kebede Wakuma
This study was principally aimed to assess grade nine female students’ participation in mixed and single sex groups in ELT classes. The study utilized descriptive research design to elucidate credible data from the subjects. Mixed methods were employed to conduct the study.In the selection of sample population,availability and random sampling techniques were used. Seventy eight students with eight teachers were involved in the study. The instruments of data collection were questionnaire, interview and observation.Questionnaire was used to verify whether English teachers really treat female students in single and mixed sex groups to participate confidently in group discussion. Classroom observation was used to obtain direct information about the participation of female students and the actual practice of teachers in single and mixed sex group. Interview was used to supplement the questionnaire and observation data. Questionnaire data was analyzed using descriptive statics. Data from observation and interview were analyzed qualitatively. Findings of the questionnaire data indicated the great majority of the respondents claimed that the teachers did not treat and encourage female students in single and mixed sex groups equally to participate in group discussions. Besides, here there is no enough follow up to enhance the participation of female students in mixed sex as compared to single sex groups. Interview finding indicate that there are some factors that affect female students’ participation such as dominance of male students, self-confidence and background (cultural and social views). The findings call for all ELT teachers and stake holders participation to solve this problem.
Serological screening for toxoplasmosis in antenatal women in a rural teaching hospital
Anupriya A, & Prabhusaran N, Saraswathi R
Problem: Toxoplasmosis can cause significant morbidity and mortality in the developing fetus if the pregnant mother gets acute infection during pregnancy. Early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is essential to start appropriate treatment on time to reduce the transplacental transmission to the fetus.This study was therefore designed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic. Methodology:This study was conducted in a tertiary rural teaching hospital, near Trichy, Tamil Nadu, for a period of 3 months on 100 asymptomatic antenatal women. Three (3ml) of blood sample was collected and serum was separated and stored at -40oC until analysis. The IgM and IgG antibodies were detected using the Toxoplasma ELISA kit. Findings: The antenatal women who participated in the screening study belonged to the age group of 15-40. Most of the women belong to the age group of 21-25 (46%). Nearly 78% of women did not cross graduation. (80%) of women belonged to middle or lower middle socio-economic status and (66%) of women were from urban areas. The IgM and IgGseropositivity among the study group was 4% and 9% respectively. Conclusion: Congenital toxoplasmosis is a preventable disease, and this study emphasizes the importance of early prenatal serological tests, and preventive measures so as to avoid fetal disease. It should be mandatory to screen every immunocompromised patient and antenatal woman for toxoplasmosis.
Use of social media and its impacts on academic performance of female students in Ethiopian Higher Educations: the case of Jimma University
Tolossa Dadi & Mesfin Zewudu
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of social media on the academic achievement of female students at Jimma University. To achieve this objective, the researchers employ descriptive research design that consider survey methods and partly exploratory research design. 493 female students were randomly selected based on their Grade point Average by categorizing (1.75-2:00, 2.00-3.00 and 3.00-4.00). A questionnaire was distributed among 493 female students at colleges and institutes of the university in order to explore the influence of social media on their academic performance. Grade point averages of these students were also reviewed from the registrar to identify the impact of social media on their academic performance. The Collected data was analyzed and presented in terms of frequency, percentage, and mean score of statements by using SPSS version 20.0 software. Correlation was also done to show the relationship between Social Media Network usage rate and the variables of Grade Point Average. The results of the study indicated that students who often accessed social media sites for not academic purpose had lower grade point averages than students who sometimes and rarely visited social media sites. On the basis of the findings, the researchers recommended that the university instructors should encourage female students on using social media sites for academic purpose through online discussion, online assignment submission, online examination and evaluation. This is important to shift the idea of students from using social media for non-academic purpose to academic issue.
Investigating the relationship between students reading attitude and reading comprehension
Tadiwos Hambamo Makebo & Mebratu Mulatu Bachore (PhD) , Zeleke Arficho Ayele (PhD)
: This study examined the association of students’attitudes towardsreading with the comprehension performance of secondary school students in Ethiopia. The study was a correlational type. Its sample encompassed 100 students of grade 11.Reading attitude questionnaire were used as an instruments to measure attitude.Of the few sorts of attitude scales which might have been de-marked, the "Likert scale" type was picked due to its convenience and by and large high accuracy. The reading comprehension test, made up of comprehension passages adapted from Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) used to measure comprehension, and had reliability indices of 0.98 and reading attitude reliability indices, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.807. The analysis becomes carried out with percentages and Pearson product-moment correlation statistics. The findings revealed that respondents in the reading comprehension test have a mean value of 37.57, the median of 35 (55%) of participants. The result showed that 97% of the students had low comprehension. There was a weak positive correlation between students’ reading attitudes and reading comprehension test scores. It was statistically significant (r=.239, p<0.005). Predicted reading comprehension tests score 50.614. It means reading attitude influenced their achievement in reading score.
Gender Responsiveness of Jimma University Organizational Culture vs. JU Community Acknowledgment
Asnakech Demissie1 (PhD) & Tolossa Dadi2 (MA) , Bedilu Gebeyehu3 (MBA)
This project looked into the gender responsiveness of Jimma University organizational culture vs. the community Acknowledgment. It employed the Participatory Method of Gender Audit which is an insider self-assessment design that provides rooms for quantitative and qualitative data sources. The study employs students and staff survey, document analysis and observation to collect primary and secondary data. Survey findings showed that half to two-thirds of the participants have positive attitudes towards the gender responsiveness of the university organizational culture. However, documents and observation data revealed that only 32% of the students and 18% of the instructors were females; while, 64% of the admin staff was females. This reflected the imbalance access and the stereotypical gender roles effects in the university, since most of those admin females were labored and less paid cooks and cleaners. Besides, only 15.5% of the leaders and 11% of the mega researchers were females. The team analyzed the internal community survey, observations, as well as document analysis findings, and concluded that the university organizational culture responded gender inadequately. Thus the team recommended Jimma University legislation should be revised as much it can equally recognize both the male and female members, so that it can avoid systemic and hidden causes of gender gaps before designing the coming Strategic Plan.
The Principle of Autonomy of Letter of Credits: Its Justifications and Application under the Commercial Code of Ethiopia
Mulisa Mergo Bulto
Letter of Credit is an indispensable document in the international sale of goods. International sale of goods probably may be very cumbersome without this vital document. This article tries to critically analyze the principle of autonomy of letter of credits focusing on its justifications and applications under the commercial code of Ethiopia by employing doctrinal legal research methodology and analytical approach.The commercial code of Ethiopia is a domestic law that tries to address the issues of letter of credits in general and principle of autonomy of letter of credits in particular. However, the code is not congruent with and detail like international instruments dealing with letter of credits and its principle of autonomy—the Uniform Customs and Practice to Documentary Credits and Uniform Commercial Code. This has an impact on international sale of goods to which Ethiopia is a party and hence this call for revision of the pertinent provisions of the commercial code of Ethiopia.
Analyze of Factor Affecting Development of Primary Agricultural Cooperatives, The Case of Bule Hora District, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
Haile Tamiru & Amenu Leta
Agricultural cooperative is an essential weapon for development and it played important role to facilitating the market power of producers and marketing of seeds and seedlings. However, the contribution of agricultural cooperative for economic development is not satisfactory like developed countries. The objective of this study was to assess factors affecting development of primary agricultural cooperative. A two stage sampling procedure was used. A total of 134 sample households were randomly selected from the district using probability proportional to size. Both primary and secondary data were used. The descriptive statics and logistic regression model were used to analyze the data. The result of descriptive show that 9% and 91% of respondent are female Agricultural cooperative and male Agricultural cooperative respectively.The result of logistic regression model identified that professional management, information, training , bylaws and planning of the respondents have positive and significant influence while committees,dividend and political interference have negatively significant influence development of primary agricultural cooperative societies.Therefore, to promote development of primary agricultural cooperative in the broad context, the professional management, information, training, bylaws committees,dividend and planning are involved and give attention to this important variables in development of primary agricultural cooperative are recommended.
Analysis of the Structure-Conduct- Performance of Wheat Marketing, The Case of Farta Woreda, South Gondar Zone, Ethiopia
Walelgn Yalew Beadgie
Wheat is widely grown as a major food and cash crop in Southern Gondar zone,is facing with problems of seasonal supply, pricefluctuations and inadequate information on production, marketing and consumption.These problems are more acute in urban areas. This research attempted to analyze the structure-conduct- performance of wheat marketing, the case of farta Woreda, South Gondar zone, Ethiopia with specific objective of analyzing the structure-conduct- performance ofwheat marketing in the area, assessing SWOTanalysis and identifying major participants and demonstrate marketing chains of wheat marketing in the study area. Primary data were collected from 154 wheat producers and 30 wheat traders.Based on multi-stage random sampling procedures both probability sampling and non-probabilitysampling procedures were followed to select six kebeles.Structured interview schedule and questionnaire was used for collecting the essentialquantitative and qualitative data from the sampled farmer respondents and wheattraders. To generate qualitative data, field observations; informal interview with keyinformants was conducted. The quantitative data were analyzed using descriptivestatistical tools and the S-C-P framework was used to meet this objective using market performance indicators, as of marketing margin analysis, marketing structure indicators, as of market concentration ratioand market conduct explanationof wheat market in the study area. The S-C-P model identified that the markets for wheat in the study area were non-competitivetype. The survey result indicated that urban retailers have higher marketingmargins which diminishes producers share more than other traders. Generally, wheatmarketing system in the study area seemed to be inefficient and underdeveloped. Thus,marketing system development interventions should be aimed at addressing both wheatproduction technological gaps and marketing problems.
Cooperatives as a Pathway to Economic and Social Development in National Economy of Ethiopia
Walelgn Yalew Beadgie
Traditional form of cooperative involved in Ethiopia society centuries ago in the form of Ideir and Eqube. Idir is used to provide social and economic insurance for the members in the events of death, accident, damages to property. Eqube is a traditional financial (saving and credit) cooperative formed voluntary. Modern form of cooperative started in Ethiopia in early 1960. Cooperative play a crucial role in economic and social development. Cooperative created approximately 82,074 job and generate approximately half billion Ethiopia birr wages during 2008. The participation of cooperatives in agro-processing, marketing and financial is increased. The social role of cooperative is promoted through voicing of common goals, enhance participation in value chains and protection of producer from unfair pricing. Cooperative also create opportunity for networking and working in partnership with other agencies. There are four tiers of cooperatives namely primary cooperatives, cooperative unions, cooperative federation & cooperative confederation. However, there are motivation for the regional government to establish regional cooperative federations. The south nation nationalities and people region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia recently establish the first regional farmer formed the regional federation of farmers’ grain marketing cooperatives. The cooperative policy is largely determined by the government and the role of cooperative union in making policy is currently minor as most of the cooperative union’s lack of the capacity to make independent decision. The functionality of cooperative is constrained by shortage in skill and human resource (especially in cooperative business development). It’s also constrained by shortage of capital and limited access to credit. Therefore,Efforts being made to support cooperative should be consolidated an in-depth study to understand the economic and social contribution of cooperatives.
Effects of Microfinance Services on Clients Socio-Economic Status: A Case of Community Development Microcredit Finance Company Limited (CDM) in Busika, Kalagala, Luwero District, Uganda
Ketty K. Bwambale and Danilo S. Vargas
Generally, the study aimed to determine the effects of CDM’s microfinance services on clients’ socio-economic status.This study covered 50 clients. These were selected through a simple random sampling method from a list of active and inactive beneficiaries of Community Development Micro-credit (CDM) finance company implemented by Francis Atuhaire in Busika, Kalagala sub-county, Luwero district, Uganda. Using the Input - Process - Effect Model (IPE) of Weiss (1972) modified to suit the purpose of this research, where qualitative and descriptive design was adopted. More than half of the respondents (56%) were male. With the mean age of 36. The majority were (66%) married,while, 72.0 percent were engaged in non-business occupations.Clients have agreed that their attitude towards debt does not affect them on acquiring loans from CDM with the highest mean of 4.10 of highly favorable description clients value debt as an important thing which should be paid back and with an overall mean of 3.72. CDM services which include: loan amount, collateral interest rate loan period, and capability building, the findings of the study have indicated with the overall mean of 3.65 that CDM finance services have increased clients’ income and also helped them to provide with the needs to their families. The study revealed the highest mean of 3.56 indicating that the system of group security for clients in accessing the loan is difficult to comply with, and with an overall mean of 3.25 clients rated the demand of collateral fair.It was observed that loans allow clients to be able to provide for their families, this was revealed with the highest mean score of 3.96 and overall mean of 3.81 with a description of agreement that they have achieved for their family basic needs and they have become more stable than before.There is an effect on health. At least some clients have been able to visit the health center because of the benefits from the company though they don’t have savings for an emergency. The study found out that age and education attainment is very important characteristics of the clients as a key in the successful loaning scheme. Mature people are more knowledgeable in terms of the experience of acquiring loans and they participate better in training and seminars conducted by CDM. Follow-up qualitative studies using other parameters should be undertaken to cover other people directly or indirectly affected/benefited by Community Development Microcredit Finance Co. Limited (CDM). Such follow-up studies should also include assessment of the internal services like the management, human resource, the economic gap between clients and the company’s personnel, the misconception the company has on its clients, removing impossible collateral for the low-income clients, and increasing the loan period for repayment so that clients have more time to work and earn their profit not only profit for the company; reducing the interest rate from 4% to the level of the rural poor; and other processes that may be involved in the company’s success that seem to be pressing the clients.
Human Resource Development Practices and Challenges in Tourism and Hospitality Industry of Ethiopia: Education and Training Perspective
Ayana Fiseha Zeleke , Belachew Kassahun Ayele & Molla Mengesha Sisay
This research examines the trend, current situation and challenges of human resource development practices in educational institutions and tourism and hospitality organizations in Ethiopia from education and training perspective.The main aim of the study is to draw out the implications for understanding of human resource development experience, and to highlight the performance problems.Qualitative research approach was employed. Secondary data and Interview were used to collect the information from representatives of Ministry of Culture and Tourism Bureau, Ministry of Culture and Education, TVET Agency, hotels, teaching staff, and students. Narrative and performance data analysis method was employed. The finding indicates that Ethiopian government has recognized the role of human resource development for economic development, and established human resource development strategies, policies and educational institutes that deliver training at different levels. Regardless of such effort, current supply of human resources does not satisfy the market demand of the country both in quantity. The major reasons of treats includelow level of economic development, Students back ground and the gap in quality of education, lack of clear control and coordination to run the training in the country, traditional employment practice, lack of teaching facilities and supplies, poor arrangement of internship and educational trip, and lack of pre-service and on the job training initiatives. It is suggested that government should reset policies, guidelines and strategic plan of human resource development, prioritize, implement and monitor activities, improve the existing institutional setups, and create encouraging environment for better investment in tourism and hospitality educational institutions. Stakeholders who are working in tourism and hospitality industry should work in cooperation to realize development of human resources in tourism and hospitality industry.
Determinants of Warehouse Management Performance: The Case of Habesha Cement Share Company
Abebayehu Haile & Prof. M. Uma Devi
This research contributed to the current trend of evaluating warehouse performance, with a focus on the Habesha Cement share Company. The warehouses were swamped by bad warehouse performance as a result of years of warehouse management performance in the Habesha cement Share Company.The research was conducted in this context, with the goal of evaluating and identifying determinants of the warehouse performance at Habesha cement Share Companyas a case study. Given this fact, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the determinants of warehouse performance (as measured by Edward Frazelle (2001) in terms of the four most commonly used dimensions: quality, reaction time, total warehouse cost, and productivity) in Habesha cement share company. A qualitative and quantitative or mixed method research strategy was used in this study. The researcher achieved this goal by administering a self-administered questionnaire on the four basic warehouse performance metrics using a Likert scale. In addition, the researcher will use both secondary and primary data collection methods. Because the total population is fewer than 100 (57), the researcher will conduct the study using the census method. The study used a descriptive research approach to evaluate determinants of warehouse management performance in Habesha cement Share Company. A total of 57 warehouse employees were taken as a study population. Frequency tables and percentages were utilized to describe the demographic information of respondents; descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviations of respondents' scores on all aspects were assessed to ascertain the determinants of Warehouse performance in the company. Finally based on the results of data analysis the researcher concludes that all performancedimensions of warehouse affects the warehouseperformance of Habesha cement Share Company.
The effect of open leadership on employees creativity: the mediating role of innovation orientation (a study on textile factories in Amhara region)
Minbiyew Mekonnen Dessie & Prof. N. Kishore Babu
In the dynamic business environments the survival and growth of enterprises would depend largely on their ability to promote entrepreneurial orientation among employees within their organizations. The main aim of this study is to investigate the mediating role of innovation orientation between open leadership and employees’ creativity. The study employed quantitative research approach through a cross sectional survey design. The target population of the study was employees of the textile factories chosen by using simple random sampling technique. Data were collected using a five point Likert scale questionnaire,descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze. The direct and indirect effects are tested by using structural equation modeling. The finding revealed that innovation orientation has a partial mediation positive effect between the relationship of open leadership and employee’s creativity in factories and the firms should have open leaders that can foster innovation orientation, employee’s creativity that flourish significant innovative organizational culture to survive and expand in today’s volatile business environment.
Distributive justice and organisational commitment: the mediating role of job satisfaction
Yilak Alamrew Fentie & Prof.N. Kishore Babu
The relationship between distributive justice, work satisfaction, and organisational commitment was investigated using job satisfaction as a mediator in this study. Organisational justice, which is based on the principle of equality, has a significant role in molding employee behaviors, which is seen to be a factor of job satisfaction and organisational commitment. This study comprises of 368 respondents, all of whom worked for the University of Gondar and data was gathered via a questionnaire and analyzed using tables and SEM (structural equation modeling).Findings of this study have revealed that distributive justice has a significant positive effect on job satisfaction and in turn job satisfaction has a significant positive effect on organisational commitment. The research result has also confirmed that job satisfaction fully mediates the relationship between distributive justice and organisational commitmentwhich means that distributive justice has significant indirect effect on organisational commitment through the mediator variable namely job satisfaction. The more you try to keep your employees happy, the more they will be able to give back to their businesses and thus organisations should design policies and update implementation methods in order to satisfy their workers which in turn affect their commitment.
Evaluation of quality of life of children with haemophilia and their parents coping at haemophilic society: a systematic review
. S.Bhavani , Dr. M. Navaneetha .& Dr. Sr.Mony ,Dr. S. Malarvizhi ,Dr. S.Sujatha ,MS.Saritha
Background: A child’s diagnosis of hemophilia is actually life-changing in its consequence on both the child and the parents, who face a future of controlling bleeding risk during which trying to supply the child and his siblings with as normal a life as possible. Aim: The aim of this systematic review was to summarize quality of life of children with hemophilia and coping approaches used by parents of hemophilic children, identify which tools are most frequently used to measure quality and coping strategies in parents of hemophilic children and report on outcomes of quality of life of hemophilic children and coping strategies in parents of hemophilic children. Method: we searched for articles indexed in PubMed, Web of science, Psyc INFO, and CINAHL database using a combination of expressions including “Quality of life” AND “Hemophilic children” OR “Coping AND ‘‘Parents”. Results: Six empirical studies were identified as relevant to our research. Several types of tools are used to assess quality of life of hemophilic children and coping strategies in parents of hemophilic children. We found that the relation between quality of life and hemophilic childrenparents of hemophilic children used more functional coping styles. The most widely used strategy parents of hemophilic children appears to be positive coping behaviors. Conclusions: This review underlines that quality of life is impaired in hemophilic children and in hemophilic parents which many aspects of life are affected.However, providing care can be rewarding and program of support, education and suitable treatment improve the well-being of quality of life of children with hemophilia and their parents coping at hemophilic children.
Strategic Management in Ethiopian Public Higher Education Institutions: Assessing the practices and Challenges
Ali Hussien Edris & Professor B.Mohan Venkata Ram
: Several studies have reported that the practice of strategic management benefits organizations in many ways. In recent years, almost all types of organizations have recognizedtheir importance. Ethiopian public higher education institutions were among institutions that recently embarked on strategic management practice. However, how strategic management practice is carried out determines success or failure. This study aimed to assess the practice and challenges of strategic management in the north-cluster public universities of Ethiopia. A mixed methods research design was utilized to better describe the status of strategic management practice and its challenges. Quantitative data were collected by applying a cross-sectional survey using a self-developed five-point Likert scale questionnaire. It was administered to 365 randomly selected respondents, including academic staff and leaders from the targeted universities. Data was collected using SPSS version 25. Descriptive statistics like the mean, standard deviation, and percentage were used for the analysis of quantitative data. Qualitative data were collected through a semi-structured interview guide from academic leaders. The results of the quantitative and qualitative analysis of this study demonstrated that both the leadership and academic staff of the selected universities had a favorable attitude toward the adoption and application of SM. The environmental scanning and strategy formulation phases of SM development attracted significantly more attention than the other two phases, strategy implementation, and strategy evaluation. Furthermore, the results indicated that the efforts made to institutionalize SM were inadequate and required attention from the institutions' leadership. Finally, the targeted universities' efforts to adopt and implement SM were hampered by a variety of challenges, including a lack of resources, a lack of leadership, a lack of management buy-in, an overemphasis on tools and techniques, frequent policy changes from the government side, staff turnover, a lack of ability to create and use change champions, and a lack of follow-through.
Virtual Call-Out: The Aggressions and Advantages of Cancel Culture
Erika Denise C. Placio, Danilo S. Vargas, & Maria Adrielle S. Estigoy
In the study “Virtual Call-Out: The Aggressions and Advantages of Cancel Culture”, the researcher gathered and interpreted data and information about the six cancel culture victims through content analysis. The results show that 1) act of discrimination and own political stance are the causes why victims are canceled; 2) cancellation started in July 2019 and continue until September 2020; 3) the bashing, unsubscribing, and demands on job removal are the manner of netizens in canceling the victims; 4) netizens type of cancellation in social media are criticizing, educating, and sympathizing with the victims; 5) victims handle the cancellation by focusing on positive people, ignoring the bashers, social media detachment, and admitting accountability; 6) on its impact to their career/livelihood, victims stopped content creating, has ruined reputation, job removed, while some are more motivated to work; 7) on its personal effects, victims have undergone depression but gain enlightenment, and while one attain higher self-esteem 8) lastly, the social issues raised in the cancellation are about shaming, political stance, exercising privilege, toxic positivity, and racism.
Pandemic (Covid 19) Lockdown in Kuwait and Human Resource Management Emergency Policy Intervention
Lorna Del Rosario & Danilo Vargas
This study assesses the emergency policy intervention of the Human Resource Department (HRD)at the employee's housing during the Curfew and Pandemic Lockdown in Kuwait. In this case, the study applies interviews using a structured questionnaire and observation. This study is a qualitative study that primarily uses interviews and observations. Interview and observations are used to gather some feedback from the respondents while comparing the regular or normal-day protocol and emergency protocols in the employees’ housing. The researcher makes use of the total population sampling as a type of purposive sampling. The respondents’ demographics show that majority are mature employees who have reached their level of expertise in doing the right things for the right reasons in policy execution that contributed to the success of their policy execution. The Disaster Risk and Reduction Team (DRRT) regarded the implementation to be responsive since the majority of the employees abide by the policies and that, the housing is not infiltrated by the virus. The role of HRD is vital in Risk management. HRD plans according to considerations, primarily in the promotion of the welfare of its people. It serves as the backbone of policy planning, while the DRRT serves as the frontlines of the housing. They are the implementor of the plans served by HRD. Yes, there is a significant relationship between the emergency policies and the safety of employees. It is the policies that limit the actions of the employee actions that are distinctive during the regular free-pandemic days. Without the emergency policies, the safety of the employees may be at risk that could probably infect employees in the organization and cause the rise of COVID – 19 patients in the country.
Experiences of Conflict Resolution in Oromo Gada System as a Framework to Peacemaking in Public Universities in Oromia (Ethiopia)
Solomon Dessalegn Negash
The article attempted to explore, interpret and understand the principles & experiences of peace in Oromo Gada system and develop a working conflict resolution framework that contribute in mitigating student conflicts in the public universities in Oromia national regional state of Ethiopia. Key informant interviews and FGD were employed to gather primary data which was substantiated by secondary data. The obtained data were analyzed and interpreted to construct conflict resolution framework in the context of indigenous Oromo conflict resolution mechanisms. Despite the top down formal conflict resolution and peacemaking attempts,conflicts in public universities were common in Oromia (Ethiopia). The government anduniversities gave less or no consideration for thegrassrootsegalitarian conflict resolution approach developed in the Oromo Gada system as an alternative solution. The center of Oromo Gada system conflict resolution was the disruption of social order caused by conflicts and any peacemaking process was also rationalized from the point of re-installing peace and order. Likewise Oromo Gada system conflict resolution &peacemaking experiences could serve as an alternative conflict resolution mechanismto public university student conflicts in the national regional state of Oromia (Ethiopia).
The impact of business environment on firm growth: an explanatory Study of micro and small enterprises in three cities of Oromia, Ethiopia
Eshetu Ayano Tulu & Professor M. Prassada Rao
Small businesses are critical to attaining the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including eradicating poverty and achieving gender equality. They contribute to local economies by generating revenue and creating jobs. The Ethiopian Government's current MSE Development Strategy aims to foster equitable development, raise incomes, and reduce poverty by increasing job opportunities. However, several reasons hinder the growth of small firms, making it difficult to reach the goal. The study's main goal is to discover the factors in the business environment that influence the growth of micro and small firms in three cities in Ethiopia's Oromia region. Two hundred eighty-six(286) enterprises are chosen from the three cities using a cluster sample technique, and data is collected using schedules. The study employs both univariate and bivariate data analysis approaches. The frequency table, percentages, and the meanare used to present the collected data. An independent sample t-test is used to determinewhether there is a significant difference between variousenterprises groups. The study's findings revealed that the growth rate of employment in micro and small enterprises in the three cities is significantlydetermined by the demand for products/services of enterprises and the supply of raw materials. Manufacturing enterprises have a higher raw material supply problem than enterprises in other sectors. Entrepreneurial role models and market competitionalso impactthe employment growth rate in micro and small enterprises in the three cities.On the other hand, power supply has no effect on the growth rate of employment in micro and small businesses in the three cities.
Monitoring Urban Spatial Growth Using Geospatial Technology
Dr. Aruna Paarcha
The global population is increasing at an alarming rate in urban areas. More than 50 per cent of the world population lives in urban areas. However, the levels of urbanization would vary across countries. India is anticipated to become the world’s most populated country by 2025, superseding China. Urban population in India, has also substantially increased over the past decade, thus, urbanization is one of the imperative demographic challenges in the 21stcentury in our country. To analyze the process of growth in the study area methods such as Shannon’s entropy and Spatial metrices have been used with the help of geospatial technology. The dynamics of Land use and cover indicated the active rapid growth in the built-up area in the study region from 2001 to 2017. The study region witnessed a rise in the built-up area from 19.64 percent in 2001 to 30.77 percent in 2011 and continued to rise to reach 35.19 percent of the total area in 2017. Over the time period of 2001 to 2017, the analysis highlighted that the process and its densification have mostly occurred in the surrounding areas of the city and with the time it has gradually moved out from the core of the city to the peripheral areas.
Assessment of proportional magnitude on developmental delay among preterm children attending paediatric OPD of selected Hospital of Puducherry
Mrs. Sarasu Dhananjayan, Dr. Sujatha sugumar , & Mrs. Bhavani Sudhagar
Introduction: Growth and development is a fundamental feature of children. Growth and development purely depends upon the fulfillment of his basic needs of children. It must be satisfied for higher growth. Human development is the process of growing to maturity. Development is a lifelong process of physical, behavioral, cognitive and emotional growth and change. In the early stages of life from babyhood to childhood, childhood to adolescence and adolescence to adulthood enormous changes takes place. Throughout the process each person develops attitudes and values that guide choices, relationships and understanding. It’s important to keep a careful assessment on premature child’s development because there is also a need to check the development of the preterm children based on their corrected age to have accurate data and to follow their health status. Objectives: 1.To describe the proportional magnitude of developmental delay in preterm children.2.To associate the development of preterm children with selected demographic variables. Materials and methods: The design adopted for this study was quantitative descriptive design. The study was conducted in Paediatric OPD, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences. Population was preterm children in age group of 3months to 3 years of age. Samples were preterm child attending Paediatric OPD PIMS .Convenience sampling technique was used to select the participants for the study. Fifty preterm children attended Pediatric OPD were recruited for the study. The tools used for data collection were demographic variables and standardized tool Trivandrum Development Screening Chart and Language Evaluation Scale Trivandrum. Results: The findings showed that 2% delay in Trivandrum development screening chart and 12%delay in Language evaluation scale Trivandrum. There was significant association with birth weight of preterm children and delay in their development. The study finding reveals that early identification of delay is possible by using screening tool. And it will helps in early intervention for the children. Conclusion: The study finding reveals that early identification of delay is possible by using screening tool. And it will helps in early intervention for the children.
The Difference in the Economic Status of Farm FamiliesBefore and After Implementation of Infrastructure Development Projects in the Second District of Nueva Ecija, Philippines
June Vana, Danilo Vargas , Chrysl A.Vallejo ,Pablo Rafael , Parson Hail & Jocelyn Dollente
In general, the study aimed to determine thedifference in the economic status of farm families before and after the implementation of infrastructure development projects in the second district ofNueva Ecija, Philippines.This study used a descriptive-quantitative correlation design.A total of 3 key informants and 90 farm families head composed of the respondents. A survey questionnaire was prepared as an instrument in gathering the required information.The mean of 51.69 years old signifies that most of the respondents' ages were at the prime working age. A majority (95.70%) of the households were headed by male farmers and had no other source of income other than farming. Job created, support services, and access to financial and market institutions by the respondents are significantly different before and after the implementation of the infrastructure projects. The level of adoption of rice production technologies registered a significant difference. However, vegetable production technologies registered no significant difference in the level of adoption before and after the implementation of the infrastructure projects. Farm inputs investment and profitability for rice and vegetable production before and after the implementation of the infrastructure projects in the first and second cropping seasons do not have a significant difference. While the net income registered a significant difference in two cropping seasons before and after the implementation of the infrastructure projects. The development of the infrastructure brings no significant difference with their livestock and vegetable production. On the other hand, rice production increases after the development of the infrastructure.Base on the results of the study the following recommendations are formulated:Continue the implementation of the infrastructure development especially to rural communities to spur the development of the communities; Consider the needs of the community when constructing infrastructure to address the needs of the residence in terms of infrastructure development; Connect the infrastructure development to other agencies like financial, market, health, education, extension services, transportation, labor, and employment for a more integrated development rural development program.
Business environment requirements and their impact on the growth of entrepreneurship in Iraq
Dr.Wisal Abdullah Husain & Dr. Nagham Hussein Neama
Globally: Entrepreneurship has an important role in economic growth, being a gateway to diversifying sources of income, and a mechanism for reducing unemployment rates by providing job opportunities and absorbing human energies, in order to achieve the best investment of economic resources, in a way that works to achieve a state of economic balance. The most important objectives of the research are to diagnose the requirements of the appropriate entrepreneurial environment for the success of pilot projects in Iraq, and the most important challenges it faces, as well as clarifying the role of these projects in achieving economic development.The research reached a set of conclusions, the most prominent of which is the weakness of Iraq's position in the field of doing business compared to other countries within its regional and Arab surroundings, the inflexibility of the procedures required to launch pioneering projects.
Factors That Influence the Performance of Small Business Enterprises in Bale Robe City
Wondwssen Anberbir Demisse & Prof. M. Uma Devi
For their objective attainment. The overall objective of this study is to identify the problem that Identifying the factors that influence the performance of small business enterprise is essential influences the performance of small business enterprise with special emphasis on retailer shop, whole seller shop, hotels, cafeteria, barber, metal work and wood work in Bale Robe City Administration. This study would be useful for the owner of small business as well as trade and transport development department of the study zone and also provide useful information for researcher.The study was conducted by using primary data. Primary data it was collected by using questionnaire and unstructured interviewing of the manager of micro and small business enterprise agency in Bale Robe City Administration. The researcher used judgmental sampling technique and took a sample of 60 respondents out of 150 total owners of small business in Bale Robe City Administration. The result of the study elicited major challenges which seem to influence the performance of small business in the sub –city which includes: inadequate finance, problem of taxation, problem of product modification, lack of training program, and lack of government support, lack of market opportunities and lack of coordination, inadequate infrastructures development and poor management practice. From the above factor financial problem and unfair tax is the major bottle neck problem that prevents attainment of overall objective of the small business enterprise. In order solve the problem the Government, private and non-Governmental sector shall be participate in the development of small business enterprise by be spread source of financial opportunities, impose fair tax, prepare training program about product modification, Great coordination in the market, and arrange credit requirements and view banks and other credit institution interest.
Sustainable Tourism Development Practices and Challenges: Evidence from Bahir Dar as a Destination
Belachew Kassahun Ayele & Ayana Fiseha Zeleke & Solomon Mequanent Biwota
This article presents an analysis of the practices and challenges to sustainable tourism development in Bahir Dar as destination.Bahir Dar today is one of the best tourist attractions in Ethiopia, with its natural and cultural attractions. For this reason the study was carried out to identify the sustainable tourism development practices and challenges. It was found that the factors that have hinder as challenges to sustainable tourism development. The study involved personal observation, followed focus group discussion and key informant interview. Preservation and conservation of Tana biodiversity, conference activities, human resource development practice, construction of star rated hotels, and security were good activities for tourism sustainable, however poor local community participation, poor coordination of stakeholder, insufficient investment in sustainable tourism, absence of adequate tourist infrastructure, low awareness of sustainable elements, poor marketing and promotion strategy, and gender inequalities in tourism employment are challenging. Sustainable tourism development can be boosted and visible if a mechanism exists that guarantees the destination.
The Role of Indigenous Institutions in Conflict Resolution: -Abbagar in Focus, Wollo, Ethiopia
Haile Chuluke Digile & Mengesha Robso Wodajo
Ethiopia has been practicing various kinds of traditional conflict resolution mechanisms. This study was aimed at describing traditional conflict resolution mechanism called Abbagar, the dynamics of the process, its strength and weaknesses and also the challenges of the institutions of Abbagar in Habru District of North Wollo, Ethiopia. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative research approaches with the case study research design. Likewise, the study used both primary and secondary data that gathered through key informants interview, observation and focus group discussion via non-probable sampling techniques of respondents’ selection; and thematic analysis method of data interpretation. The finding reveals that traditional conflict resolution of Abbagar is important as it is better positioned to produce a win to win result which is instrumental for conflicting parties, time saving, less costly and vital for social stability, peace building, harmonious lives and interaction among communities of the study area.
Effect of double entry book keeping on small and medium scale enterprises (SMES) in Osun state, Nigeria
Dr. Olaoye, Clement Olatunji & .Ogunleye, Joshua Kehinde
This study examined the effect of double entry bookkeeping on small and medium scale enterprises in Nigeria. In doing so, the study sought to establish how books of account are kept in SMEs, examine the benefit of keeping double entry accounting records by SMEs, assess the relationship between double entry bookkeeping and growth of SMEs and problems that hinder the utilization of double entry account system by SMEs. The study employed a descriptive survey design in which a set of questionnaire was administered on the selected SMEs in Osun State. A sample of 120 respondents was selected using simple random sampling technique. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages and the data was analyzed using F-Statistic (ANOVA) run on Microsoft excel and SPSS. Findings revealed that many SMEs operation in Osun State maintain single entry system. The study also show that the adoption of double entry bookkeeping enhances performance of SMEs. The study further revealed that double entry book keeping enhanced SMEs growth as revealed by (F-Observed 29.97 and 12.23>F-critical 2.87 and 5.19) respectively. The findings also indicated that the SMEs owners faced various challenges in keeping double entry accounting records which include very expensive, lack of accounting knowledge, time consuming and payment of more tax. The paper concluded and recommend that government should put in place a mechanism to make sure that SMEs keep double entry books and prepare final accounts and training should be organized for SMEs operators on the application of double entry bookkeeping, to help keep proper accounting records.
A structural equation analysis of export marketing adaptation strategies on export performance: evidence from textile and garment exporting enterprises in Ethiopia
Sintayehu Assefa 1,*, Professor Abebe Ejigu 2 and Dr, Gemechu Nemera 3
The objective of this study was to examine the analysis of export marketingadaptation strategy on export performance ofexport companies based in Medium and large scale Textile and Garment Enterprises exporter in Ethiopia. Based on the purpose of the research and its application, the study is a descriptive – analytic one. In the current study, a questionnaire was used for research data collection to meet the study objectives and the population of the study includes 252 Textile and Garment Enterprises managers.For analysis, SmartPLS-3 was employed and the Model identified product, price, distribution and promotion export adaptation marketing strategy have positive and significant relation on export performancewith a significance level of 0.005, 0.001, 0.000, and 0.000 respectively. To sum it up, the result of this study to exporting firmsspecifically to Textile and Garment Enterprises and policy makers should also develop export adaptation marketing strategy to improveenterprises success.
Awareness of police and policing: an inquiry of peoples awareness of crime reporting for crime control in Southern Senatorial Locale of Cross River State, Nigeria
Charles Chukwudi Ezikeudu1*, Chimaobi Okorie2, Felix Onen Eteng 3 , Jonathan Ikechukwu Opara 4
Clearly, this study was an assessment of public awareness of crime reporting to the police toward crime control. Cross-sectional survey study design, which comprised the use of qualitative and quantitative methods, was utilized. Raw data was amassed from 840 respondents from purposively chosen Local Government Area of the Southern Senatorial locale of Cross River State comprising 420 males and 420 females chosen from multistage probability and non probability sampling techniques. Questionnaire was the instrument of data collection which consisted of open along with closed-ended questions plus unstructured oral interview. Raw data were analysed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics based tool. To lead the study, a research hypothesis was worked out and tested with correlation statistics tool. The study revealed that public positive awareness of police and policing toward crime control has a significant relationship with victim crime reporting. The analysis showed the correlation coefficient of 0.845 indicating existence of strong positive relationship between police/policing work in victim’s crime reporting. The test was significant at 0.01 significant level and led to the rejection of the null hypothesis. The observed multiplicity of police practices that hinder crime reporting for sustainable crime control is a challenge. Hingedon that research finding, it was recommended that the police authority should as a matter of urgency comes up with a policy to do away with these practices that could influence crime reporting and hinder effective crime control as revealed from observable evidence in the study among others.
Adjusting to the New Normal: Exploring Alternative Learning Strategies for Development Communication Students
Andrea May C. Malonzo1; Chrysl Avegeil N. Vallejo 2 Danilo S. Vargas 3
Students enrolled in higher education institutions today belong to a generation cohort whose learning and communication behavior is dependent on interactive technology and are not always comfortable with traditional information transfer. In addressing these problems, the study implemented action research on the use of Blended Learning (BL) approach, utilizing different modalities such as web-based learning management systems, recorded video lectures, games, and face-to-face lectures, to deliver selected Development Communication subjects for 2ndsemester of A.Y. 2019-2020. The approach integrated synchronous traditional classroom meetings with asynchronous online activities/assessments which lets students learn at their own pace and choose what requirements they want to do first. Before the second half of the academic semester when the action research was implemented, the COVID-19 pandemic forced educational institutions in the Philippines to wrapup early. The objectives of the study were then modified to include determining alternative teaching and learning strategies for DevCom students given the “new normal”. Using the data from the BL approach, a Flexible Learning Strategywas formulated which categorized students based on their resources and capabilities for different learning modes.The overall experience of the students using the BL approach was relatively positive with 46.2% of the students rating their experience as positive. In accessing the internet, 66.2% of the students only rely on data connection through their smartphones. According to students, they prefer the use of Google Classroom more than Edmodo and Schoology as the interface of Google is more user-friendly. Traditional oral discussion, where the teacher would explain the lesson is still preferred.Advantages of the BL approach with the highest agreement from the students Is “ it is easier to review materials and repeat discussions when needed”.As for disadvantages, the highest statement with an agreement is that the cost of the internet is relatively expensive (4.32),Majority of the respondents said that both online and face-to-face should be integrated. Real-time video lectures can only be accessed by Type A and B students as an internet connection is needed.Pre-recorded video lectures can be uploaded online via video-hosting sites such as YouTube or via cloud storage. E-copy of module/handouts can serve as complement material for the lectures. Printed modules/handouts are also meant for Type D students who neither have an internet connection nor gadgets to view electronic materials.Although Development Communication students were able to experience online platforms using the Blended Learning Approach, the majority of them still do not like to do pure online distance learning. Hesitations to use online mode is mainly due to their lack of learning resources such as personal computers and internet connection. Moreover, their expectation of online learning was rooted in their blended learning experience which has the following features: (1) all course materials are available from the beginning of the semester, (2) learning is asynchronous, and (3) deadlines are flexible. The flexible learning strategy was patterned after the result of the BL evaluation and has considered the preferences of students.
Determinants and Sustainable Financing Mechanisms for Participatory Natural Resource Management in North Shewa of Oromia Region, Ethiopia
Teshome Kefale , Toleshi Wakjira
This study investigated personal, physical, and institutional factors affecting farmers’ participation in participatory natural resource management and sustainable financing mechanisms for participatory natural resource management practices in the North Shewa of Oromiya regional state. This will greatly inform efforts to bring down land degradation in the area. Thebinary logit model was estimated as analytical tools. The study is based on household-level data collected in 2020 from 396 randomly drawn households living in WaraJarso, GirarJarso, and HidabuAboteworeda. The logistic regression analysis indicated 7explanatory variables were significant in explaining the factors influencing the farmers’ decision to participate in participatory natural resource management programs. These variables were gender, agricultural labor force, extension service, farm size, and slope, level of education, productive safety net program, and livestock ownership. Of these, Farm size, agricultural labor force, agricultural extension services, access to credit, educational status, and status safety net program indicated positive influence, while gender and slope exerted negative impact. The study identified introducing PES in watersheds in the zone, REDD+ Project, and Forest Management and PES in Water Supply of towns in the study area could be suitable for a sustainable financing mechanism for participatory natural resource management in the study area. The result of the study suggests working on raising the awareness of farmers’ about the long-term benefits of the participatory natural resource management and to design a strategy to diversify their livelihoods.
Analysis of Smallholder farmers coffee production efficiency in the Gedeo zone of southern Ethiopia
Wendmagegn Belete Debele and B. Lilly Grace Eunice (Phd)
Despite coffee being considered a strategic crop in Ethiopia, its production system is attributed to low productivity, an average of 6(six) qt/ha, far from the potential. Moreover, in most developing countries like Ethiopia, resource reallocation and new technology creation and adoption are impossible; improving agriculture production efficiency remains the only reasonable option to increase productivity. This study, therefore, focused on the technical efficiency of smallholder farmers in Gedeo zone, one of the major coffee-producing areas in southern Ethiopia. Data were mainly collected from 205 coffee farmer households through a survey in 2021 and analyzed using the FRONTIER 4.1 application. In addition, the Cobb-Douglas stochastic production was estimated. As a result, it revealed that the mean technical efficiency of the sampled coffee farmers is 62%, with maximum and minimum efficiency scores of 82% and 20%, respectively. Finally, a Tobit regression was employed to analyze the determining factors of the coffee production technical efficiency and resulted in the household education level, the farm soil fertility, size of a coffee farm and the farmer’s frequency of extension contacts were important significant factors to determine the farmers coffee production technical efficiency in the study area.
Effects of Metacognition on the Learning Outcomes of Biology Student sinSecondary School sinDelta State, Nigeria
Chukwuka, Rita Ewere
This study examined the effects of meta-cognition on the learning outcomes of biology students in secondary schools in Delta State, Nigeria. The study was a pretest-posttest control group quasi-experimental study. The study population comprised all biology students in public senior secondary schools. Using a stratified random sampling technique, the study sample was three hundred and sixty (360) biology students drawn from six (6) schools. The Biology Learning Outcomes Test (BLOT) and Metacognitive Prompt were used to aid data collection. Data gathered were analysed employing mean, standard deviation and t-test. The study’s major findings are that; there is significant difference between the posttest of biology students instructed with the meta-cognitive method and those instructed with the lecture method. Furthermore, there is no significant statistical difference between female and male biology students’ posttest marks with meta-cognitive strategy. Thus, the study concluded that meta-cognition is a major variable that affects biology students’ learning outcomes in secondary schools. The study recommends that the government, through the Education Ministry, should train teachers to acquire the meta-cognitive skill to help them teach more effectively, efficiently and make the teaching-learning process more meaningful and, as a result, improve biology students learning outcomes.
Determinants of growth orientation: an explanatory study of micro and small enterprises in three cities of Oromia, Ethiopia
Eshetu Ayano Tulu & Professor M. Prassada Rao
The importance of micro and small enterprises (MSEs) to economic growth is now widely acknowledged in many nations. The significance of the MSE sector to overall employment, entrepreneurship, and innovation in both developed and emerging economies cannot be overstated. But all small businesses are not equally beneficial to the economy of countries. The growth orientation of businesses determines their contribution to the economy of nations. Scholars typically advocate for high-growth or growth-oriented firms instead of survivalist firms since they are considered growth engines. The studyis aimed at identifying owner/manager as well as enterprise characteristics that influence the growth orientation of micro and small enterprises in three cities of Oromia, Ethiopia. Two hundred eighty-six (286) micro and small enterprisesselected from the three cities are included in the study. The logistic regression analysis technique is employed to identify the factors that influence the growth orientation of the enterprises. The result indicated owner/manager gender, age, level of education, and business experience significantly impact the growth-orientation of micro and small enterprises in the three cities. The study clarifies that the likelihood of owning/managing a growth-oriented enterprise decreases for every year increase in enterprise owner/manager age.Possession of a written business plan and enterprise capital also significantly impactsthe growthorientationof the enterprises. Therefore, enterprises in the three cities have to work towards increasing their capita.
Financial deepening and health outcome in Nigeria
*Ugherughe, Joseph Ediri Ph.D.,& Akakabota, Eta Edward Ph.D. and Alagba, Ogheneochuko Samuel Ph.D.
The study looked at the impact of financial deepening on Nigerian health outcomes. To achieve this research objective, relevant data was sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) statistical bulletin and the United Nation Development Programme (UNDP) Database for the period from 1986 to 2018. The study used life expectancy at birth (LEAB) as a proxy for health outcomes as the dependent variable and the ratio of Broad Money Supply (M2) to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the ratio of Credit to the Private Sector (CPS) to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the ratio of Total Deposit (TD) to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and the ratio of Total Loan (TL) to Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Furthermore, specific characteristics of a country, such as the inflation rate and lending interest rates, were introduced as independent variables that cannot act alone. The results of the ordinary least square results show that the F-statistics and probability of the independent variables have a positive, significant impact on the dependent variable. The coefficient of determination, R2, is 86%, indicating that the estimated model has predictive power, and the Durbin-Watson statistic is close to 2, indicating that serial autocorrelation does not exist in the estimated model. The study thus recommends, among other things, that the government continuously reform the financial sector, the private sector to improve employee health, increase money supply while keeping inflation in mind, and make the money market more investment oriented and friendly by limiting lending interest rates to one digit, as seen in the world's economies.
Flexible Working Arrangements (FWAs) in Unstable Times: An Exploratory Discourse on Current Changing Employment Contexts
Austin-Egole, Ifeyinwa Stella1, Iheanacho, J.I.2, Ezeji, N. R.3, & Okafor, Henry, Ikenna4
Organizations today are facing tremendous competing challenges as they continue to navigate the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the world of work which disrupted work stability and resulted in an unprecedented global loss of working hours. These challenges facilitated by globalization are tackled by these organizations with a spirit of reinvention— continuous accelerated advancements in technology and digital transformation and establishment of variable work arrangements. Work, enabled in part by technology is evolving and currently becoming increasingly non-traditional resulting in the emergence of new trends. These new forms of employment known as flexible working arrangements (FWAs) can expand choice in terms of where, how and when people work. This paper embraces analytical discussion of secondary data anchored on Self Determination Theory (SDT) as its theoretical framework to assess to what extent these flexible working arrangements have become adopted and their efficacy in current unstable times while considering the demographics of today’s employees. The analysis focuses on how key megatrends such as new forms of work organisations, technological progress and digital transformation, globalisation and demographic change are not only affecting the employment contexts currently and possibly in years to come but are alsore-shaping the labour market. It is recommended that in current unstable times, organisations should adopt flexible working arrangements since it helps employees both in balancing their work-life, and in performing optimally. Finally, based on the paucity of research in the area in Nigerian work context, the investigation equally recommends that an empirical field research be conducted to ascertain the efficacy of flexible working arrangement (FWAs) in the Nigerian work environment.
Hybrid Data Analytics System for Higher Education: A Proposed Model for System Prototype
Ervin L. Rodriguez
The pandemic transformed the management of work in the lives of people differently, and the internet and online systems have likely become a necessity. The study aimed to develop a hybrid data analytics system for Universities. The said study applied a development type of research method. An Agile development methodology was implemented in the software development process using a Server-side scripting language and a Model View Control(MVC) framework. K-Nearest Neighbor(KNN) classification algorithm concept, through PHP String Scripts and other libraries, was used to automate recommendation functionalities. The storage of the records were securely hosted by a Cloud-based Hosting and Database Server. The result of the study allowed the system to be connected both the client and the personnel through its systematic reminders and email notifications. The accessibility were transformed from local to world wide. Automated recommendations functions and other descriptive data analysis to necessary record transactions were generated according to the needs of the user. Using ISO/IEC 9126 software quality models, a software evaluation were conducted in three (3) different type of users had an overall result interpretation of “highly acceptable” in almost all criteria which generally means that the system met the software quality standards. Through the said system, the transactions of the University will be able to operate 24/7 with the assurance that the people are safe from the present pandemic.
The impact of size, age, leverage and capital on profitability of commercial banks in Ethiopia: A panel FMOLS analysis
Kassahun Tafese Keneni (MSc) & Prof. Mohan B. Vankataram (Ph.D)
Quantitative data was gathered from 17 banks in Ethiopia for a period of 8 years from 2013 to 2020, and analyzed using panel unit root for stationarity check, co-integration test for a long-run relationship, Fully Modified OLS model, and Granger Causality for identifying the causal variable and direction of causality. The finding of the study analyzed by the FMOLS model showed the banks Size and the banks Age significantly influence ROA and ROE but the banks' Age influence negatively. Meaning a bank with a high bank Size was performed better than a lower bank Size but an older bank was performed lower in terms of ROA and ROE. However, both banks Leverage and Capital had an insignificant impact on banks' performance. The unidirectional Granger Causality was running from banks Size, Age, Leverage, and Capital to ROA. Moreover, unidirectional causality also was running from ROE to the banks' Age and from the Leverage to ROE.
Impact of Africa Growth and Opportunity Act and Merchandise Exports on the Ethiopian Economy over the long term
1 Endashaw Sisay Sirah (MSc) 2 Wondimhunegn Atilaw Wtensay (MSc) 3 Showkat Ahmad Shah (Dr)
Ethiopia is not only one of the country which have high real economic growth in the world, but it is also the second-most populous country in Africa.At the same time, the country is one of the poorest, with an average per capita income of $850.A low level of manufacturing export growth has been identified as a major cause of the poor economic performance of many Sub-Saharan countries. Ethiopia's trade deficit has been growing over the past decade, as its imports have increased 12.5% per year on average since 2004/05andthe trade balance for 2020 decreased by 14.63 % compared to the trade balance for 2019. In the study, time series data from 1960-2017 was used to assess the long-run effects of merchandise exports and the Africa Growth Opportunity Act on Ethiopia's economy, and to make recommendations regarding where Ethiopia should increase merchandise exports. In this study, the autoregressive distributed lag bounds testing method was used after the Dickey-Fuller augmented test to identify the unit root. Findings from the study show that merchandise exports and Africa growth and opportunity act are related from economic growth in the long run. Thus, Ethiopia stands to suffer a lot by being disqualified from the Africa growth and opportunity act. Moreover, the study found that exporting more goods and services to developing countries in Africa is more profitable for Ethiopia, and being membership in Africa growth and opportunity act has contributed significantly to its economic growth.According to the findings, Ethiopia diversifies its exports, improves productivity where it has a comparative advantage, fosters good relations with low-income countries, and exports merchandise goods and services to such countries.
Household Cooking Fuel Choice: The case of Ambo Town, West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia
Takele Abdisa Nikus & Amenu Leta
Ethiopia lacks access to clean affordable and reliable energy which harms the environment and health of society. This paper aimed to look at the determinant of household cooking fuel choice. Simple random sampling techniques were used. The multinomial logit and the binary logit model were used. Descriptive statics results of the survey show, of the 120 respondents 21.66% use electricity, 58% charcoal, and 2.5. % used kerosene, as a source of cooking fuel. Moreover, about 84.16% of them use a mix of fuel, among them 62.5% use a mix of firewood and charcoal, and about 21.6% of the respondents use a mix of electricity and charcoal. The econometric result shows that gender, education, and the initial cost of utilities are the most important factors that determine a household's fuel choice. Improving current electricity services quality access and affordability educating the public about the benefits and impact of different energy sources.
Ethiopian Constitutional Experience Under Emperor Hailesellassies Regime: Comparative Analysis of 1931 Constitution and 1955 Revised Constitution
Negasa Gelana Debisa
Before1931, Ethiopia depended onthe traditional customary laws of Fetha Negest, Kibre Negest, and Serate Mengist.The 1931constitution unlocked new episode in Ethiopian political and legalhistory by introducing modern written constitution. Even though, significant issues were taken from customary laws and formally put in the written constitution, elements in these constitutions opened Ethiopia’s entrance to modern politics. After few years of operation, the 1931 constitution was revised in 1955 to respond to emerging social, economic, and legal questions. This review comparatively analysesthe emphasis, contents, and motivation of the 1931 constitution and the 1955-revised constitution. The analysis shows 1931 had endorsed and entrenched major laws from former customary laws.The 1995-revised constitution had included democratic concepts like human rights than the former; however, these values remained paper tiger. The emperor desired to establish his legitimacy under the auspices of these constitutions.This implies that the 1955-revised constitution was a trick to dismantle the already started question of the legitimacy of the emperor as it was manifested in the 1960s and 1970s revolutions.
Servant Leadership Practices: A Comparative Study between Government and Private Secondary Schools of Addis Ababa
Habtamu Menber Dilie & Dr. D. Nagaraja Kumari
This study compared servant leadership practices between government and private secondary schools of Addis Ababa. A descriptive survey design was used to carry out the research. The data for the study was gathered using a survey questionnaire. Thus, using a stratified random sampling technique, the questionnaires were distributed to respondents selected from the twelve secondary schools (four from the government and eight from the private). Again, a total of 320 respondents were chosen using a stratified random sampling technique, with 108 from four government secondary schools and 212 from eight private secondary schools. Respondents were selected using strata based on gender and position in the schools. A quantitative approach was used to analyze the data. Besides,the data were analyzed using both descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation) and inferential statistics (independent samples t-test). As a result, the findings revealed that servant leadership practices were deficient in both government and private secondary schools; servant leadership practices were inadequate in the sampled secondary schools. However, in comparison, the servant leadership practices in Addis Ababa’s private secondary schools were superior to those in the government schools. It was also discovered that there was a statistically significant difference in servant leadership practices between government and private secondary schools, implying that the servant leadership practices of private secondary schools were better than those of their government counterparts. Hence, it was concluded that servant leadership practices were superior in private secondary schools of Addis Ababa than government secondary schools. It was recommended that secondary school leaders use servant leadership vigorously in Addis Ababa’s secondary schools, particularly in government secondary schools, to improve schools’ performances at least one step ahead.
Determinants of Small Holders Farmers Participation in Agricultural Cooperatives in Case of Lemo Woreda, Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia
Teshome Kefale , Tayech Lakew & Toleshi Wakjira,
Ethiopia, whose economy is largely based on agriculture, agricultural cooperatives play pivotal role by providing farm inputs, searching markets for farm outputs and render various services for the societies. To improve these enormous roles of agricultural cooperatives this study was conducted to assess the determinants of small holder farmers’ participation in agricultural cooperatives in Lemoworeda, Southern Ethiopia. A three stage sampling technique was used. In the first stage purposive sampling was conducted to select agricultural cooperatives found in Lemoworeda. In the second stage, 3 kebeles (the lowest administrative units in Ethiopia) which has both member and non-member of agricultural cooperatives were purposively selected by consulting experts working in Hadiya Zone and LemoWoreda Cooperative Promotion. In the third stage, sample respondents were randomly selected from selected kebele and agricultural cooperatives. Accordingly, a total of 150(80 nonagricultural cooperative members and 70 agricultural cooperative members) were randomly selected. Binary logit model was estimated as analytical tool to know the determinant of small holder farmers’ participation using stata version 12. The model included one dependent and 12 explanatory variables. Logistic regression output revealed house hold education , farm size, members’ perception on services provided by the cooperatives and presence of cooperatives in the kebele were positively and significantly related with level of participation at less than 5% confidence level. Similarly, off farm income is positively and significantly related to status of farmers’ participation to agricultural cooperatives at less 10% significance level. But, other sources of credit access determine members’ participation negatively at less than 1% significance level. The overall result indicates continuous training and improving services provided by agricultural cooperatives in the study area would improve the participation of the members. Cooperative leaders, government and nongovernmental organization should help to improve the cooperative members’ participation level.
Organizational structure and employee performance: evidence from pharmaceutical companies in Anambra state, Nigeria
Ezejiofor, Raymond A. & Ezekwesili, Tochukwu P.
This study, therefore, sought to ascertain the impact of organizational structure on the employee’s performance of pharmaceutical companies in Anambra State of Nigeria. The research was conducted using a descriptive survey research approach. The study's participants include 346 employees from 20 pharmaceutical companies in Nigeria's Anambra State. Using the Borg and Gall (1973) formula, a sample size of 67 was calculated. With the help of SPSS version 20, the researchers used regression analysis to examine the hypothesis. The findings revealed that working conditions and formalization have a positive significant impact on pharmaceutical company employee performance. Based on the findings, the study recommended that management of manufacturing companies in Nigeria should design appropriate organizational structure to improve the productivity of their workers.
The Relation of Training and Development Programmes and Its Impact on Employees Performance: A Case of Nangarhar- Based Banks of Afghanistan
Hejratullah Adil , Dr. C. V. Kannaji Rao & Aminullah Shinwari
After 9/11 event and the formation of new government led by President Karzai late 2001, in the initial stage, banking sector employees’ had been under serious problems of weak performance due to lack of required skills, knowledge and experience to perform their daily activities effectively. For such reasons, training and development practices had been considered a significant source for the development of staff performance in banking sector of Afghanistan. The main objective of this research was to study the relationship between training and development programmes and its impact on employees’ performance in public and private banks in Nangarhar province of Afghanistan. The researcher developed close-ended questionnaires comprises of 39 questions related to T&D and employees’ performance. Quantitative survey technique was used for data collection. Data was analysed using SPSS for estimating regression and correlation models for testing hypotheses. The result revealed that there is significant positive association between training and development programmes and employees’ performance. Hence, we reject null hypothesis which says there is no significant relationship between training and development programmes and employees’ performance in the banking sector of Afghanistan. The result also depicted that the more there is training and development practices in banks lead to higher quality employees’ performance. The study recommends that bank managers should give attention on the investment of T&D programmes in the banking sector of Afghanistan.
Fertility Issues, labour productivity and economic performance in SubSaharan Africa: An application of dynamic panel data models
Kitessa Delessa Terefe & Mekonnen Bersisa Gadisa
Issue: Human capital development has gotten a lot of attention in recent years because it has important national and international implications for countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Many variables are at work in most SSA nations, causing the core components of human capital, Fertility, health and education, to fall short of expectations. As fertility, health capital and labor productivity are important for economic development, the study used a dynamic panel data technique to empirically evaluate the primary determinants of GDPPC for SSA nations utilizing current year data ranging from 2000 to 2018.Methods: The FGLS and the dynamic panel data GMM model were used to estimate the model. Finding: The estimated equation based on the FGLS result shows that labor productivity and health capital have a positive impact to SSA nations' per capita GDP across the study period while fertility rate has negative impact. FDI, educational attainment and terms of trade, on the other hand, have a negative impact on the region's GDPPC. The GMM estimation result reveals that lagged GDPPC, labor productivity, FDI, and Terms of Trade all seem to have a positive and significant impact on per capita GDP. In another sense, the fertility rate has a negative impact. Conclusion: As a result, the study's findings suggest that advances in human capital, particularly health capital and labor productivity, boost per capita GDP. As a result, SSA countries should focus more on measures that improve human capital while also promoting economic development. Furthermore, countries must build a cautious policy climate that promotes economic integration across sectors, mobilizes domestic resources, and improves health and labor skills in order to achieve long-term growth based on human capital gains.
The Nature and Efficacy of Environmental and Social Impact Assessment in Bure Integrated Agro-Industry Park, North-West Ethiopia
Asabu Sewenet Alamineh & Birhanu Bitew Geremew
After the demise of the military regime, the development policy of Ethiopia has prioritized investment promotion to achieve development. But the expansion of investment projects caused acute ecological crisis and investment driven violence in the country. To balance investment promotion vis-à-vis sustainable development, the country enacted and enforced various environmental policies since 1997. This paper thus attempts to uncover the nature and efficacy of Environmental and Social Impact Assessment in Bure IAIP. To this end, a cross sectional research design was employed with a sample of 244 individuals chosen through simple random sampling. It used survey of stakeholders, focused group discussion and key informant interview to gather data from relevant sources. Data analysis and interpretation was done through statistics-by themes and side-by-side comparison through joint display mechanisms. The park undertook ESIA by teams composed of experts albeit its construction has begun prior to ESIA review. By discrediting environmental policies and proclamations, the park was commenced by the political decisions of elites from above. This indicates that the report has no relevance in the decision making process except preventing future criticisms. The Environmental and Social Management Plans and mitigation strategies have not been duly executed during construction and operation phases. The park administrator and environmental experts thus should dedicatedly work for the realization of environmental policies and proclamations to ensure environmental sustainability in the park for its success and social existence at large.
Impact of Microfinance Institutions on the Livelihoods of Women in South West Shoa Zone: Evidence from Oromia Credit & Saving S.C, Oromia, Ethiopia
Shibiru Tade Kidane
The study examined the impact of OCSSCO on women borrowers’ livelihood in South West Shoa Zone. Quantitative research approach was used and data was collected from 374 Oromia Credit and Saving Share Company women borrowers. Data was analyzed by binary logistic regression analysis. The findings of the study revealed that level of education, interest rate, Age of respondents, sufficient of loan for intended purpose; loan size, source of initial capital, loan disbursement time and loansize were statistically positive significant effect whereas interest rate has statistically negative significant effect on women’s livelihood improvement. In contrast marital status is not statistically significant.
Reliability of time dependent stress- strength system for deterministic cycles
Sometimes a system can work only when the stress on it lies between certain values. There is uncertainty about the stress and strength random variables with respect to time and cycles. These uncertainties may be classified as deterministic, random fixed and random independent In this paper, reliability of time dependent stress strength system has been derived when stress and strength follow generalized exponential distribution, generalized weibull distribution and pareto type-I distribution for different cases i.e. i) deterministic stress and random fixed strength, ii) random – fixed stress and deterministic strength, iii) deterministic stress and random – independent strength. Numerical computations have been obtained for various uncertainties of stress and strength models.
Tourism Destination in Bahir Dar specially Lake Tana Peninsula and Monasteries for Sustainable Tourism Development in Ethiopia
Solomon Mequanent Biwota & Kemal AdemYimam
Ethiopia orthodox church very fundamental for Sustainable tourism development in Ethiopia starting from the ancient civilized up to the modern. From the begging of Gondar, Axum, BahirDar,Lalibela rocky church, Dessie in the glob verynice-looking sites. In attendance the in close nearness to moment in time are 37 islands that are scattered on the subject of the outside of Lake Tana, out of which a quantity of 20 shelter churches and monasteries of massive chronological and enlightening attentiveness. For the reason that of their isolationthey besecond-hand to amass art raw materials and devout remains establishment all measurement of the state of affairs. Narga Selassie, Kebran Gabriel,DagaIstifanos, TanaCherkosUraKidaneMehret, ,DebreMariyam, Azuwamariam etc…are some of the monasteries. Lake Tanapeninsula the area is vivid with vast amount of historical and cultural attraction monastery. The localityworld inheritance sites, including the only natural world heritagesite of the country. This research article is of dissimilargoing to places of interestgrowth plans which focuson how much the historic route influences tourism plans in Ethiopia and it is indicated that how the area is important for development of tourism. This research was based on an wide-ranging writing valuation counting various book, article and state credentials which were to recognize the most important tourism propertiesof the region, the contribute to historic route in the tourism growth plans of the nation and its contributionfor the expansion of tourism in the nation state.
Identify the Risk of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome among Adolescent Girls in selected Colleges, Puducherry
Mrs. Hemavathi. P & Dr.Malathi. S
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in young women and it is characterized by menstrual irregularity, signs of hyperandrogenism such as acne, excess body hairs, male-pattern baldness and infertility.(1)Materials and methods:An Exploratory Survey to identify the Risk of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome was conducted among Adolescent Girls in selected Colleges, Puducherry. Results: It was found that among 130 adolescent girls, 17 (13.1%) of them had no risk, 60 (46.2%) of them had low risk, 51 (39.2%) of them found with moderate risk and 2 (1.5%) of them had high risk for PCOS. 61 (46.92%) of the Adolescent experienced hair loss or excessive hair thinning and 15 (11.53%) similarly had overweight and abnormal hair growth. 61 (46.92%) of the Adolescent experienced hair loss or excessive hair thinning and 15 (11.53%) similarly had overweight and abnormal hair growth. significant association found between Risk of PCOS and socio demographic variables of Adolescent girls such as Education and Age at menarche. No significant association found between Risk of PCOS and Personal medical and family history of DM & PCOS of Adolescent girls.
Effective Meeting Management Competency a Bedrock to Secretaries Organizational Performance
Muhammad Yahaya Musaa & Kahirol Mohd Sallehb
The purpose of this paper is to investigate why confidential secretaries are not allowed to provide essential secretarial services during meetings. Additionally, it is the focus of this paper to explore the non-utilisation of confidential secretaries during meetings in the north-western Nigerian colleges of education which has reduced the secretary to a mere typist or receptionist. The paper determines the ways the secretary would acquire office competencies required of him or her in order to effectively handle meetings and other official events in today's workplaces. Secretaries in Nigeria's northwestern colleges of education were not permitted to attend meetings. Other registry personnel handled the secretary's duties, leaving the secretaries to handle auxiliary duties.The study was carried out in Nigeria's northwestern region. The study's population consists of 12 experts: six (6) from office technology and management (OTM) and six (6) from human resource management. To get data from experts, open-ended interviews were employed. Experts were able to provide extensive information throughout the data collection sessions, thanks to the open-ended questions. Nvivo 10 was employed to facilitate data analysis process. Findings revealed that secretaries in the north-western colleges of education were not allowed to take part in meetings. It was also revealed from findings that the graduate secretaries do not receive adequate practical training (meetings simulations) during their studies in the college. recommendations were given that secretaries during training should undergo practical simulations of meetings, in order to be familiar with meetings processes as well as acquire the requisite formal meeting experiences. In conclusion, secretariesshould be provided with the necessary modern competencies during their training. This will help them perform their primary secretarial jobs more efficiently after graduation.Practical simulations of meetings will in no small wayassist the graduate secretary to be proficient in rendering secretarial services during meetings.
Acquiescence or Cooperation: Understanding the Administration and Cumulative Expectation of Trade Facilitation Agreement on Revenue Generation in The Gambia
Oluwadare Ayeni & Alhagie K Mbye
Ethnic Political Conflicts in Ethiopia and Its Ramifications on the Neighboring States (1991-2019)
Solomon Dessalegn Negash
The article attempted to identify, explain and interprets themultidimensional security repercussion of ethnic politicalconflicts in Ethiopia on the neighboring countries in the period 1991-2019. The study specifically focused on the conflicts betweenthe regimein power and Oromo/Somali ethnic based rebel groups.Key informant interview and FGD were employed to gather primary data which was substantiated by secondary data. The obtained data was analyzed using concepts ofinternational dimensions of internal conflict viewed from African international relations perspective. In the period, armed conflicts between Oromo/Somali insurgent groups and the government kept the neighboring states on political instability, hostile state relations, economic insecurities, and refugee and small arms transfer. In the Horn of Africa, ethnic political conflicts couldspill over and challenge the neighboring state’s internal affairs as well as the good neighborhood. Similarly, distancing Oromo and Somali nations from the political scene of Ethiopia could destabilize Ethiopia and the neighboring states.
Board related corporate governance attribute and Financial Performance: Evidence from selected banks in Ethiopia
Asegid Getachew Woldeamanuel & M. Umma Devi
The interaction between board attributes (as corporate governance characteristics) and financial performance has for long attracted the interest of academic and organizational researchers. One of the critical attributes that have aroused the interest of several researchers is the effect that size of the board members has on financial performance. The current study carried on this tradition by looking into it in the Ethiopian banking sector. A total of fourteen banks, selected based onrelevant criteria, were considered for the study. The study period ran from 2012/13-2019/2020. The data related to the variables of interest were extracted from the different sections of the annual reports of these banks. Fixed effect regression was found to be relevant for the selected model. The result indicated that there exists an inverse relationship between board size and the performance of banks. The result can inform the policymaking initiatives of regulators of the financial sector. It also helps banks to search for the optimal size of boards.
The Effectiveness of ATM Service in Commercial Bank of Ethiopia, Bale Goba Branch
Wondwssen Anberbir Demisse & Professor M. Uma Devi
The purpose of this research is to evaluate the efficacy of ATM service in the banking service case of the Ethiopian Commercial Bank Bale Goba branch. The researcher gathered data using both primary and secondary sources. Uses primary data surveys for consumers and manager interviews, as well as secondary data sources such as magazines, journals, books, and the commercial bank's annual statement. The study's target demographic is customers of the Ethiopian Commercial Bank's Bale Goba branch, with an emphasis on the bank's 1400 ATM users. The data was examined using descriptive analysis tools, tables, and percentages by the researcher.
Investigating creative behaviour of employees in IT sector
S. Venkata Narayanan & Dr. S. Jahira Parveen & Dr. Radha Ganesh kumar,
From a social perspective, the information technology sector looks like software development using series of code, seemingly uncreative in the machine language to get the desired output. In reality, the IT discipline requires creative intelligence to process the data and innovative ways to find solutions to a problem or developing a product. Creativity in IT is the driving force for the development of both local and global perspectives. Creativity aids in finding new development, innovation between each iteration, and every development phase of software solutions or product. India is one of the biggest markets all over the globe in software development. A few businesses all over the world outsource their ventures to India. Imaginative conduct has been seen as the inventive act, or a set of acts, which is made unequivocal through conduct. Inventive conduct isn't tame; it is activity, which leads to imaginative yield or a arrangement to a challenge. This research entitled, 'Assessment of creative behaviour of employees in IT sector" – A study with specific reference to the IT sector companies involved in software development, packaging and other sub-processes under development arena. It will attempt to identify the employees' creative behaviour working in software development and their contribution to creativity in their work. Inventiveness is found to be a noteworthy calculate for organizational victory independent of any field or industry. This investigate will give an outline of inventiveness in computer program companies. In this study, descriptive research is used and a structured Non-disguised questionnaire is followed.
Investigating the Factors affecting Implementation of BSC: a study on Finance Offices in South Nations Nationalities and Peoples Region of Ethiopia
Venkatesh Andavar & Didha Bacha & Srinivasan Senthilvel & Seada Tilahun
The successful implementation of balanced scorecard requires a great deal of effort and resources. However, besides government's effort and temporal publicity, business entities are not successfully implementing the change and able to benefit from its advantages. The aim of this study is to explore challenges of effective implementation of BSC in South Nations, Nationalities and People’s Region of Ethiopia south region finance office. After reviewing prior literature, we have identified six factors as determinants of the successful implementation of BSC i.e. proper communication, top management support and commitment, training, teamwork organizational culture and education. A survey was conducted using the preset questionnaire form 105 financial offices located in the SNNP region of Ethiopia. After checking for the reliability and validity of the data, Multiple Regression Method was used to test the developed hypotheses. The findings of the study indicated that top management commitment and support, training, education and organization culture have positive and statistically significant relationship with successful implementation of BSC. On the other hand, team work and communication were found to be insignificant determinants of the successful implementation of BSC in Ethiopia. Based on the findings of the study, recommendations are made for both practitioners and future researchers.
Determinants of Household Saving Behavior in Rural Ethiopia: Evidence from Southwest Shoa zone
Obsa Urgessa & Bekele Alemayehu
Saving as a percent of GDP is very low relative to investment needs in Ethiopia. To fully mobilize rural household saving, identifying the constraining factors responsible for its underperformance is a priority issue. The main objective of this study, therefore, was to identify and estimate the main determinants of household saving behavior in rural Ethiopia.To achieve this objective, we collected primary data from 389 householdsusing structured questionnaire. To analyze these data, we relied on Tobit model. Our findingssuggest that household disposable income, education of household head, number of income earner in the family and livestock ownership influence household saving positively and significantly. Similarly;family size, participation in off-farm activities and distance from woreda center influence household saving negatively and significantly in the study area. To encourage more saving in the study area, measures that reduce fertility rate, income inequality and encourage women resource empowerment and provision of rural infrastructure are necessary.
Numerical assessment with Nusselt number and Reynolds number based on experimental outcomes of cooling in high dense network-on-chip
Dr.S.Kayalvizhi & Dr.K.Tamilarasi & G.Anitha & R.S.Nisha & J. JoslinIyda
The effect of tremendous temperature in high dense Network-on-Chip (NoC) plays a vital role in the performance of the application and it is great need to cool down such densely packed integrated circuit within a single chip. In this paper, the metrics like temperature, heat transfer rate, velocity,Reynolds number and Nusselt number are studied based on experimental outcomes derived from the cooling of NoC. Out of the four modes of coolant flow, employing the strategies of multichannel and turbulent provides high heat dissipating feature with high velocity air as coolant. It is found that the heat transfer rate of multichannel laminar flow, single channel turbulent flow and multi channel turbulent flow are 14%, 18%and 24% higher than the conventional single channel laminar flow of coolant. Also, Nusselt number of the above cases increases by 21%, 58% and 94% than the single laminar flow. Thus, the experimental results of the proposed methodology exhibit a profound behavior in terms of Nusselt number and Reynolds number.
Present Social exclusion of tribals-RTE Act. a way forward for social inclusion a deep review on Balangir district
Bhurishraba Majhi & Dr. Sujata Acharya
The access to minimum education for all children has been a much-discussed subject for more than a century in our country. It is only because the educational process that takes place throughout life, continuously, is contributing to the successful overcoming of present obstacles for the social inclusion of individuals and eliminating the root causes of social isolation in particular reference to tribals. In response to international agreements, recent Indian legislation has raised expectations that all children, regardless of need or ability, should gain access to formal education that is inclusive and addresses their social and learning needs. Initiatives like RTE Act. 2009 designed to support the implementation of this legislation have been undertaken in several parts of India. In this study, the common issues and challenges that emerged, in deterring inclusion or in the process of social exclusion of tribal in Balangir district of Odisha that were: attitudinal barriers, lack of awareness of the legal provisions and subsequent schemes, accessibility of schools being meagre, lack of necessary infrastructure, lack of and retention of trained staff adaptation of curriculum and materials and lack of control systems as well as de-motivate administrators. Though India has taken ownership for inclusive education by establishing legal provisions through the RTE, several issues continue to be faced. While many innovative programmes have been initiated, a stronger partnership between the government and the common man together is what is required to bring about the desired difference. With reference to the above aims three objectives are framed with same number of research questions. To prove the above objectives information’s were collected from different primary and secondary sources. Finally, researcher tried to analyse different backdrop an attempt of government is made to examine the cause for exclusion of tribals, impact of educational policies and constitutional provision on inclusion of tribals in terms of literacy. Finally, suggestion was drawn for inclusion of excluded tribals in mainstream education.
The Role of the Tiwa Autonomous Council in the development of Women condition in Assam
Manash Jyoti Nath
The Tiwa is one of the important ethnic tribes of North-East India. According to the census report of 2011, the total population of Assam is 3.11 crore. Among them, 12.41% population belongs to the tribal community including both the plains and hills. Nine plain communities and fourteen hill communities are enlisted as a Scheduled Tribe in the Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe orders (Amendment) Act 1976. These nine Schedule Tribe communities in plain areas are Barman in Cachar, Deori, Hojai, Boro Kachari, Sonowal Kachari, Tiwa, Mech, Mising and Rabha. Hence, the Tiwa is mention as prominent Schedule tribe of Assam by the Indian constitution. They belong to great Bodo tribes of Assam into which tribes like Bodo Kachari, Chutia, Deori, Rabha,Mech, Tippara or Tifre, Garo, Dimasa, Koch and Moran etc. are also included. The Tiwa had close contact with the Jayantia for generations and it was the Jayantia king who founded the principalities of Gobha, Nelie, Khola and Sahari. During the medieval period, the Ahom established some new Tiwa principalities and most of the Tiwa principalities accepted the supremacy of the Ahom and paid their annul tributes. After the treaty of Yandabo in 1826, the British captured the Tiwa principalities one after another and the condition of the Tiwa became worse due to the heavy burden of the taxes. After the 20th century, a group of knowledgeable persons among the Tiwa take the initiative to safeguard their illustrious past and to revive their language. They tried to protect their socio-cultural identity against the large scale conversion to the cast Hindu Assamese culture. Through, the plain Tiwa`s main life style is similar to that of Assamese people of the plain, but the Tiwa remained backward. A new spirit developed among the educated Tiwa for the revival of their tradition and culture and started an autonomy movement after realizing that the political autonomy is very important to maintain their identification. As a result of this movement, the Government constituted the Tiwa Autonomous Council in 1995. Through the Tiwa Autonomous Council`s major goal is to ensure socio-economic development of the Tiwa people in their respective areas, but the situation of the Tiwa women is worse in terms of literacy and working involvement. Education for the tribal has been a neglected issue in the past, and they have been unable to benefit from the various schemes and development projects launched by the Government or the Council in their respective areas. However, after the formation of the Tiwa Autonomous Council, the socio-economic life of the Tiwa people are improved a lot. This paper made an attempt to discussion on the role of the Tiwa Autonomous Council in the development of women condition in Assam.
Factors Affecting Supply Chain Management Performance in Cement Manufacturing Industry: The Case of Ture cement, Ethiopia
Abebayehu Haile & Professor M. Uma Devi
Supply chain managers always would assess the supply chain environment, based on the assessment result proper strategies have to be developed to minimize delivery time, and improve reliability. Supply chain management performance affected by different factors. This study mainly aimed to assess the factors affecting supply chain management performance of Ture cement factory. Supply chain management dimensions (suppliers’ partnership, customer relationship, environmental issues and information communication technology) were identified. Questionnaire were used as primary data collection instrument. Study participants were selected based on purposive technique because of the limited number of population all 41target populations are taken to collect the necessary data. To analyze the collected data Descriptive statistics specifically measure of central tendency were used, among the inferential statistical tools Correlation and multiple regression analysis were implemented to analyze the collected data. The collected data also presented in tabular form. The results of the study showed that supply chain management challenges have significant relationship with the SCM performance of Ture cement factory and the current supply chain management performance of Ture cement factory is poor. Ture cement factory should give emphasis to supply chain management challenges to maintain and improve the performance of supply chain management.
Research Article on: The Implications of Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam for the Horn of African states
Mersha Zenebe Felek
In the pursuit of economic development, Ethiopia has prioritized renewable energy production, emphasizing development of its hydropower potential. As part of this strategy, it is presently constructing the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile River, which has positive implications for the Horn of African states. In this paper, I argue that the GERD has economic, political and security implications for the Horn of African states. To this end, GERD could be symbol of unity and cooperation among the Horn of African states with good faith and sincerity will guarantee the optimal utilization of the GERD. GERD will also give positive response for the Horn of Africa`s need of additional water to reduce its increasing food import and will promote economic development. Moreover, GERD promised to provide better water storage facilities than the present one at region. Likewise, by building dams like the GERD in Ethiopia, huge hydropower potential could be tapped, enabling Horn of African countries to efficiently use the underground water as an alternative source of supply. These upstream dams could also help prevent silts and prolong the life of the downstream dams. Finally, the paper concluded that GERD has far-reaching diverse positive implications that may include altering economic problems, political disorder, unemployment and security issues in the region. It also provides a buffer against increasingly unknown challenges due to climate change, and potentially destroying ecosystems and traditional lifestyles in the horn of Africa.
Good corporate governance: an empirical study on college staff attitudes in Malaysia and Hong Kong
Yuk Fong Chin, Fung Lan Yong & Melinda Kong
The purpose of this study was to examine college staff’s attitudes with respect to good corporate governance in Malaysia and Hong Kong since research on this topic is lacking in relation to institutions of higher learning. Most of the available research focused on the corporate governance of business organisations, highlighting the importance of governance structure, business management, transparency and accountability. The sample consisted of 50 staff members from two private colleges in Malaysia and Hong Kong. They included both administrative and teaching staff, randomly selected to participate in the study, who had diploma certificates, or bachelor’s, master’s ordoctorate degrees, ranging from 25 to 40 years old. Seven research questions and a 30-item Likert questionnaire were formulated in relation to overall perceptions, as well as issues related to management, shareholders, personal aspects, society, customers and board of directors. Findings revealed that 50% to 70% of the staff held positive attitudes toward the seven areas of corporate governance. In general, it is recommended that college staff develop more positive attitudes toward corporate governance; they need to be more knowledgeable about the corporate governance codes in their country and develop greater understanding on the principles and attributes of good corporate governance. Finally, staff can undergo basic training in corporate governance to enhance their attitudes and develop greater insight into the importance of implementing good corporate governance practices.
The Bale Peasant Rebellion, 1963-1970
Mengesha Robso Wodajo and Haile Chuluke Digile
This article tries to examine one of the challenges that the regime of Solominonic Dynasty of Emperor Haile Selassie faced in the Southern parts of Ethiopia (post of Ethiopian independence); and the triggering causes that fueled to the decline of Feudalism and Emperorship period in Ethiopian History around 1970s. The post-liberation period of 1941 Ethiopia witnessed growing opposition among peasants in different parts of the country against Haile Selassie?s regime thereby giving the opposition a broader dimension. Peasant revolts, although on a small scale, were especially numerous in the southern territories, where the imperial government had traditionally rewarded its supporters with land grants thereby reducing the indigenous peasantry into tenancy. Among those Southern rebellion groups,the Bale peasant uprising presented the most serious challenge to the Ethiopian government. Initially, rebel groups conducted hit-and-run raids against military garrisons and police stations separately. The causes of the uprising were multifaceted. The indigenous peasants largely became tenants on their own land after the introduction of the Qalladland measurement in 1951. Likewise, peasants also suffered from religious antagonism which reached to unprecedented level after the appointment of Christian man of WarquEnquselassie as governor of the Muslimareas of Balein 1963. Further, the Somali government extended material and moral support to the rebels as part of its strategy of reestablishing a “Greater Somalia”. The rebellion ended in 1970s after some of its popular leaders including WaqoGutu surrendered to government forces due to the mediation role played by General JagamaKello.