Factors affecting employees job rotation: in case of OIB Kirkos sub city
Dr. Neeraj Bali
The purpose of the study was factors affecting employees’ job rotation of OIB in Kirkos sub city. This study has employed explanatory research design in order to estimate employees’ job rotation by using explanatory variables such as employee competency, employee readiness, and change leadership. It was designed to evaluate the extent of employee competency, employee readiness, and change leadership about employees’ job rotation of OIB in Kirkos sub city. The five level Likert scale questionnaires was used as the main data gathering tool. In order to meet the objective, the researcher was used simple random sampling techniques and the data were collected from 143 participants. The collected data were analysed using mean, standard deviation; correlation and multiple linear regression analysis. The descriptive findings ofchange leadership shows poor practice in the study area. The correlation coefficient findings of employee competency, employee readiness and change leadership have strong and positive relation with employees’ job rotation of OIB in Kirkos sub city.The R square findings of employee competency, employee readiness and change leadership, all together have strong & positive association; and impactful predicts employees’ job rotation of OIB in Kirkos sub city and out of these explanatory variables, employee competencywas find to be the leading predictor of employees’ job rotation of OIB in Kirkos sub city. Therefore, it is beneficial, if the concerned administrative body of OIB in Kirkos sub cityhas trained the existing employees of OIB so as to increase their employees’ competency and also has hired employees with excellent competency that might lead to increase employee performance. Hence, it is useful, if the administrative bodies of OIB in Kirkos sub city within different level has trained the existing employees of OIB so as to increase their employees’ competency and also has hired employees with excellent competency that might lead to increase employee demand for job rotation within different level of OIB. The overall descriptive report of change leadership of OIB in Kirkos sub city demonstrates that poor practices. Therefore, management body of OIB in Kirkos sub city within different level must improve theirleadership directive & practices in the workplace that would enhance their employee job demand in OIB in Kirkos sub city. To enhance employee job rotation within OIB in Kirkos sub city, management body of OIB shouldinspire the employee by incentive/training so as to enhance their employee job demand in OIB in Kirkos sub city.
Opportunities and challenges of private investment activities in north Shewa zone of Oromia regional state, Ethiopia
Meseret Dame Tafa1 Solomon Tessema Worku2
The study is aimed to investigate the major challenges and opportunities of investment activities in North Shewa Zone which is found in Oromia regional state and indicates the direction for investment how to deal with those constraints. Descriptive type of research design used in this study in order to obtain necessary primary was collected. The study enclosed qualitative and quantitative type of research approach. Specifically the study surveys 222 investment projects (from total population of more than 497 investment projects). Also out of the 11districts found in North Shewa Zone, 6 districts were selected as a sample purposively.The outcome of this study revealed that major challenges of investment activities in north Shewa zone of Oromia regional state are infrastructural related problem, corruption and finance related problem, while cheap labor or man power, unused natural resources, location and climate condition are treated as investment opportunities in north Shewa zone.
Broadcasting to Rural Audience: Assessment of Social Responsibility of Radio Nigeria, Abuja
Blessed F. Ngonso Aloysius NnannaNworisa
This study examines Radio Nigeria, Abuja, assessing its social responsibility to the rural audiences. The study conceived social responsibility has programs designed and packaged to meet the needs of the rural audiences. The study adopted a descriptive survey method. The scope of this study is Edo State University, Uzairue. The University is located in the village, making it appropriate to study the staff of the University who then fit into rural audiences. However, the sample was drawn from the staff of the Faculty of Arts, Management, and Social Sciences. The Faculty has 43 members of staff and five who were randomly selected. The reason for this sample size is because a descriptive study that uses interviews as a data collection instrument does not require a large sample size if the transcription of the interview is to be done. Three research questions were formulated to guide the study. The findings showed that FRCN has a poor social responsibility towards its rural audiences. The findings also showed that problems that hinder rural audience enjoyment of FRCN programs are boring news, programs, language barrier, illiteracy, income level of the audiences, and power problem. The study recommends that FRCN should design its news frames, programs, examines its philosophy, and carefully plans for its rural audiences. Finally, FRCN should use more local languages or Pidgin English to disseminate messages as well as improve on their program contents to make it more appealing to the rural consumers.
Logistics business in Tamil Nadu at crossroads: The way ahead
Dr.W. Vinu Dr. Inayath Ahamed S B Dr.G. Ramesh Pandi
After the huge developments and change of shopping to the online platform it has become far essential and crucial for the concerns to develop and focus on the logistics providers as they are the need of the hour to develop the digital shopping and give a better output but as focussed in the study above the LSPs in India as constrained by several issues and obstacles to be addressed. LSP have been a major and crucial part of supply chain management to help customers access their products and services. Presently the LSPs are contributing as much as 14% to the GDP of the nation. As well as major developments in the country like Vocal for Local has ended up with huge bunch of opportunities for the LSPs. Hence enough efforts must be taken up by the LSPs to make enough from the opportunities that they have in the present market. This paper is an attempt to address the obstacles faced by the LSPs in developing countries particularly India through the available literature on the same along with an analysis proving them and providing them with possible recommendations to address them. The observe is projected to offer beneficial contributions to practitioners and carrier companies itself in terms of designingimproved techniques which could triumph over the identified difficulties and might createenhancedanswers for turning in superior carrier satisfactory to their customers.
Macroeconomic Determinants of Economic Growth in Ethiopia
This study empirically investigates macroeconomic determinants of long-run economic growth (GDP per capita) of Ethiopia over 1991-2018 periods of EPRDF regime. The study applied ARDL approach to co-integration. The result of the study indicates that there is a stable long-run relationship between GDP per capita, gross capital formation, life expectancy, openness and foreign aid. The estimated long-run result shows that the health human capital has large positive impact on GDP per capita rise followed by gross capital formation. This finding is consistent with the Solow growth and endogenous growth theories. On the other hand, openness and foreign aid have negative effect on the long-run economic growth. The findings of this paper suggest that long-run economic performance of the country can be improved through increasing domestic savings, improving health status of citizens and education quality. Importantly, curtailing overdependence on foreign aid, through increasing internal budget deficit financing mechanisms as well as promoting financial markets development, plays an important role in order to improve the long-run economic growth of the country.
Investment Behaviour of Salaried Class People in Udumalpet Town, Tirupur District
The developing countries like India face the enormous task of finding sufficient capital in their development efforts. Most of these countries find it difficult to get out of the vicious circle of poverty of low income, low saving, low investment, low employment etc. Savings shapes the important part of the economy of any nation. With the savings, in various options available to the people, the money acts as the driver for growth of the country. Indian financial prospect too presents a plethora of avenues to the investors. Though certainly not the best or deepest of markets in the world, it has reasonable options for an average individual to invest his savings. Savings and investments play a major role in economic development of any country and the primary objective of all government’s policy has been to promote savings and capital formation in the economy which is a primary instrument of economic growth. Personal Savings in India is attributed to growth in income of individuals and the rising rate of inflation. In this study researcher mainly focus on investment preference, investment behaviour of salaried investors, their investment pattern, and mode of investment. Data were collected from 50 respondents, Chi Square Test and Garrett Ranking were used for testing the hypothesis.
Determinants of internet financial reporting: In the case of Ethiopian insurance and banking sector companies
Birhan Moges Adugna Dr. Bhupendra Kumar
This research aims to examine the determinants of company’s internet financial and non-financial disclosure extent. Specifically, this study examined the effect of company’s profitability, leverage. age, size, business type, liquidity and ownership structure on the internet financial reporting practice. To investigate the effect of such factors, cross sectional data were used from national bank of Ethiopia and from private banks’ audited annual report. To analyze the data, both descriptive and regression analysis were used through STAT Aversion 15, and Ordinary List Squire Estimation technique was applied. The results of the OLS regression model indicate that profitability, size and ownership structure have statistically positive effects on internet financial reporting practice. On the other hand, this study result suggests that, liquidity and leverage have significant negative effects on Ethiopian banking and insurance sector companies internet financial reporting practice, however age and business types performed have insignificant positive and negative effects on the internet financial reporting practice respectively.
Analysis of consumers brand choice factors: the case of bottled water brands in Addis Ababa
Meaza Getnet Alemu 1 Gedamnesh Tesfaye Regasa 2
This study has mainly aimed to analyse the main factors affecting the brand choice of consumers being based on bottled water brands in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. To achieve this objective the researchers have targeted bottled water user in Addis Ababa city from whom 274 samples have been chosen randomly and structured questionnaires were distributed for them. The responses have been analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple regressions. The findings of the study showed that most of respondents were aware of bottled water brands available in Ethiopia. Particularly ‘‘Yes natural mineral water’’ is a top of mind and mostly preferred brand of all brands available in Ethiopia. The study revealed that advertisement, product quality, packaging, brand availability and price make a significant contribution to bottled water brand choice of consumers in Addis Ababa. Moreover, the study finding shows that, there is a difference among female and male consumers with regard to their perception of packaging and promotion as a factor for brand choice. Difference between age groups is observed only with regard to one variable i.e. promotional activity. Regarding the difference between educational level of respondents on the factors they consider in brand choice, price and packaging were found to have a significant difference. Price and promotional activities were observed to be perceived differently among respondents in different income levels.
Ethiopia Import Export Scenario During 2011 - 2019
Dr. Venkatesh Andavar Dr. S. Srinivasan Mr. Minda Yirga Beyene
Yet agriculture is the mainstay for Ethiopia’s economy and global trade, nowadays the growing in the service sector appears to be corresponding it in the development. As a developmental of nation, the definitive success of Ethiopia will depend on the capacity transform a state and terms of the trade among trade countries that itself been essential to the development process. Methods: This paper objectives to find out the performance of import and export of Ethiopian economy during the period 2011 – 201. Linear Regression analysis has been employed with GDP and Import, export, trade and trade openness.Findings: The volume of export and import of goods and services have positively influenced the GDP growth rate which indicated by coefficient of the regression analysis is 7.3, R-square value is 0.72, t-statistics is 9.60 and coefficient of the regression analysis is 5.40, R-square value is 0.90 and t-statistics is 3.98 respectively. And also, the volume of trade of goods and services and trade openness have positively influenced the GDP growth rate which indicated by coefficient is 4.80, R-square value is 0.94 and t-statistics is 8.85 and coefficient is 4.64, R-square value is 0.93 and t-statistics is 8.86 respectively. Conclusions: Economic growth of Ethiopia has slackened in 2018 due to obstinately condescending inflation and interest rate and slight progress on economic reforms in the nation. The volume of goods and services of import is more than that of the volume of export of goods and services which is subsequently stated the high level of trade deficit of the nation. The trade deficit has to lessening to increase of GDP of the economy by effectual trade policies.
Active Ageing in the Post Covid Era: An Analysis of the Lived Experience of Elderly in Kolkata
Sanchari Chandra1 and Sree Sanyal 2
The world is currently gripped by hitherto unprecedented pandemic situation which has had a profound impact on the lives of people across the countries. The impact on the elderly population is found to be higher. Active ageing framework is promoted globally through policy formulation to acknowledge the participation of elderly as an important contributor in the society. However, during the Covid pandemic, the elderly has to overcome several hurdles in continuing to function as active contributors to the society. This study has tried to bring forth the hurdles that elderly are facing in relation to being active. The study area is Kolkata, a metro city in India which houses the highest elderly population among all cities. This was a qualitative study based on in depth interview . The lived experiences of the elderly showed that, on one hand, they are facing restriction in participation in work and social work sector while on the other getting overworked with household chores particularly female elderly. The problem of isolation and helplessness coupled with a threat to health and economic security are a matter of concern for the elderly. Though even in this scenario the elderly are positive towards a concept like active ageing but the perception about the concept of activity seems to vary.
Chemistry students cognitive styles and their conceptual understanding of some Macroscopic, Submicroscopic, and Symbolic Concepts in Delta State
Agboro-Eravwoke Ochuko Urhievwejire
The major purpose of this study was to determine Chemistry students’ cognitive styles and their conceptual understanding of some Macroscopic, Submicroscopic, and Symbolic concepts in Delta State. Three research questions and two hypotheses were raised to give direction to the study. The design adopted for the study is the expost facto adapting the correlational approach. The sample of the study consists of all forty six (46) 400 level students of chemistry in faculty of education and faculty of science in Delta State University of 2020/2021 academic session. The instrument for data collection was the Chemistry Conceptual Understanding and Cognitive Styles Test (ICUCST). The instrument was properly validated and reliability determined before it was used, The data collected were tested using person product moment coefficient and fisher Z test. The findings of the study include; a high percentage of chemistry students of Delta State University falls under the inventor category of the cognitive style., is no significant relationship between chemistry students’ cognitive styles and their conceptual understanding of the concepts of acid and base, titration and isomerism and no significant relationship between chemistry students’ cognitive styles and their conceptual understanding of the concepts of acid and base, titration and isomerism based on gender. It was therefore concluded that there is no significant relationship between students cognitive styles and their conceptual understanding. Also, students cognitive styles and their conceptual understanding varies with gender and recommended that teachers should use both pictorial and word base materials in teaching students so that students can benefit equally irrespective of their cognitive styles’
Protection of civilians rights during armed conflict between TPLF and Ethiopian government
Abyot Abebe Alaye
The fourth Geneva Convention provides protection to civilians and obliges the contracting parties must respect and ensure respect for the convention in all circumstance. Although it provides protection to civilians, in recent decades armed conflict has blighted the lives of millions of civilians’. In Ethiopia on November 4, 2020 fighting began between Tigray people liberation front and Ethiopian government, causes countless civilian rights violations. The study aimed to assess whether the act of Tigray people liberation front and Ethiopian government is compatible with the rules of international humanitarian law that deal with protection of the rights of civilians during armed conflict. The study is descriptive legal research that adopts the qualitative method and utilizes the exploratory research design. The research used secondary data sources like; journals, books, newspapers, and so on and analyses these data through the use of thematic analysis to reflect the situation as far as armed conflict is concerned. The study found out that since the conflict erupted on November 4, 2020 Rockets have been fired into the region of Amhara and across the border into Eritrea, many civilians have been killed, more refugees have fled and massive public infrastructures have been destroyed. Finally the study concludes that the acts of parties not in line with the international humanitarian law principles since it highly violate the rights of civilian and their objects. Further the researcher argues that such serious violations are war crimes so that the government should ensure other institutions impartially to investigate the case, prosecute the individuals responsible for those violations in accordance with international fair-trial standards, and the State should pay reparations to the victims and their families, and give assurances of non-repetition, to the adoption of legal mechanisms to prevent future abuses.
Efficient Machine Learning Algorithm for Predicting Market Prices for Electronics Modules
Addisu Worku Bezabih
Pricing research in the marketing realm has primarily focused on branded products.The required quality of electronic modules (e.g., packaged electronic devices) is evaluated in electronics manufacturing through qualification testing using standards and user-defined requirements. The electronics industry faces a challenge in that product qualification testing is time-consuming and expensive. The current Ethiopian market is still run in a traditional manner, with market drivers not being used to forecast future market prices and to evaluate the data in order to predict future market prices. Furthermore, the analysis methodologies were frequently manual, resulting in inefficiencies in market prediction time and quality. The study looks at current Ethiopian market parameters to see which ones are most useful for predicting market price. The study also examines the efficacy of four machine learning models to anticipate Ethiopian commodity market prices. The experiment involved comparing models using distinct train and test data that had strong individual prediction performance and low redundancy. In the models (Support Vector Machine (SVM), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN), and Ensemble Learning), the performance of ANN and Ensemble Learning algorithms has been shown to be more accurate than SVM and K-NN.The ANN model's average MAE rate was 2.8084. With average MAE rates of 4.9362 and 8.1178, Ensemble Learning and SVM come in second and third, respectively. With an MAE rate of more than 45.3381, the other model was the worst performer.
Ability of digital imaging in diagnosing periapical lesions at varying brightness and resolution
Dr. Nandhini Ramesh 1*, Dr.Krithika C.L2, Dr. Kannan A3, Dr. Yesoda Aniyan 4
Aim: To evaluate the radiographic appearance of periapical lesions in intraoral digital radiographs by observing them in two different displays, i.e. In Laptop and Smartphones with maximum and minimum brightnessand as compressed images in laptop.Materials and methods: The retrospective study with sample size of 40 digital radiographs with periapical lesion on left mandibular molars were selected. The radiographs were assessed by 3 expert Oral Radiologists for presence and extension of the periapical lesion using two different displays (laptops, smartphones) with extremebrightness (low, high) and different image resolutions.Results: One way ANOVA was applied to compare the mean values. Tukey post hoc test was used to compare pair-wise distribution among the variables. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the mean of variables used in the study. The p-value <0.05was considered as significant.Conclusion:Classic traditional methods have been replaced for the convenience by the practitioner. So, the study proves that modern technologies can come in handy for diagnosis.
Enset, the Underutilized Suitable Food Crop for Sustainable Agriculture and Guard against Famine in Ethiopia
Given the multi-benefits, enset cultivation has been continuously underutilized in Ethiopia. I assess multi-benefits of enset focusing on its sustainability and potency in famine reduction in Ethiopia by reviewing evidence on sustainability, hunger reduction, inputs cost and yields advantage ofenset. I find that enset is a first rated climate smart crop,superior in guarding the poor because of its highest yield, energy food supply, and costs advantages; but low in protein, lacks vitamin A. In contrast, its long-period maturity and cultural perceptions limit its expansion. Therefore, exploring and expanding early-maturing varieties, supplementing enset-growing areas with vitamin A and protein-rich food crops, and changing social-perceptions are vital important to guard against famine, and realize environmental sustainability through enset cultivation.
Strategic planning practices of Benishangul-Gumuz Regional State public organisations in achieving the first Growth and Transformation Plan of the Ethiopian Government
Aweke Ashenafi Kide
The purpose of the study was to examine the strategic planning practices in achieving the first Growth and Transformation Plan of the Ethiopian Government covering the period between 2010/11 and 2014/15 with reference topublic organisations in Benishangul-Gumuz Regional State (BGRS). The study employed a concurrent mixed methods research design where both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and used. This study covered six public organisations randomly drawn from 33 public organisations operating in BGRS. Questionnaires, key informant interviews, in-depth interviews, focus groups, and archives and document analysis were used to obtain valuable information from public officials. The data generated through the aforesaid means were analysed through Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS), and thematic and content analysis techniques. The findings of the study show that the practice of strategic planning in public organisations operating in BGRS is poor. Public organisations need to design and effectively implement a performance management system (PMS), as an administrative strategy to effectively implement the strategic plans. Furthermore, BGRS Council should appoint managers or leaders for public organisations on merit-based principles beyond individuals’ political affiliation.
Visual art as resource for economic empowerment of prison-inmates in Benue state, Nigeria
In the past, convicts were taken to prisons as punishment and to serve as deterrent to others, but the idea has changed to that of corrections because reformation is the main reason for sending inmates to prisons nowadays. Studies indicate that prisons are aiding inmates in criminality through failed reformation programmes. Vocational prison centres continue to worsen with ill-equipment and staff, therefore, keeps discharging un-reformed inmates annually. There is therefore, need to put some palliative measures using art creativity and entrepreneurship. The study determined the cause and effect of visual art among inmates in Benue custodies. The specific objectives were to: (i) test inmates’ level of change from visual art exposure; (ii) assess reformation facilities for vocational and educational programmes; and (iii) ascertain the level of readiness to obtain skills for income generation. Quasi-experimental design was used for the study; the population was 172 convicts from Benue custodies. The sample size was 75 male-inmates’ selected via stratified random sampling, while 5-weeks art treatment took place with inmates. Art-scores and questionnaire data were analysed using chi-square. The study found visual art achievement as significant among inmates in Benue custodies. Recommendation: Nigerian Correctional Service should include visual arts as empowerment strategy in the reformation programme of inmates.
Effects of technology based innovation on listed commercial banks financial performance in Ethiopia: The case of Electronic Banking Services
Birhan Moges Adugna Dr. Krishna Gadasandula Swapna Daravath
This study empirically examines the effect of electronic banking services on the financial performance of listed commercial banks in Ethiopia. The study employed quantitative research approach using strongly balanced panel data on nine listed commercial banks covering 2011-2019. Target population of the study were all listed commercial banks in Ethiopia and all the available data were obtained from national bank of Ethiopia and from their audited annual reports. The fixed effect model regression results revealedthat automated teller machine and mobile banking services have positive and statistically significant effects on the financial performance of commercial banks. However, the regression result suggests that, POS machine banking services have negative and statistically significant effect.
Effects of Servant Leadership Practices on Teachers’ Organizational Commitment in Secondary Schools of Addis Ababa
Habtamu Menber Dilie Dr. D. Nagaraja Kumari
This study aimed to investigate the effects of servant leadership practices on teachers’ organizational commitment in secondary schools of Addis Ababa. In order to carryout the research, a descriptive survey design was employed.A survey questionnaire was used tocollect the data for the study. Thus, the questionnaires were distributed to the respondents selected in the twelve secondary schools (four from government and eight from private) through a stratified random sampling technique. Again, a total of 320 respondents, of which 108 from four governmentand 212 from eight private, secondary schoolswere selected through a stratified random sampling technique. The strata were used to select respondents based on gender and position in the school. A quantitative approach was used so as to analyze the data. Hence, both descriptive (mean, standard deviation) and inferential (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, linear regression) statistics were used to analyze the data. Accordingly, the results showed that servant leadership practices and teachers’organizational commitment were not in place; servant leadership practices were found inadequate in the sampled secondary schools. It was also found that there was a statistically significant positive relationship between servant leadership practices and the teachers’ organizational commitment. Moreover, it was concluded that servant leadership practices significantly affect teachers’ organizational commitment in secondary schools of Addis Ababa. Servant leadership was a significant predictor of teachers’ organizational commitment. It was recommended that secondary school leaders apply servant leadership in the secondary schools of Addis Ababa to improve teachers’ organizational commitment.
JALLI an Aesthetic feature of Hindu and Mughal Architecture
Dr.Neelam Agrawal Srivastava 1 Dr. Poonam Bhaghchandani 2
The word jail is an Urdu and Sanskrit word used to describe pierced screens to give net like structure. This net like structure is called Jaalidar. This is an ancient art and had shown its development in both Islamic and Rajputana Architecture. This was a feature of architecture embellishment and was used by both Islamic and Hindu artist who has skilled labour to carve such perforated screens. Fine latticework had a considerable status, function and role though somewhat similar and somewhat different in both the architectural styles. This was the reflection of aesthetic taste of Islamic and Hindu dynasties. Jalli , the perforated screens whether made in stone, rocks, limestone, marble or any other material have different representations, inspirations and applications when compared its presence in Islamic and Hindu architectures. The paper presents a comparative descriptive study of jalli structure and its Hindu and Islamic influences. The purpose of the paper is bought out the comparison in designs of jalli as visible in Islamic and Hindu Architecture over years and its development under the influence of each other cultures and reign of their emperors.
Analysis of Rural Household Multidimensional Poverty: Northern Amhara Regional state, Ethiopia
Tesfaye Gedefaw Wolde
The majority of the individuals in the selected areas were able to stay alive thanks to emergency food supplies and the region's safety net program. More than 30% of households in Gubalafto Woreda, one of the study districts, were living in poverty on an absolute basis (Tesfaye, 2013). Poverty can be assessed using either multidimensional or single-dimensional measures. If a person is unable to reach the daily recommended energy using a monetary strategy, he or she is considered to be deprived (either income or consumption). The multidimensional method, on the other hand, took into account a variety of variables that can capture elements that affect individual welfare, such as income, education, health, and basic infrastructure. Uni-dimensional poverty analysis, on the other hand, is unable to depict an individual's or a community's true and comprehensive welfare state, which might portray actual life conditions from various perspectives.As a result, the goal of this study is to use a multidimensional method to quantify the extents and drivers of poverty. A systematic questionnaire-based interview was used to collect the relevant data from 230 randomly selected rural families. The acquired data was analyzed using both descriptive and analytical methods. More than 90% of rural families were judged to be poor in four dimensions using ten dimensions and the generally used Dual cutoff value (K>=0.33). Education, health, clean water, power, and sanitation, all of which are essential for human capital development and economic success, had been denied to a large number of people. Demographic factors, educational level, distance to the major market, off-farm income involvement, and shock all have a substantial impact on multidimensional poverty status, according to the analysis. As a result, the responsible body should work to expand educational services, energy, clean water, and other fundamental infrastructure.
Nexus between Trade integration and Economic Growth: Case of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) Countries: An Application of the Feasible Generalized Least Square (FGLS) Panel Data Approach
Mr. Kitessa DelessaTerefe
Issues: The relationship between trade integration and economic growth has been thoroughly researched, but the conclusions have been uneven and unsatisfying. The study focusing on the argument over the impact of trade integration on economic growth is thus still unclear Methods: This study looks at the impact of trade integration on economic growth in Sub-Saharan African countries from 1995 to 2018. Findings: The FGLS result shows that Wald Chi2 =2839.02 is equally high and statistically significant Pvalue =0.0000***. As a result, the overall model is satisfactory. Labor productivity and health capital have a good and considerable impact on SSA countries' economic performance. Trade integration, population growth rate, gross capital formation, and financial development are not only substantial but also have a beneficial impact on SSA nations' real GDP per capita. Foreign aid, on the other hand, undermines it. Foreign Direct Investment has a negligible positive influence on per capita real GDP. Conclusions: To fully benefit from global trade integration, SSA countries must first improve their trade balance through export diversification and balanced growth. Second, in order to effectively engage in regional and global value chains, SSA countries must improve their internal infrastructure
Impact of Row-Seeding Technology Adoption on Teff Productivity, Household Welfare and asset holding: Evidence from South West Shoa Zone, Oromia Regional State, Using Propensity Score Matching Technique
Tesfaye Gedefaw Wolde
Due to the imbalance between increasing population increase (derivers of demand for crop products) and availability of agricultural crop products, food insecurity has been one of Ethiopia's long-standing societal concerns. Demand for agricultural crop goods such as maize, wheat, and teff is increasing. Teff is currently one of the most popular foods, with demand increasing on a regular basis not just in the United States, but also internationally.As a result, there is a discrepancy between Teff output and demand in Ethiopia. To correct this imbalance, development agencies such as agricultural development centers use various yield-increasing technologies such as compost, fertilizer, and pesticides over a long period of time, phase by phase. A new common technology known as row seeding technology was recently established by agricultural research agencies.Because it reduces seed rate, creates more space between seedlings, allows for weeding, reduces competition between Teff seedlings, and allows for greater branching out of Teff plants, row planting technology can boost Teff yields. At the pilot stage at several agricultural research centers and farmer training centers, the productivity of row-planting technology was assured. The success of this technique at the home level, however, is determined by factors such as technological acceptance perfection, manpower availability, soil quality and type, and institutional considerations. As a result, the success of row-seeding technologies should be assessed at the household level utilizing impact evaluation methodologies such as Propensity score matching (PSM). The goal of this study is to evaluate how row-seeding technology affects Teff productivity, household wellbeing, and asset holding. The study relies on cross-sectional data acquired at the household level via structured interviews. Data was obtained from 100 adopters and 100 non-adopters and analyzed using both descriptive and analytical methods (PSM).Row seeding technology can produce a considerable difference in Teff output, asset holding, and welfare indicators between adopter and non-adopters, according to both descriptive and analytical approaches. As a result, development agents should make greater efforts to expand the reach of row-planting technology to all households in order to achieve food security and improve rural households' living conditions.
The structural relationship between internationalization barriers and export performance: evidence from textile and garment enterprises in Ethiopia
Sintayehu Assefa, Abebe Ejigu Alemu and Gemechu Nemera
Internationalization and export are significant for the growth of developing country’s economies. The objective of this study is to examine internationalization barrier of medium, and large-scale Textile and Garment enterprises export performance in Ethiopia. The study analyzed data from 252 questionnaire?based surveys of managers from medium, and large-scale textile and garment enterprises in Ethiopia using SEM model. The Model identified seven significant internationalization barrier factors and it reveals that all the relationships in the hypothesized model were significant at p < 0.05 and this shows that all constructs of internationalization barriers affect export performance. The latent variables, marketing knowledge barriers (P= 0.000), human resource barriers (P= 0.010), financial resources barriers (P= 0.000), product quality barriers (P= 0.000), competition barriers (P= 0.027), government policy barriers (P= 0.001) and economic barriers (P= 0.000) significantly affect export performance, and the latent variable procedural barriers (P= 0.328) were reported insignificant. The study finds empirical evidence suggesting that several managerial, organizational and institutional barriers influence performance of enterprises in developing countries. These findings point to the need for business organizations and policymakers to address these challenges, thus improving the contribution of these firms to economic development of developing countries and the result of the studycompletes the findings for, practice policy, and research endeavor.
An empirical examination of Ethiopia's economic growth Potentials: A Time Series Approach
Kitessa Delessa Terefe
Issues: Economic growth is a prerequisite for a country's development aspirations. As a result, determining the cause of the problem is imperative. Methods: Using the Johansen Cointegration test, this study intends to empirically analyze the long-term term link between Ethiopia's labor force, gross capital formation, openness, and foreign direct investment with economic growth from 1975 to 2018. Findings: The Johansen cointegration test reveals a long-term relationship between LAB, GCF, OPENESS, and FDI. The short run dynamics also reveal that the factors in the growth equation have a favorable impact on growth. Conclusion: The study recommended that proper policies be implemented to stimulate LAB, GCF, OPEN, and FDI, all of which will contribute to Ethiopia's economic growth.
Investigating the role of indigenous cultural musical instruments for rural tourism development
Amare Kindu Dagnachew Nega Dr. Bhupendra Kumar
Ethiopia is rich in traditional musical instruments. In the Northern Ethiopia and more in the area of South Gondar there is the high exposure of the community with traditional musical instruments. However there is no study on the area on identification of the instruments and their roles for rural tourism development and for the communities. The main objective of the study is the role of indigenous music instrument for rural tourism development. Descriptive research design was employed. Qualitative research was selected for the study. Data instruments were an interview, observation and documents analysis. The target populations of the study were religious peoples, tourism experts, local communities and researchers. Findings revealed that traditional musical instruments are highly beneficial for economic, socio-cultural and spiritual values. Kebero, Masinko, Harp, Kirar and Washint are the most widely used traditional musical instruments in study area. There are also in the traditional music house, night clubs, during the time of battle flied, Holy days, wedding ceremony and others. Thus, stakeholders should work together for the conservation of the traditional and indigenous musical instruments for the rual tourism development.
An Intersection of Political economy, Regulation and Regulatory Bodies in the Ethiopian Media
Ayele Addis Ambelu ; Dr. Adem Chanie Ali ; Dr. Terje Skjerdal
This article of the research tries to analyze and discuss an intersection of Ethiopian political economy with regulation and regulators of the state in the media. The research used qualitative type of methodology in purposive sampling of document analysis and in depth interview data gathering tools through analytical design of the research. The main finding of the research in the integration of the political economy, regulation and regulatory bodies’ determine the type of information and the existence of a media environment in Ethiopia. An integration of Ethiopian political economy, regulation and regulatory bodies directly or indirectly regulate the freedom of expression (citizens), media institutions and journalists (professionals). They have over the years been used to restrict journalistic freedom. In Ethiopia as elsewhere, the key challenge is the implementation and interpretation of the laws, controlling the political system rather than their formulation. Nevertheless, it is necessary to reform this legislation to avoid that political changes again may lead to arbitrary interpretations of the legislation in a way which jeopardizes freedom of speech and undermines a vibrant media landscape.
Media Censorship in Ethiopian in the perspective of Political Economy, Regulation and Regulatory Bodies
Ayele Addis Ambelu Dr. Adem Chanie Ali Dr. Terje Skjerdal
This study attempts to identify major type, nature, and forum of media censorship in Ethiopia. The research used the qualitative method of document analysis. The purposive data collection techniques were employed. The main finding of this research, the media law environment is far from democratic and there are a number of laws which are used to enforce censorship and act against media practitioners. Ethiopian media focus regulations and the political economy environment had a devastating effect on media independence as many media organizations started operating in a state of fear and self-censorship. Ethiopian mass media outlets are state-controlled and the private media often censor by government and journalists themselves. Moreover, media institutions were severely censored due to political, financial and regulatory limitations under different law. In this context, the existing political, legal and regulatory framework did not play an enabling role for the emergence of a free media environment mechanism. The Ethiopian media is under the slavery of content, technology, financial, ownership, leadership, institutional, legal, ideological, personal, and authority form of censorship. More than 101 ways of censorship revealed in this research. Because of these reasons, the media have been monetized, polarize, and propagandize. The main recommendation of the research should be the government lift up heavy hands from the press for the media to play a democratic role.
Source Documents, Books of Original Entry and Financial Performance of Manufacturing Companies in Nigeria
Olaoye, C.O. and Afolabi, C. S.
This study examined the effect of source documents, books of original entry on the financial performance of five manufacturing companies in Nigeria from 2014 to 2018 using liquidity, profitability, solvency and leverage as proxy for financial performance. Simple ratio analysis was used to find the relationships between the variables among the organization selected and multiple discriminate analysis was used to determine the financial performance status of the organisations. Five manufacturing companies were randomly selected. The study made use of secondary data obtained from the published financial statements of the selected companies. The study finds out that Dangote and Nigeria Breweries are both able to meet their short-term and long-term obligations as at when due while Nestle, Flour Mills and Unilver Plc, are finding it difficult to meet their most pressing financial obligations but are still viable on the long run. The study concluded that source documents and books of original entries aids the preparations and presentation of financial statements of organisations upon which its financial performance are measured and recommends that when appraising the financial performance of quoted firms especially those in the manufacturing sectors of Nigeria to assess their health status, items of transactions posted in the various books of account should be traced to their source for accurate accounting information to save misleading accounting information..
Biopriming: A prospective techniques for crop improvement
Mehrdad Alizadeh1*, Yalda Vasebi2, Mansi Chauhan 3, Anju Rani 3*
Biopriming has been defined as a process in which biological and physiological treatment of seed is done with the aim of better plant growth by preventing pathogen attack and improved seedling development. This ecofriendly technique has various beneficial effects on seeds in view of agriculture development. Different bacteria and fungi have been used in biopriming technique, in which Pseudomons and Trichoderma species are the most common microorganisms used for this purpose. Current study defines biopriming and reviews the procedures and results of applying these strategies in previous studies. This distinction with introducing new concepts can be useful and helpful to the researchers in the future studies. Furthermore, a brief account of implementation procedures of the seed biopriming has been provided.
Market Outlet Choices of Smallholder Wheat Farmers in South Gondar Zone, Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia: A Multivariate Profit Approach
Walelgn Yalew Beadgie
Wheat is an important cereal crop in farta district. It is a source of food and provides cash income for majority of smallholder farmers. To commercialize wheat producers, selecting an appropriate market channel and determining the factors affecting producers sellingdecisions is important. Developing an effective and efficient marketing strategyis not an easy task because there are different factors that influence market outlet choicesbehaviors. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the socio-economic characteristics of wheat farmers& to identify factors that influence wheat farmers market outlet choices. A two-stage random sampling procedure was used and a total of 154 smallholder farmerswere randomly and proportionally selected to collect primary data. Multivariate probit model was employed to identify factors affecting wheat market outlet choices. The result of the study showed that the probability of wheat producers to choose consumer outlet is relatively high (56.9%) as compared to the probability choosing wholesaler(54.4%), retailer(49.2%) and cooperatives outlet (37.4%). This showed that consumer was the most likely chosen market outlet while cooperative was the less likely chosen market outlet.The likelihood of households to jointly chose the four outlets is only 6.3% compared to their failure to jointly choose them (6.6%). This suggest that households were less likely to fail to jointly choose the four outlets. The result of multivariate probit model revealed that family size, Members of cooperative, other crops price, lagged price, Oxen, Sex, Time of sale, Age, Distance, education were found to be statistically and significantly affecting the market outlet choice behavior of wheat producers. Therefore, the study suggested that improving the existing production system, giving better price for farmers and being membership for any cooperative are important strategies to select the appropriate market outlet.
Microfinance banks and growth of micro and small scale enterprises in Sub-Sahara Africa
Ochuko S. Alagba1 Ediri Ugherughe2 and Young U. Okwuise3
In this study the authors examines how microfinance banks stimulated economic growth and development through creation of credit for micro and small enterprises. The effect is poverty reduction in Sub-Sahara Africa and empowerment of the poor to become economically active. The findings showed that micro finance is capable of putting Sub-Sahara African economies on the path of sustainable economic development like it has done in other economies, such as Ireland, Indonesia and Bangladesh. However for the above objectives to be achieved, certain conditions need to be in place. This include: adequate supervision of micro finance banks to ensure that micro credits gets to the targeted population, appropriate regulations of micro finance banks to ensure that only those who have the ability to repay loan benefit from micro credit. It is recommended that the capital base of micro finance banks should be increased so that their services can reach more people.
Role of Non-Government Organisations towards Tribal Girl Child Education in Odisha
Jayanti Singh Kerai Dr. Birendra Suna
Education that makes persons holistic development. Society as a whole has very lately realised the promotion of education among women.The trend of not supporting girl child education was a worldwide phenomenon. Particularly, patriarchal society has not given any opportunity to the girl child education. Education promotion for persons is a state decision, and its entirely monitored by the male order society. The male chauvinism towards girl child education was seen in India before the British regime. The tribal, by nature, live in the deep forest where access to education was quite complicated. Social reformists have taken enormous steps for women education. After India’s independence, some voluntary and non-governmental organisations were established to care for the people living in the forest areas. Especially the tribal girl’s education has been taken most consideration since the 1970s. The United Nations conferences of the 1990s have greater importance to the world’s deprived and marginalised community educational promotion.The NGOs have played responsibilities for social development along with education in the hinterland. The UN conference objectives were followed by the government and commitment to providing education to the girl child. In India, Article 46 of the Constitution made provision for the promotion of education in society. As it is a state subject, the state has to decide the modalities for enhancing education among the tribals. The successive government aligns the voluntary organisations, civil societies and NGOs for holistic education in the tribal regions. The schemes were meant for the education of the tribes and particularly tribal girls. The Mayurbhan district is tribal-dominated, and tribal girls are yet to have a hundred per cent education. Some active and humanistic, tribal oriented Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) are working for tribals education. The paper has examined the fundamental roles and responsibilities initiated by the NGOs to promote education among the tribal girls. The role performance of an NGO, the Sikhyasandhan has been examined for this paper. How the NGOs motivate, delivery mechanism, connection with the government policies, empowerment method and effective monitoring mechanism has applied to tribal girl’s child towards education. Both qualitative and quantitative method was applied with field survey and secondary sources. The closed-ended interview scheduled was used for field study, and data were processed for final analysis and interpretation.
Utilizing Metacognitive Reading Strategies to develop Students Reading Comprehension in EFL Classroom: Bule Hora University 1st year selected freshman Students
Gadisa Tadesse Gobena
The study aimed to explore the learners’ metacognitive reading strategies used during reading comprehension and their impact on their learning. The subjects of the study were English teachers of Bule Hora University and their respective students particularly freshman students. The research was conducted on a sample of five sections of freshman students from Bule Hora University. The researcher took a sample of five English teachers in the Department using the Purposive sampling technique. In this study questionnaire, interview and observation were employed as data gathering instruments. The questionnaire used in this study was revolved around the strategies such as a) setting a purpose for reading, previewing text content, predicting what the text is about, re-reading for better understanding, etc.), and c)using the support mechanisms (e.g., use of reference).All of these strategies were flown around three stages to pre-reading, while-reading, and post-reading. The findings of this study revealed that there are significant differences between the uses of overall metacognitive reading strategies by the students.
Konda Dora The Lord of the Hills : An Illustrative Study in Vizianagaram district of Andhra Pradesh
Y V S Sivanagaraju 1, Dr. Tariq Ahmad Sheikh 2
Tribes are one among those who have made an immense contribution to the rich cultural heritage of the country since ancient times. It has multi-facets and varies from the Arunachal Pradesh in the far east to Gujarat in the westand from the North to the Southern part of the country. Tribes are known for their retrograde and also for idiosyncratic dress and practices.This paper discusses the social and cultural practices of the Konda Dora tribe under the Integrated Tribal Development Agency in the Vizianagaram district of Andhra Pradesh. It tries to emphasize the present condition and evaluates their diminishing practices. It's not only appraised their practices in the 20th century but also manuscript them in terms of their origin and background, housing pattern, language, and their relation with forest, social practices like code of conduct, marriage, food & drinking habits, utensils, and vessels used by them, religious and cultural practices like folklore, art and dance and their livelihood.
Climate Change andmajoradaptation strategies on Livelihood of farmerin case of Lay-Gayint District, South Gonder Zone, Ethiopia
Tamiru Bezabih Sisay
Background: Climate changes the present time one of biggest worldwide agenda. It considered serious threat natural resources and sustainable agricultural development.Objective: to asses’ climate change adaptation strategies for socioeconomically transformation ofrural community. Methods: Primary and secondary datawerecollectedthrough semi-structuredquestionnaires, field observation,interview, focus group discussion, key informant interviews and national meteorological data. Totally 120 sampling household randomly selected. Data analyzed SPSS, Livelihood vulnerability Index andMicrosoft-Excel. Result: Empirical evidence annual and maximum average annual rainfall isdecreasing a the rateof 17.21mm and 7.499mm perlast 30 year respectively. The rainfalldecreasing trendLinearequation(Y=-17.21X-41)R2=0.68,(Y=-7.499X-14574)R2=0.64 with at 5% level ofsignificance.The annual and average annual temperature increase the rate 0.09oc and 0.06 oc per last twenty-five year respectively. Theresultof Multinomial logitModelfarmers chooses differentclimate change adaptation strategies. Resultsconfirmedthat from dependent variables like age, access information, social capital, access technology havestatistically significantimpact onclimate change. Independent variables/climate adaptationstrategies soil conservation, adjusting planting,crop diversification, using improved varieties, and irrigation havestatistically significant. Marginal effect indicates that 23.6% a one-year increment in age of the households. 42.8% more vulnerable climate-changedue to higher magnitude impact, low adaptive capacity, lack education, weak livelihood strategy, and being exposed to extreme climate shock and climate sensitive resources. Government should be developing different climate adaptation strategic practice, raising awareness. Climatevulnerability should supportintervention government, policy, and decision maker to improve existing policies of rural livelihood.
The Impact of Climate Change on Small Holder Farmers in case of Lay-Gayint District, South Gonder Zone, Ethiopia
Tamiru Bezabih Sisay
Climate-change adversely affects agricultural production, increase poverty, food insecurity, andsustainable-development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of climate change onagriculture and livelihood of smallholder farmers. This study was conducted in Lay Gaynt Districtduring the 2016/17. Primary and secondary data were collected through semi-structuredquestionnaires, interview of respondents, focus group discussion, key informant interviews andMeteorological-Data. Three kebele were selected based on AEZ, 180 sampling household wererandomly selected. Data were analyzed using STATA and Microsoft-Excel. The results of the studyshow that, there was empirical evidence of annual and maximum average annual rainfall isdecreasing the rate of 17.21mm and 7.499mm per year respectively for the last twenty-five years.The result also reveals that extreme weather change particularly have negative on agriculturalproduction. The result confirms impacts of climate change on floods, heavy rains, intensity heatwaves, drought, storm and landslides 30%, 18%, 26%, 11%, 5%, 7.5% respectively. Most frequentlyweather hazards (39.65%), had damaged agricultural crop loss, diseases occurrences that affectlivelihoods of small holder farmer. Multinomial-Logit-Model showed that gender of household head,age of HH, farm experience, farm income, farm size, livestock ownership, extension services,livestock production were statistically significant with the impact of climate change. Samplehouseholds were identified lack of basic assets; market dependence food consumption and seasonalfood shortage caused chronic food insecure. However different problem, poverty, water and landscarcity, lack of information about weather forecast, forage feed scarcity, lack of agriculturaltechnologies were major constraints. Hence to solve the above problem it is recommended that thegovernment should facilitate capacity building training; creates awareness, training and weatherinformation local population important for reduced impact climate-changes on agricultureproduction. The government support should improve education access and timely agro weatherinformation.
Review on Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare
Muzeeb Ur Rehman1, Ashutosh Panday 2
The goal of this research is to offer an overview of artificial intelligence's role in healthcare. In this field, artificial intelligence has played a crucial influence. A paradigm change in healthcare has occurred due to the increasing availability of healthcare data and the rapid progress of analytics technology. Machine learning technologies such as the support vector machine, deep learning neural networks, and natural language processing manage structured data. Unstructured data is processed using natural language processing.
Youth Entrepreneurial Startups: Enablers and Inhibitors in Ethiopia, South Gonder Zone
Zeleke Wale Kassahun (MBA)
This study aimed to investigate youth entrepreneurial startups enablers and inhibitors in Ethiopia, Amhara Regional State-specific evidence from South Gonder.The study employed descriptive and an explanatory research design along with a cross-sectional survey questionnaire followed by a quantitative research approach.Likert scale questions were designed and distributed to 224 youth.Both convenience and snowball sampling techniques were employed. Binary logistic regression was employed to analyze the data with the help of the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Moreover, the proposed hypotheses had been tested via a chi-square test. As the odd ratio Exp (B) and the chi-square coefficient of the model revealed that access to finance, administrative and regulatory framework and entrepreneurship training were the major factors influencing youth entrepreneurial startups. The targeted youth were unemployed individuals, therefore it was difficult to get them since they were on the way to searching for a job. Accordingly, both convenience and snowball sampling techniques were employed. The study recommended that the government should pay much more attention to the youth by providing adequate finance, devising a sound administrative and regulatory framework, and creating an enabling entrepreneurial ecosystem. This study contributes to the current body of knowledge of enablers and inhibitors of youth entrepreneurial startups.
The Impact of using celebrities in advertising on the purchasing behavior of consumers/Analytical Study about consumers opinions: Sample from Baghdad
Alaa Nabeel Al-Heali
The study aimed to identify the effect of the use of celebrities in advertisements on the purchasing behavior of consumers, and to achieve the research objectives, a questionnaire consisting of three axes was used. The first includes the personal data of the sample (gender, age, academic achievement, place of residence), while the second axis includes criteria for the use of celebrities in Ads, while the third axis includes the consumer purchasing behavior variable, and the validity of the tool was verified using the validity of the arbitrators, data were analyzed using SAS statistical program. The study concluded that there is a significant correlation between the use of celebrities in advertisements and the purchasing behavior of consumers. There is a significant effect of the independent variable (the use of celebrities in advertisements in terms of (credibility, attractiveness, vector meanings)) on the dependent variable (the purchasing behavior of consumers).The study recommends a set of recommendations, including the need to pay attention to the selection of celebrities who meet the basic criteria in terms of credibility, attractiveness and their ability to convey the necessary information from the product, in addition to pay attention to the content of the advertisement in terms of credibility and compatibility with the culture of consumers in order to push them to trust in the advertising message.
Reflection on Nigerian Socialisation Process and Strategies: A Review
Societies strive for self-preserving, self-sustenance, and self-development. This is achieved through cultural preservation and transmission that make them distinct. This paper reflected on the Nigerian socialisation process and stages. The paper describes the Nigerian socialisation process and strategies using the Erik Erikson stages of development. It looked at the socialisation process in modern Nigeria, Nigerian socialisation strategies, socialisation, and the Nigerian child’s life course. This enabled the author to mirror the Nigerian socialisation process and strategies and Erik Erikson’s theory. The paper concluded that the agents of socialisation in Nigeria had neglected their roles in the socialisation of the Nigerian child. The family, religious groups and schools functions have been eroded, and the values and norms hitherto held dear to the people have been watered down. The Traditional Nigerian socialisation approaches and methods are deeply rooted in force or intimidating principles and theories. Nigeria socialisation processes from family to school, churches, and various social organisations show evidence of our coercive or forceful nature in compliance circumstances. Therefore, this paper laid the foundation for further study relating to developmental strategies and stages with those considering a culture’s philosophy.
The Effect of E-Supply Chain Management Perceived Performance On End User Satisfaction: The Case Of Heineken Brewery Company Share Addis Ababa Branch
1Dr. Shashi Kant 2Mandho Genale Udo
This study aimed to examine the effect of the perceived performance of e-supply chain management on customer satisfaction in the case of Heineken Brewery Company in Addis Ababa. This study used mixed research approach and descriptive and explanatory research design. In this study, a total of 92 questionnaires were distributed to managers and experts. The finding of the study indicates that the downward supply chain is more reliable and flexible than the upstream supply chain. The e-supply chain operation of the case brewery was perceived high. The study also found the gap related to joint planning, forecasting and sharing of e-supply chain information of the case brewery with their suppliers and customers. Thus, it suggest that the company may effectively use predictive analytics as it is a natural complement to traditional software and processes and predictive systems can provide information about what will happen and also why something happened and what should be done to resolve performance problems.
The Effect of Capital inflows on Domestic Private Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa
Mebratu Negera Feyisa
This study empirically investigates the effect capital inflows, namely FDI and foreign aid on domestic private investment in 26 SSA countries for the periods 2000 to 2019. The study applied random effect and system GMM to estimate model that explain the behaviour of investment in most of developing countries. The results of the study show that FDI crowds-in domestic private investment in SSA countries, but foreign aid has negative effect on domestic private investment. Furthermore, the result of the study indicates that devaluation of official exchange rate enhances private investment in SSA countries. The findings of this study suggest that SSA countries need to create hospitable environment and incentives for attracting multinational corporations in order to achieve rapid and accelerated growth of domestic private investment. Equally, SSA countries need to reduce their dependency on foreign aid and reinforce devaluation of their currency in order to promote private investment.
Investigating the associations among EFL students reading attitude, reading motivation, and comprehension
Tadiwos Hambamo Makebo
Reading is crucial in every subject and includes a relationship with the students' achievement. This study was aimed to research whether or not there's correlation between reading attitude and reading comprehension achievement, correlation between reading motivation and reading comprehension achievement, correlation between reading attitude and reading motivation. The study was a correlational study with Pearson-product moment correlation. The samples of this study were 100 Ethiopian grade 11 students. Cluster sampling technique was utilized in this study. Questionnaires of reading attitude, reading motivation, and reading comprehension tests were applied. The questionnaire result revealed that the reading attitude and reading motivation were medium. Furthermore, the results showed that reading attitude and reading comprehension had substantial association. Reading motivation and reading comprehension also had important relationship. The roles of scholars, parents and teachers must work suitably so as to construct the positive reading atmosphere, thus they might achieve the higher achievement in reading even for all subjects.
Knowledge Mapping of Bluetongue Disease Research: A Scientometric Analysis (1940-2020)
G.Rathinasabapathy1, K.Veeranjaneyulu2, K.N.Kandpal3
Problem: Livestock rearing plays a vital role in rural economy and the diseases affecting the livestock are major challenge faced by the farming community. Bluetongue is one of the major diseases affecting livestock which causes huge economic loss across the globe. So far, no scientometric mapping has been done on the bluetongue disease research publications which is very much important to stakeholders in the field. Therefore, this present study attempts to explores the growth pattern of Bluetongue disease research literature published globally during the past seven decades i.e. 1940-2020. Methodology: The data for this scientometric study has been retrieved from the Scopus database using the keywords “Bluetongue”, “Blue tongue” and “Blue-tongue”. The downloaded articles were classified chronologically and transferred to a spreadsheet for the analysis as per the objectives of the Study. MS-Excel and VOSViewer 1.6.17 have been used for data analysis and preparation of illustrations and constructing and visualising bibliometric networks.Findings and Conclusion: The study results revealed that there was a total of 2,694 publications indexed during the past seven decades and a spurt in literature seen during the year 2008 which was 161 publications (5.98%) and the average number of publications is 38.49. Roy P affiliated with NERC Institute of Virology, Oxford, U.K. is the most productive author with 177 publications (6.57%) and 6862 citations, 38.77 average citation per paper and h-index of 54. Veterinary Record is the top journal preferred by the researchers to publish bluetongue related research publications since 165 publications (6.12%) are published in the journal which is having SJR of 0.36. The USA is the top country with 601 publications followed by United Kingdom (528), India (234), Australia (233) and France (216).The top 10 countries have contributed 2379 publications which is 88.30%.The Pirbright Institute, U.K. is the top contributor in the field of bluetongue research with 267 publications which is 9.91% to the global publication output.The predominant type of publications is Journal Articles (86.38%). Publications on Bluetongue has been published in 13 languages and English is the predominant language with 2559 publications (94.98%) and 2132 (79.14%) are open access publications.The present scientometric study provides an in-depth analysis of publication output on Bluetongue disease and done a knowledge mapping of the literature of about seven decades i.e. from 1940 to 2020.The study concludes that considering the disease burden and increasing economic loss to the rural economy, the Government and Non-government agencies shall carry out collaborative research projects in this field with sufficient funding support.
Accident Detection and Alert System for Medical Assistance
Madhuri Emmidi1 Gaurav Sharma2
Now-a-days, major parts of the accident are due to the uneven interruptions. Speed is one of the reasons for most of vehicle accidents. Hope this project will provide the solution for this drawback. If emergency services get the accident information in time, then many lives could have been saved. If a vehicle meets with an accidents accelerometer detect the signal and sent it to the ARM controller. The project is helpful in detecting the accident and alerting the near-by help center by tracking the geographic location and checking the condition of the person. In future, we can enhance the project by capturing the accident images.
Rural Households Willingness to pay insurance for Health: South Gondar Zone, Amhara Region
Alebel Woretaw Asaye , Tilahun Lakew Nigatie
The mechanism of health care funding accessible to the poor particularly the rural households has been a supply of worry in Abyssinia. In an exceedingly bid to seek out resolution to the current downside, an alternate funding theme that may cater for health care expenditure of vulnerable rural farming households has been planned. This study thus examined the willingness-to-pay for Community primarily based insurance theme by rural households in South Gondar Zone, Amhara region. 825 rural households were proportionately chosen and interviewed from regime space of the Zone. The study used the Contingent valuation and standard least square methods to research the typical quantity households are willing to pay and also the factors influencing their temperament to pay severally. The results of the study disclosed that the rural households were willing to pay a median of Birr 2,160.53 per head per annum (.57 USD per person per month). The age of the unit head and unit monthly financial gain were found to considerably influence the most quantity the rural households are willing to pay. The study suggested that the government ought to enabling atmosphere that will encourage the institution and operation of private insurance besides to the existing insurance schemes in rural areas.
British Bungalows as an Administrative Centre in Assam: A historical study
Before the advent of the British, most of the houses in Assam were made of timber, bamboo and thatch (reed) and were structurally perfect and aesthetically beautiful. The Ahom tradition of wooden architecture made stone and brick not a favourable building material for native Assamese artists and artisans. After the arrival of the British, there emerged a new pattern of bungalows known as the British bungalows or Assam type bungalows which was an important characteristic of British administrative centers. As Assam was divided into administrative districts under the British rule and the towns which functioned as district administrative centers were the ones where most of such bungalows were built. Though the colonial administrators mainly constructed the bungalows for the political and administrative purpose but it brought a physical and social separation of the European and the indigenous people. It gradually changed the traditional pattern of houses in the societyand the bungalows were developed as the main hub of the political and administrative activity where the offices as well as the residences of the officials were located. The present study will be made to explore the administrative, political, socio-economic importance of British Bungalows in colonial Assam.
Factors Affecting the Value Added Tax (VAT) Administration Effectiveness: EvidenceSouth Gondar Zone, Ethiopia
Tilahun Lakew Alebel Woretaw Dr. Krishna Gadasandula
Good tax administration can provide effective and efficient service and enhancing voluntary compliance. The study mainly focused on assessing VAT administration and enforcement practice, and factors affecting the effectiveness of VAT collection. Survey has been conductedwithcasual survey research design among 249 (190 taxpayers and 59 employees) participantsfrom DebreTabour and Woreta towns. Data were collected using a pre-tested and structured interviewer with administered questionnaire which utilize both quantitative and qualitative methods. The result found that VAT registration effect in the effectiveness of VAT administration effectiveness was significant at standardized beta value (B=0.159, p = 0,025 < 0.05). VAT enforcement and VAT collection effect in the effectiveness of VAT administration effectiveness were significant at standardize beta value (B =.321, p = 0,000 < 0.05) and (B =0.346, p = 0,000< 0.05), respectively. And it is concluded that VAT registration, enforcement and collection were found to be the predictors VAT administration effectiveness. Thus enhancements of VAT administration effectiveness shall be conducted on all the dimensions, especially the dimensions of VAT enforcement, registration and collection.
Implication of Fairtrade Marketing Outlet Selection on Income of Coffee Farmers in Gimbo district
Fairtrade coffee segments have shown consistent growth over the last two decade and exhibit price premiums over traditional coffee market in international markets. Coffee farmers in Gimbo district have been participating in Fairtrade coffee marketing since early time of millenniumHowever, whether those prices are passed on to coffee farmers or accessing to fair trade markets could improve their earning is not clear in the district. Therefore, this article attempts to identify factors influencing Fairtrade coffee marketing channel choice and its effect on the income of coffee farmers in Gimbo district, using cross-sectional survey data. Whilst the probit model result showed that education, membership of farmer organization, gaining market information and training, and small-size coffee farm increases the likelihood of farmer’s participation in the Fairtrade coffee market, remoteness from cooperatives lessens the probability of farmer’s participation in the Fairtrade coffee market. Furthermore, the OLS model result confirms that coffee farming experience, larger coffee farm size, and participation in training lead to an increasein income receiving of farmers from coffee. However, access to credit leads to cut in income getting of farmers from coffee. The finding also designates that Fairtrade marketing participation yields significant income over traditional markets. Based on these, policy measures that advance farmers’ capacity via training, physical access to market places, market information services, participation cooperatives, expansion of Fairtrade markets, and coffee yield improvement will lead to increase earnings of farmers’ from the coffee sector.
Determinants of profit efficiency of micro and small enterprises
Hailemichael Mulie Asmare (Ph.D)
Ethiopia is implementing Plan for alleviating poverty in both rural and urban through Micro and Small scale enterprises as veritable vehicles. The main objective of this study was to analyze determinants of profit efficiency of leather products manufacturing MSEs. The study relied on cross-sectional data collected from 95 Micro and small enterprises owners and Managers (Addis Ababa). Two Econometric models, namely profit translog stochastic frontier and a firm-specific inefficiency models were used. The parameters in stochastic profit frontier and inefficiency models were estimated simultaneously, using FRONTIER 4.1 computer program. Results of the profit frontier model showed that capital, labor cost and "other inputs" had a positive influence on the profitability of MSEs while the cost of raw material had a negative effect. The analysis also showed that all firms (MSEs) were not operating on the profit frontier and scored a mean profit efficiency of 73 percent. The result showed a mean profit efficiency score of 0.73 and witnessing an inefficiency of 27 percent lagging behind the best practice or the frontier. The efficiency was ranging from 0.1 to 0.98 score showing a wide variation of efficiency among the MSEs. The major sources of inefficiency identified were: limited access to credit facilities, inadequate institutional linkage, firm size, and lack of experience in management. Among these, lack institutional linkage, limited access to credit and firm size were the major constraints that determine profit efficiency. Therefore the study recommends that, MSEs need access credit, diversifying their products, led by professional managers employ multiple level of promotional efforts and linked with institutions.
Assessing the Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility Practices on Factory Performance: A Study on Selected Factories in Amhara region, Ethiopia
Feyisa Debisa Tilahun Lakew
Demand of corporate social responsibility practices to increase the performance of the industry also increase. The study mainly focused on assessing the impact of corporate social responsibility practices on factory performance a study on four selected factories in Amahara region, Ethiopia.The study employed sequential explanatory and descriptive research design.There were 340 samples and all questionnaires were returned. The SPSS version 20 was use as a tool to process the primary data. The research finding shows that the most important stakeholders for the CSR initiatives are investors or share holder owners and followed by employees and customers. Since the manufacturing industries stakeholders are very interrelated for the business mostly the customers/buyers are the major influential part for Ethiopian manufacture products due to the nature of the market. Due to fact that the investors are mostly forced to apply different good operational practices or codes that includes international production codes mostly required by the customers. The country has affected by drought and famine for the decades due to environmental degradation. The government is better to integrate with stakeholders especially trade union, provides a set of rules and regulation for of sustainable production to make forceful code of practice and the government shall have to apply the new legislation and familiarize the code. Factories should have to involve of employees and community leaders in the CSR process and evaluation so that all of them have common understanding and responsibility that will enhance to have an effective CSR programs.
Red pepper production risk adjusted technical efficiency: The case of Lanfuro district in Silte zone, Southern Ethiopia
Muktar Geleto, Mohammed Essa, Anitha Lourdu Jemes
This study objective was to add the additional empirical findings on the works of literature, that explain the possible causes of red pepper yield fluctuations in the study area. The output gap that exists between observed and the potential output indicates an opportunity for further output growth. To estimate the production risk and technical inefficiency effects the study was employed a cross-sectional data that collected from 320 sampled red pepper farmers in the study area. The results of the study confirmed that the translog (transcendental logarithmic ) production model specification was the best-fitted model. To estimate the level of technical efficiencies, this study was employed the stochastic frontier model with flexible risk properties that able to considered production risk. Hence, the output fluctuation is evaluated from both production risk and technical inefficiency sources. The estimations results of the mean output, production risk and technical inefficiency models provided by using a one-step maximum likelihood in the sfcross command with STATA16 software. The study justifies the presence of technical inefficiency and production risk in the red pepper production process. The input variable fertilizer, seed, another cost of agrochemicals and labour positively affect the red pepper output. The study also shows that the red pepper production technologies exhibit increasing returns to scale in the study area. Fertilizer, seed, costs of agrochemicals reduce output risk whilst labour increase output risk but its effect was insignificant.This studyfinding demonstrates that the causes of technical efficiency differentials among sampled red pepper farmers in the study area. The average technical efficiency scores of red pepper farmers are 62.5 percent in the study area. There is a significant difference between the estimations of the production risk-adjusted and not adjusted averages technical efficiencies. The market information, extension contact, and gender being head household positively related to technical efficiency.The age of household head, the prevalence of diseases, family size and education at college and above level negatively related to technical efficiency. This study recommends that inputs for red pepper production should be made readily available, affordable and accessible to farmers so that more may be employed to further increase output.
An Investigation into Factors that Hinder ELT Teachers to Design Authentic Writing Tasks for Writing Lesson with Reference to Ambo Town High Schools
Obsa Kebede Wakuma
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that hinder ELT teachers to design authentic writing tasks for writing lesson. The study utilized descriptive survey research design to elucidate credible data from the subjects. Mixed methods were employed to conduct the study.The study was conducted in High schoolsand the data were collected from 25 English language teachers in Ambo town Secondary Schools. In the selection of sample population availability and non-probability sampling techniques were used. The instruments of data collection were questionnaire, semi-structured interview for English teachers and document analysis. The data obtained through questionnaires were quantitatively analyzed and interpreted in light of percentages whereas the information obtained through interview and document analysis were qualitatively described to supplement the quantitative data. The findings of the study revealed that there was no enough practice of writing skill in the high schools to develop students’ writing ability in writing skills. The study indicated that there were factors that hinder Englishteachers to design authentic writing tasks for the writing lesson. Some of these factors were: lack of teachers training how to develop tasks, lack of materials to use, lack of adequate time, and other social related factors were raised as major factors. The findings of the study also showed that almost all English teachers neglected teaching writing skill in the school due to aforementioned factors. As a result, the findings denoted that learners’ test performance and their writing ability were poor. Therefore, it was recommended that English language teachers need to pay attention in teaching writing skill equally with other skills, so as to improve students’ writing ability in the case of current conditions.
Farmers Producers Organizations (FPO) in Bihar: A Road Ahead
Indian economy was already in the grip of a prolonged slowdown before the coronavirus hits the country The total lockdown due to this Covid19 outbreak damages economic structure (rural and urban) of country. Indian agriculture severely faced problem due to this lockdown by hampering on supply chain, production, harvesting etc. Farmers from small and marginal land holding face various challenges in having access to inputs and marketing facilities. In the last several years Government of India has encouraged farmer producer organizations (FPOs) to help small and medium farmers. There are number of study have been conducted on impact of FPOs on farmers income and their standard of living. This paper tried to capture insights of FPOs operating in Bihar and its challenges. Paper also suggested some measures to improve the condition of FPOs.
Binary Logistic Regression Analysis on the Effect of Tax Audit on Improving the Taxpayers Compliance Behavior: A Case of Ethiopian Ministry of Revenue, South Gondar Zone Branch-Ethiopia
Birhan Moges Adugna Dr. Krishna Gadasandula Dr. M. Kondala Rao
The study has attempted to examine the effect of tax audit on tax compliance in Ethiopia, with special referenceto Ethiopian ministry of revenue, branch of south Gondar zone. To examine the effect of probability of being audited on the tax compliance, the study is conducted by using primary data collected from category “A” and “B” taxpayers. The response obtained from 233 respondents (approximate 91.4% response rate) is used for both descriptive and inferential analysis. Binary logit model is estimated in order to examine the effect of tax audit and the control variables (taxpayers awareness, penalty rate and compliance cost) on compliance behavior, The study found that tax audit (probability of being audited), tax payer’s awareness and penalty rate imposed on fraud and evasion are found to have statistically significant positive effect on the tax compliance behavior of category “A” and “B” taxpayers in Ethiopian ministry of revenue, south Gondar zone branch. On the other hand, compliance cost is found to have statistically insignificant effects on compliance behavior of category “A” and “B” taxpayers in the study area.
Determinants of market participation and intensity of marketed surplus among maize producers in Fogera District of South Gondar Zone, Ethiopia: Heckman Two Stage Approach
Theagricultural productivity is low due to use of low level of improved agricultural technologies, risks associated with or no access to market facilities and low participation of the smallholder farmers. Hence the study focused on the specific objectives wereto identify factors that affect market participation decision of households and to determine factors affecting the volume of market supply of maize. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from primary and secondary sources. The cross-sectional survey was conducted using structured questionnaire,key informant interviews, and focus-group discussions. A stratified stage sampling technique was used to draw 150 sample units using systematic random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics and Heckman Two-Stage model was employed. The result indicated that 56 % of market participant were male headed, while 30.67 % were female headed. Whereas 15.58% of non-market participants were male headed households, while 5.84% of non-market participants were female headed households. Out of 17 potential variables, seven variables age, area of maize, oxen number, distance to market, access to market information, member of cooperatives and inverse mill’s ratio were significantly influence the decision & extent participation in maize marketing. Therefore, the following points are recommended to develop sustainable production and marketing of maize that is locally adaptable and acceptable to increase the competitiveness of smallholder farmers: improving access to credit to apply fertilizer, farmers should rely on intensive cultivation rather than extensive cultivation and strengthen extension service.
The impact of the insurance sector in achieving economic development / applied research in the Iraqi Stock Exchange
Wisal Abdullah Husain1, Oroba Main Ayesh2
The research comes to highlights the important role of the insurance sector in the development of the national economy, as the services provided by insurance companies are a guarantee to provide financial protection for individuals and companies against the various risks that they may be exposed to, and on the other hand, the insurance sector is one of the important channels for collecting national savings, which can be used to finance national investments, in order to create new job opportunities and reduce unemployment rates, then achieve The importance of financial markets comes from their role in mobilizing domestic savings and directing them towards investments to achieve economic development. Therefore, the financial markets in developed countries constituted one of the pillars of economic progress. Some financial markets in Arab countries have registered to build markets that compete with global markets such as Dubai Financial Market and Egyptian Market
Impact of Promotional Tools on Sales with Special Reference to Ethio- telecom: Evidence from North Western Region Office, Ethiopia
Alebel Woretaw Tilahun Lakew Dr. Krishna Gadasandula
There has been an increase inpromotion to influences the purchase action on sales of a customer. The study mainly focused on evaluating the impact of promotion mix on customer purchase action in case of Ethiopia telecommunication. Descriptive survey research design was used to examine the impact of promotion mix on customer purchase action. Out of customer of the company, 374 responded and giving response rates of 97%. A Likert scale type of questionnaire was used to collect the necessary data from respondent. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 16, with pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis.. The results of this study showed that public relation, personal selling, sales promotion and sponsorship advertising impact purchase action by the value of 35.1%, 28.2%, 19.6 %, 14.4 %, and 8.6 % respectively. In conclusion, the study indicates public relation, personal selling, sales promotion, sponsorship and advertising have significant impact on consumer purchase action. This indicates that Ethio-Telecom should work on the promotion to stimulate the purchase action of customer to increase its sales. The results also indicated that promotional tools have great contribution for the growth of positive relationship between the organization and customers for the effectiveness of its sales. It is recommended that management and other marketers in the industry regularly evaluate the marketing communication activities they engage in and have consistence effective promotional tools.
Sexuality education for wellness of secondary school children in Delta state of Nigeria
Dr. Peter Suoke Onohwosafe and Mrs. Catherine Adowei
High incidents of pre-marita1 pregnancies, abortions and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS among students are clear indication that secondary school children are seriously lacking in some of the very important dimensions of wellness. Though the proper teaching of sexuality education at the secondary school level should be capable of correcting this anomaly, cultural and religious norms are observed to be impediments. Most secondary school children are consequently kept in the dark on core sexuality issues and this has adverse consequences on the children and society at large. It is believed that cultural and religious norms’ impediments to sexuality education in schools can be affected positively by the use of Social cognitive Theory (SCT). How the six stages of change in this theory can be used to overcome cultural and religious norms for the proper teaching of sexuality education in secondary schools are discussed.
Correlates of academic integrity in enhancing the quality and standard of science education in tertiary institutions in Delta state
Avwiri, H. E.
This article explores the correlates of academic integrity in enhancing the quality and standard of science education in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State. The descriptive research design with two research questions and one hypothesis were used. The population for the study comprise of lecturers of science and education from three (3) tertiary institutions in Delta State, Nigeria. A sample of six (6) lecturers in the Faculty of Science and eight (8) lecturers in the Faculty of Education from each tertiary institution were consulted bringing the total number to forty two (42) lecturers sampled randomly for the study. The questionnaire was designed by the researcher the with the sole objective of extracting quantitative data utilized for the study, adopting frequency, percentages, and means as statistical tools, centred upon a four-point scale were employed to analyze the research questions, and Pearson’s correlation was used to measures the statistical relationship between the means of the three groups with regards to the research hypothesis, with a reliability coefficient of 0.87 at a 0.05 level of significance. The study submits that Academic Integrity has a positive correlation and accounts for up to 54% of the Quality of Science Education in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State. Academic Integrity also has a positive correlation and accounts for up to 0.47% of the Standard of Science Education in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State. Conclusively, the concept of quality, in the delivery of science education has a positive correlation and accounts for up to 22% of the standard of science education in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State.
Impact of Television on Scheduled Tribes: A Study of Rajupakalu Village in Visakhapatnam
Dr. Challa Ramakrishna
The purpose of this article is to ascertain the effectiveness of television programmes in the process of development with particular reference to Rajupakalu Agency in Chintapalle Mandal of Visakhapatnam District in India. It sets out to determine how effective television programmes can play in enhancing the process of Tribal development in the Rajupakalu Tribal agency of Visakhapatnam district, especially with particular reference to the farmers in the mentioned area, majority of who are illiterate.
Determinants of profitability performance of beer companies in Ethiopia
Andargachew Haile Alem 1 Endalkachew Nigusse 2 Dr.Nageswara Rao Thadvuai 3
This paper aim was to examine the factors that determine the profitability performance of selected beer companies in Ethiopia. The study employed explanatory research design to assess the relationship between profitability and its determinant factors. Purposive sampling method was used to select sample beer companies. Balanced panel data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. OLS method in the form of multiple regressions analysis was applied to analyze the annual data generated from the annual statements of the selected beer companies and annual reports of National Bank of Ethiopia covering a period of 1999 to 2013 G.C. In this study ROE was used as the measure of profitability performance. The paper includes total asset, operating expense, credit function, borrowing, and age of a company as internal independent variables and inflation and GDP as external independent factors that determine the profitability of beer brewery companies in Ethiopia. The researcher found that from the company specific variables total asset, operating expense and credit function have significant impact on profitability performance of beer companies. Total asset and credit function have positive impact on profitability performance. However, operating expense has a negative significant impact on profitability performance. Borrowing and age are not determinants of profitability. From macroeconomic variables GDP has a positive significant impact on profitability. Whereas, inflation has no impact on profitability performance of beer companies in Ethiopia.
An Assessment of the COVID-19 Pandemic Induced Shocks in Urban Household Livelihoods: A Case Study of Werabe Town Administration, Ethiopia
Tewfik Bamud 1 Dr.AnithaLourdu James2
The main purpose of this study was to examine the COVID-19 pandemic induced Shocks in urban household livelihoods in the case of Werabe town administration, Ethiopia. The study was conducted based on primary data collected from 149 randomly selected households. It involved estimation of the impacts on livelihood and identification of factors that explain differences across households in the impact of covid-19 on livelihoods. It was learned from the results of the study that the COVID-19 pandemic caused households to lose as high as 15.6% of their pre COVID-19 earnings on average and incur coping expenses as high as 22.3% of their pre COVID-19 earnings on average. The impact of the covid-19 pandemic on livelihood, however, varies across households. It was found out that households that are less educated, have credit access, possess no bank account, and are employed in transport service as main source of livelihood were more likely to lose earnings due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Similarly, the share of coping expenses in household income showed increases with less education, access to credit, and employment in transport service as main source of livelihood but showed decrease with possession of bank account.
A Study on Determinants of Private Investment Activity: A Case Study of Debre Tabor Town - Ethiopia With Reference to Ethiopian Investment Authority
Baharu Sisay Negatu Dr. Krishna Gadasandula Associate Professor Dr. M. KondalaRao
A good investment climate fosters productive private investment, and it is the engine for growth and poverty reduction. It creates opportunities and jobs for people. It expands the variety of goods and services available and reduces their cost, to the bene?t of consumers. The study focuses on to identify determinants of private investment in Debre Tabor town. The study was employed by using both descriptive and explanatory research design with quantitative and qualitative methods. The total population of the study are 103 of this the researcher select 82 samples for the study since the population is not homogeneous stratified sampling is used. The quantitative aspect of the data focused on description of socio- economic variables, investment and business related variables and analysis of relationship among the dependent and explanatory variables of the authority. Explanatory research study is most appropriate because it is more efficient, economical and flexible enough to minimize bias and maximize reliability of the collected data. From this study it is found that the determinants regarding the investmentactivityin the town are the expected return on the investment, business confidence, internal unrest, interest rate, corruption, and tax, level of saving, finance, and infrastructural development. And the model shows that in such a way that: -relationship among the dependent and independent variables are significant.And the recommendations are forwarded for policy makers, and the different concerned body.
Assessment of Electric and traditional Open- Fire Stoves Utilization to Reduce Environmental Impacts and Energy Conservation in the Case of South Gondar
Addisu Worku Bezabih
To assess the possibility of biomass based injera backing and mirt stove to contribute the reduction of environmental issues such as indoor air pollution and energy conservation. Environmental degradation is a global problem, but it must be dealt with onseveral different scales: local, regional, national and international.The predominant use of conventional biomass fuels, combined with the use of inefficient technologies, is leading to environmental deterioration and the prevalence of health problems caused by indoor air pollution. The levels of these pollutants in the kitchen were measured using carbon monoxide data loggers. According to the conclusions of this investigation, installing a Mirt burner in the kitchen. Carbon monoxide and particulate matter levels were reduced by 88.8% and 17.3%, respectively, when the analysis was done over an 8-hour period. The 15-minute maximum exhibited a similar trend, with carbon monoxide levels of 91.5 percent and particulate matter levels of 19.3 percent. The mean pollutant concentration during baking time is the most essential measure to compare these stoves. In comparison to athree stone fire system, the result suggests that it might reach a particular fuel consumption of 45 percent.
The impact of domestic violence on women autonomy
Mersha Zenebe (MA) and Habtam Setegn (MA)
Domestic violence is a practical and obvious problem which affects women lives across different countries. The prevalence and occurrence of domestic violence impede women autonomy at home. Thus this study aims to assess the impact of domestic violence on women’s autonomy. In doing so, the researchers used mixed type of research and the data gathered though interview and questionnaire. The study is limited to married women (aged > 15). Overall the researchers found that domestic violence is highly prevalent in the study area. The frequency of occurrence of domestic violence shows that most women face domestic violence once a week (51.7%). The majority of respondents suffer physical and financial type of domestic violence which is 26.7% and 25%, respectively. Moreover, the majorities of the respondents (95%) agree and strongly agree on the negative impact of domestic violence on their decision making at home. The study founds a significant correlation between the prevalence of domestic violence in general and husband control of finance. Again, the correlation between a woman beaten by your husband and stopped seeing family or friends to avoid your husband's jealousy or anger shows significant and positive correlation. Ultimately, there is also positive and significant correlation between husband threatened to hurt physically and a woman stop seeing family or friends.
Assessment of Factors Affecting Tax Audit Effectiveness in Ethiopia: Empirical Evidence from South Gondar Zone Revenue Offices
Destaw Simret Tesfie Birhan Moges Adugna Dr. Krishna Gadasandula Dr. M. Kondala Rao
This study was carried out to investigate factors affecting tax audit effectiveness in Ethiopia particularly in South Gondar Zone to achieve its aim of getting the right amount of tax revenues at the right time from the right taxpayers. The research has relied on primary data collected from category “A” and “B” tax payers by using questionnaires. The population of the study was tax auditors and tax officers (such as tax assessment and collection, taxpayers ‘education, job process owners and head of the revenue administration office). The response obtained from 105 respondents (75%) response rate was used for the analysis. To achieve the above objectives, the study used binary Logit model to evaluate the relationship among the variables. The result indicated that audit case selection, audit experience and types of audit performed are found to have statistically significant positive effects on the tax audit effectiveness in South Gondar zone revenue office. On the other hand, occupation of auditor, audit resource, rate of tax audit performed, field of study and age of the auditors are identified to have statistically significant negative effects on tax audit effectiveness in South Gondar zone revenue office. Finally the study had for- warded suggestions for the tax authority to further strengthen audit case selection, audit experience and types of audit performed.
Exploring Teachers Perceptions and Practices of Active Learning Method in ELT Classroom: The case of four High schools in West Guji Zone
Obsa Kebede Wakuma
The purpose of this study was to explore teachers’ perceptions and practices of active learning method, to explore how often teachers’ practice active learning strategy in their English classes and challenges teachers’ faced while they implementing active learning strategies. The study utilized exploratory research design to elucidate credible data from the subjects. Mixed methods were employed to conduct the study. The study was conducted in some selected secondary schools in West Guji Zone and the data were collected from 80 students and 36 English language teachers from secondary schools in West Guji Zone. In the selection of sample population purposive and random sampling techniques were used. The instruments of data collection were questionnaire, interview and observation checklist. The data obtained through questionnaires were quantitatively analyzed and interpreted in light of percentages whereas the information obtained through interview and observation were qualitatively described to supplement the quantitative data. The results of this study revealed that teachers perceived active learning positively. In spite of their good perceptions, the level of active learning implementation was found to be sometimes. Among the factors affecting the implementation of active learning, teachers training, teachers’ tendency to prefer traditional/lecture method, shortage of time, large class size, beliefs and interests of teachers and class condition were the major ones. Finally, the researcher would like to recommend that all the problems those teachers faced in their perceptions and practices of active learning should be considered by the subject teachers and West Guji Zone administrative body to implement effectively active learning method in ELT classroom.
Determinants of Entrepreneurial Intention among Graduating Students in Ethiopian Universities: The Case of Madawalabu University
Hailemichael Mulie Asmare (PhD)
The major objective of the study was to investigate the determinants of entrepreneurial intention among graduating students at Madawalabu University. For this end, data were collected from 333 graduating students selected with stratified sampling technique. The Binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the determinants of entrepreneurial intention of graduating students. The result of the study revealed that only 41.5percent of the graduating students reported their intention to start their own business and the majority of them preferred to join public and private organizations as career choices. From the cohort of fields of study, Business and Economics graduating students retorted a better entrepreneurial intention followed by Engineering and Technology graduating students. The model result revealed sex, prior experience, residence, parental role model perceived social norms, risk taking readiness and propensity, entrepreneurship education were the major significant determinants of entrepreneurial intention of graduating students. Therefore, policy makers need to design entrepreneurship courses in different curricula to nurture students towards self employment and Universities should establish business incubation programs so as to nourish entrepreneurial talent at university level.
A Study of Emergence of Railways During the British Rule.
Mr. Ashvakumar Chandrakant Pawar
This article throws light on the need for the construction of Railways during the colonial period. The construction of Railways is considered as an important development by the Britishers in India. It connected even the interior area. It also focuses on the impact on the economy. The British commercial and economic benefits can be reflected.
Mathematics Learning Disability: Some Strategies to Teach Students who haveMathematics Learning Disability
Onoshakpokaiye, E. Odiri
Mathematics is asubject taught in all schools, made compulsory for all educational system and also it is the basic requirement for all studentsto study any course in higher institution. This subject hasbeen a problem to so many students forits calculation. Many of the students are afraid of the subject, because of the general notion that it is the most difficult subject. Aside these group of students,we haveother students who have learning disability in mathematics. These group of students find it difficulty to learn and understandmathematics concepts, most of them are discouraged and frustrated due to their inability to learn and understand the basic mathematics concepts. Some of the mathematics teachers handling the subject are not trained in the area of handling these group of students, some are impatient,since theydo not specialize in this special area of needs that will take care of students who havemathematics learning disability and so thereis problem in teaching these group ofstudentsthe subjects. There is need for trained teachers in this aspect to take care of the learning disability of students. The paperexamines mathematics and learning disability, learning disability in mathematics and student’s performance, teaching students who have mathematics learning disability and some of the approachesthat can be applied to teach students with mathematics learning disability.
Clinical Profile of Urinary Tract Infections In Elderly Men
Dr. Ambili N.R Dr. Renymol B Dr. T.D.Unnikrishnan Kartha
Urinary tract infections are very common in elderly population. It is the most common cause of bacteraemia in older men. The structural and functional abnormalities of urinary tract like benign prostatic hypertrophy(BPH) and comorbidities like Diabetes mellitus contribute to this high incidence of urinary tract infection( UTI). The aim of this study was to find the clinical profile of UTI in elderly men -the risk factors and complications, and the relation between obstructive urinary symptoms and UTI in elderly men.This was a hospital based longitudinal study undertaken among elderly male patients admitted in a tertiary care hospital. 48 male patients aged more than 60 years who were admitted in medical wards with UTI were included in this study. Their clinical features, co morbidities, laboratory investigation results including urine culture and antibiotic sensitivity, complications and outcome were noted and analysed. IPSS was used to assess the severity of obstructive urinary symptoms.Majority of the patients (60.40%) were in the 60-69 years age group. Fever (79.2%) was the commonest presenting symptom followed by dysuria (52.10%) and frequency (43%). A significant proportion of patients in our study group (16.7%) had altered sensorium. 70.8% patients had co morbidities. Of these Diabetes Mellitus (68.8%) was the commonest followed by hypertension (22.9%) 52.1% of our patients reported to have bladder outlet symptoms. Of this only 25% patients were on drug treatment for BOO. Presence of tachycardia was significantly associated with complications with a p value of 0.025. Presence of flank pain (p value 0.017) and loin tenderness (p value 0.00) was significantly associated with development of upper UTI. 37.5% patients developed complications. . Common complications observed in our study included acute kidney injury (37.50%), sepsis (12.60%), pyelonephritis (8.50%) and hypotension (4.10%) Hyponatremia was common with 29.2% patients having serum sodium less than 130 meq/dl. E.coli (68.70%) was the commonest etiological agent isolated and most of the isolates were sensitive to Cefoperazone sulbactam.The study concluded that delirium, hyponatremia and acute kidney injury are common in elderly males with urinary tract infections. Presence of flank pain and loin tenderness is significantly associated with upper UTI. Although obstructive urinary symptoms are common in elderly males, many of them are not under treatment for this.
Household Willingness to pay for improved solid Waste management: The case of Werabe town, Siltie zone, Ethiopia
Mr. Kedir Abdu Mr. Mohammed Essa Ms. Ritbey Negash
Cities in developing countries experiencing rapid urbanization and population growth too often lack the financial resources and institutional capacity to provide needed municipal infrastructure for adequate solid waste management, despite citizens’ demand for it. This paper uses a cross-sectional survey of 384 randomly selected households in Werabe town, Ethiopia, to assess the existing situation of solid wastes in the town and the willingness to pay (WTP) of residents for improved urban waste management, and suggest mechanisms for cost recovery. We used Logit and Tobit models in the empirical analysis to determine the factors that influence households’ WTP for improved solid waste management.Resultsrevealed thatresidents’WTPforimprovedsolid waste management is significantly relatedtoAge,wealthstatusandawarenessofenvironmentalquality,amongotherfactors.The resultssuggest that the current city fee for sanitation is far below the WTP of the residents. Themeanmaximum WTP we found which is 34.10 birr can be a guide for municipal officials in setting a more appropriate fee that can finance improvements in city solid waste management, where all households receive collection services, waste is disposed of properly, and recycling features areadded.
A Studyof Emergenceof Railways During the British Rule.
Mr. Ashvakumar Chandrakant Pawar
This article throws light on the need for the construction of Railways during the colonial period. The construction of Railways is considered as an important development by the Britishers in India. It connected even the interior area. It also focuses on the impact on the economy. The British commercial and economic benefits can be reflected.
Assessing the Factors that Affect Teachers Work Motivation in Secondary Schools of Arsi Zone
Mohammed Dekabo Kabeto
The main intention of this research was to assess the factors that affect teachers’ work motivation in secondary schools of Beriti, Gonde, Kenchare, NedhiGemmeda and Sagure secondary schools which are found in Arsi zone, Oromia region. To attain this objective, a descriptive research design was employed. The sample consisted of 37 teachers drawn from 74 and 5 school principals, and 5 school vice principals as well as 5 schools supervisors. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the target schools while simple random technique was employed to select the sample teachers. And, availability sampling technique was used for school principals, vice principals and supervisors. To gather the necessary data, questionnaires, interviews, and document review were employed. In analyzing the data, percentage was used. The results of the study indicated that there are various factors that affect teachers work motivation. Some of these factors are: lack of adequate facilities to perform job properly, good working environment, teachers staff room comfortable for work, adequate personal space in departments, own residence nearby and provision of rent allowance, insufficient fulfill of family needs, absence of transport, justice, motivated on current life. Thus, based on the findings of the study, recommendations are forwarded to alleviate the aforementioned problems in the schools under study.
Does the demographic variable influence the online purchase intention?
Internet usage and online shopping has undergone a tectonic shift during the pandemic period. However, the extent of change may not be uniform across the consumers. Demographic variables such as age, gender, education, occupation and income may have differing influence on the consumer attitude and purchase intention. This study aims to examine the same. The variables considered for the purpose of the study are experience with internet use, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use, e-WOM. Convenience sampling method was used to identify 125 respondents and data was collected using a specially designed web-based questionnaire. Finding reveals that ‘Electronic word of mouth’ and ‘perceivedease of use’ has a significant influence on the consumer’s attitude towards online purchase. The findings also highlight that, age has a significant influence on the online purchase intention.
Determinants of corporate social responsibility practices: the case of selected manufacturing companies in Guraghe zone, Ethiopia
Minda Yirga Beyene Aweke Ashenafi Kide
The aim of this study was to assess determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility(CSR)practice in selected manufacturing companies in Guraghe Zone. The study employed explanatory research designalong with mixed approach. Purposive, proportionate stratified and simple random sampling techniques wereused to select two manufacturing companies and 181respondents. Primary data were collected through self-administered questionnaires, interviews, observation andfocus group discussions. Descriptive statistics, Spearman’s correlation and binary logistic regression model were used to analyze the quantitative data by using a Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.Thequalitative data, on the other hand, were narrated systematically using content analysis approach to support the quantitative analysisresults. The findings of the study revealed that CSR was practiced at moderate levelin the studiedmanufacturing companies. Further, the study result shows that thedeterminant factors that affect CSRarelabor pressure, consumer demand, community enforcement, sustainability and profitability, social license, and nature of the firm. These factors have significant and positive correlation and effect on CSRPwithvaried extent. Among the determinants, community enforcement, and sustainability and profitability have greatest predictive effect on CSRP. Therefore, this study suggests to manufacturing companies to consider the identified evidence of determinant factors of CSRP so as to take actions in order to improve CSR implementation.
Assessing the Impact of Language Diversity in Interpersonal Communication in Case of Second and Third Year English Language and Literature Students of Bule Hora University
Yonas Yohannes Koyra
This study dealt with assessing the gap of interpersonal communication among students resulted from diversified language background focused on Bule Hora University second and third year English Language and Literature Students in 2020 G. C. academic year. Students in university need to have good interpersonal communication skills particularly oral communication which takes place in face-to-face interaction through words of the mouth. Ethiopia has multi languages and how it may affect oral interpersonal communication skills of students is the gap to fulfill this study. The research used descriptive research designs both qualitative and quantitative methods. Questionnaire, observation, and focus group discussion tools were employed to gather the data. Totally there are 44 students all of them participated in data gathering process by available sampling technique. The findings of the study indicated that interpersonal communication among Blue Hora University students of English language and literature department mainly affected by diverse language background. The participants have better understanding about interpersonal communication, but they face a great challenge to implement it with any students who have diversified language in the campus except those who use identical mother tongue incase interpersonal communication especially oral communication is highly influenced by language diversity. Students’ preference to communicate a person as well as the language resulted in language barrier which resulted malfunction in oral communication. The study reveals that there is a communication breakdown among students who came from different language background Therefore, they mightn’t made mutual relationships among students and also there were misunderstanding and misinterpretation among themselves. In case of that they missed knowledge and techniques to solve problems together with different students; this resulted in limitation of knowledge. Actually student students have no lack of knowledge of interpersonal communication, personal problem, and culture difference, but language diverse greatly affected their interpersonal communication particularly oral communication.
Audience perception and use of online advertising in Nigeria: a study of Jumia collectibles
Onwude Nnenna Fiona Onyebuchi Alexander Onyebuchi Ph.D Obayi Paul Martin Ph.D Okafor Clementina Ph.D
This study sought to examine audience perception and use of online advertising in Nigeria with a special focus in Jumia collectibles. In order to achieve this, the study raised specific objectives which were find out the extent to which audience use Jumia online advertising or application, find out challenges encountered by audience in the use of Jumia application or online media platform for the purchase. Acceptance model and diffusion of innovation theory was used for this study. The researcher used sequential mixed method design involving the combination of quantitative (survey) and qualitative (in depth interview) research design. The population of this study is the internet subscribers in Enugu State which is 3,096,071. The researcher used the Cochran formular of statistics to arrive at a sample size of 380. The multi stage sampling technique was used. The researcher used the questionnaire and the interview guide in collecting data. This study also revealed that Jumia users in Enugu state do not use Jumia online advertising and application frequently. The researcher also found out that Jumia users in Enugu state perceive Jumia online advertising and application both perceptively and negatively. This study also revealed that Jumia users in Enugu state face various challenges while using Jumia application. The chi square test was used to test the hypothesis. The study concluded that Jumia users do not use Jumia online advert and application to a large extent despite the fact the fact that they are exposed to Jumia online advertising and application to a large extent.
The Practice of Gender Responsive Class Room Instruction in Upper Primary Schools of South Gondar Administrative Towns (5-8 Grades)
Tilahun Fentie Nigussie
Gender equality teaching is as equal as quality education. Ensuring gender equality in education implies ensuring quality education. This study was carried out in upper primary schools in five administrative towns of South Gondar Zone (Wereta, Addis Zemen, Gayint, Debre Tabor and Estie). To collect quantitative data, questionnaires were employed for teachers. Besides, semi-structured observation checklist was used to observe and record class room instructions. There are 20 upper primary schools in the selected administrative towns. The total population of teachers in the selected schools is 623. Among this population, 305 participants were chosen using simple random sampling technique. The result showed that most teachers have awareness on gender equality class room instruction. Besides, most teachers confirmed that they practice gender responsive classroom interactions. They also practiced gender responsive language in their teaching-learning process in the class room. The result also showed that there was no statistically significant difference between male and female teachers in their awareness in most sub scales of measurement on gender equality class room instruction. Hence, the school should provide gender responsive- awareness trainings to those teachers who have poor and insufficient awareness to realize gender equality class room instruction. Furthermore, the school should help teachers to practice gender responsive language in their teaching-learning process by giving capacity building trainings on gender responsive language use.
Causes of business tax payers evasion and remedies to develop tax payment in Ethiopia
Minda Yirga Beyene1, Dr.L.V.R. Manoj Kumar2
Tax is obligatory revenueto every government to manage the economic requirements in within the nation and global wise. In a perfect world, all taxpayers might voluntarily pay their taxes. But in fact, no one enjoys by means of paying tax to the government and taxpayers will apply the strategies to avoid the tax payments in so many unethical ways. The researcher fixed a goal of the take a look at became to check the possible reasons why enterprise / Business income taxpayers avoid their taxable earnings and no longer to pay real amount of tax to the authorities. This paper describes the nine factors to know the causes why the tax payer is not willing to pay tax amount. To do the proper information from the respondents, the researcher used descriptive research analysis and extraction statistical method. To maintain more accuracy in factor analysis he applied Eigen, rotation ranking values. 270 taxpayers from different categorieswere responded in Ethiopia for this research; in addition, the researcher collected information from various books and websites. All information have been analyzed the use of descriptive facts and the study diagnosed the viable reasons of tax evasion and also discussed remedies to develop the tax payment by tax payers. Researcher used current model of SPSS for statistics results.
Entrepreneurship skills needed by vocational and technical education students for self-employment in a recessed economy
Timothy O. Olinya, 2Honesta C. Anorue & 3 Faruk S. Abdullahi
The study identified the entrepreneurship skills needed by Vocational and Technical Education Students for self-employment in a recessed economy. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The population for the study was 172 which comprises of 52 vocational and technical education Lecturers from both Federal College of Education Eha-Amfufu, and Enugu State College of Education (Technical)Enugu State, and 120 Vocational and Technical Education Students from both Colleges. The instrument for data collection was structured questionnaires. Data collected from the respondents was analyzed using statistical packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS-20.0). The statistical tools for data analysis were mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions. The study found that , organize activities in line with set up of organizational guidelines, ability to prevent conflicts and resolve issues as they arise, demonstrate effective financial management, and application of basic accounting record principles among others, are some of the entrepreneurship skills needed by vocational and technical education students for self-employment in a recessed economy. The study recommends among others, that Lecturers in vocational and Technical Education should undergo training and re-training in entrepreneurship skills in forecasting models to be able to meet up with new trend in global economy and Technology.