Factors affecting the growth of micro and small scale enterprises in case of Kotebe sub city
Dr. Neeraj Bali
The purpose of the Research was toasses factors affecting growth of micro and small scale enterprises in case of Kotebe sub city. This Research has employed explanatory research design in order to estimate annual MSEs employee growth by using explanatory variables such as access to work premise, access to finance, access to marketing & government support. It was designed to evaluate the extent of access to work premise, access to finance, access to marketing & government support prediction about annual MSEs employee growth. The five level Likert scale questionnaires was used as the main data gathering tool. In order to meet the objective, the researcher was used simple random sampling techniques and the data were collected from 298 participants. The collected data were analysed using mean, standard deviation; correlation and multiple linear regression analysis. The detail analysis findings of access to work premise, access to finance, access to marketing & access to government support were under practice in the Research area. The correlation coefficient findings of access to work premise, access to finance, access to marketing & access to government support have strong and positive relation with annual MSEs employee growth.The R square findings of access to work premise, access to finance, access to marketing & access to government support, all together have strong & positive association; and impactful predicts annual MSEs employee growthand out of these explanatory variables, access to finance was find to be the leading predictor of annual MSEs employee growth. Therefore, it is beneficial, if the concerned government body & other stakeholder of micro and small scale enterprises of Kotebe sub city has more increase the number of micro finance institution that might lead to increase annual employee growth; have identify MSEs with the problem of work premise and give them adequate work premise that should meet their enterprise demand; and have also identify the problem of MSEs more likely requires immediate government support & provide them possible support, that might also lead to increase their annual employee growth.
The Current Practice of Parent-school Partnership in High Schools of South Gonder Zone (9-10 grades)
Tilahun Fentie Nigussie
This research tried to investigate the current act of parent-school partnership in secondary schools of South Gonder Zone. For this investigation, descriptive survey design was utilized. In this design, both quantitative and subjective approaches were utilized. Secondary school teachers, parents, students and directors were the target populations of this study. Simple random sampling strategy was utilized to choose samples from educators, parents and students. Furthermore, purposive sampling strategy was employed to select school administrators and students. Information was gathered from 212 participants. Questionnaire, interview and focus group discussions were used to gather the necessary information from the study members. Information was investigated by using descriptive as well as inferential investigation instruments. Independent samples T-test and correlation coefficient were employed with the assistance of SPSS to carry out inferential investigation. Descriptive statistical measurements such as frequency, mean, standard deviation and percentage were applied in investigating the collected information. The discoveries of the analysis uncovered that the current acts of parent-school partnership were poor and insufficient. The findings concluded that the performance of school directors, teachers, parents and students in parent-school organization were poor and deficient. The investigation suggested that school directors and training specialists and strategy creators should discover mechanisms of scaling up the performance of parent-school organization.
Contribution of Traditional Agroforestry Practices for Rural Household Livelihoods in Libo Kemkem District, South Gondar Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia
Traditional agroforestry practices have been practiced for centuries in different parts of Ethiopia as a livelihood strategy of smallholder farmers. As a result, farmers are well habituated with this practice so as to improve their livelihood. The main objective of this paper was to identify the major types of agroforestry practices and its contribution to rural household livelihoods in Libo Kemekem district, South Gondar Zone, Amhara region, Ethiopia. For this study, socio-economic data were collected from 112 household heads by using semi-structured questionnaires. A random selection procedure was used to obtain samples of individual households from the three sampled kebeles. The responses of sample households were analyzed statistically using recent SPSS version 20. Home garden, parkland, woodlot, live fences, farm boundary planting, trees on pasture land, roadside tree planting and tree planted for soil conservation were found to be the most common types of agroforestry practices in the study area. These agro-forestry practices which integrate trees and shrubs as a major component play an important role in the daily lives and livelihoods of the farmers. Moreover, the tree components were not only important sources of their livelihood but also contribute for the improvement of crop productivity and livestock performance as a source of feed and shade. Some of the main socio-economic benefits derived for the practice include provision of tree products like timber, firewood, construction materials, medicines and fruit for food either for home consumption or surplus products for sale in the market as a means for income generation. Despite the all rounded livelihood benefit derived from the agroforestry practices noted in this study area, its development and expansion were constrained by various factors. Major constraints mentioned by the respondents towards tending of trees includes: termite damage at the early stage of seedling establishment, land shortage, lack of technical assistance (such as lack of required species and amount of seedlings), free grazing and pests especially on fruit trees like Mangifera indica. Generally the findings revealed that agroforestry practice play a significant role in supplying different livelihood benefits, which enhance household incomes and sources of wood products. Therefore, research and development efforts towards the improvement of agroforestry practice should be done by introducing new technologies so as to further improve the livelihoods of farmer and smoothly address their constraints.
The Role of Local Institutions in Multidimensional Poverty Reduction in Gurage Zone: The Case of Meskan Woreda
Aman Ousman Forgeto, Solomon Fiseha Abera, and Endalkachew Kabtamu Mekonen
The main objective of the study is to investigate the role of local institutions in multidimensional poverty reductionin Meskan woreda of Gurage zone. Relevant data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. Using simple random sampling, 241 sample households were selected. Both descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. The result showed 68.5% of households were multidimensionally poor. However, 65.1% of households are members in WaltaCooperative Union (WCU) and from these 92.1% were non-poor.Furthermore, from members of iqqub 89.5%, iddir 89.5% and debo 73.7% of households were non-poor. The logistic regression result indicated household size, education level, distance to main market center, access to credit; participations in local institutions, ownership of livestock, and total monthly income have significant effect on the poverty status of households. Therefore, to increase the roles of local institutions in poverty reduction, government and non-government organization shall enhance local institutions that successfully contributed to poverty reduction.
The Impact of Conflict in Tigray Region: The Perspectives from Bule Hora University Community
Mersha Zenebe Felek
The aim of this research was to investigate the impact of the conflict in Tigray from the Bule Hora University community. To this end, exploratory researchdesign has been employed and important data were collected through unstructured interview from purposively selected key informants consisted of the vice president of the university, directors of the university (human resource directorate director) of the university, public relation of the university, Dean of college of social sciences, and Head department of political science. In addition to in-depth interview the study also employed focus group discussions, from five lecturers and six students. In which the lecturers and students were discussed in two separate groups. The research has also reviewed previous works on the area with similar concern. Therefore, the findings of the study revealed that thecurrent conflict has exacerbated economic impact like food insecurity. Most famines today are the result of the armed conflict between the Tigray regional states and federal government. The study also underscored that the conflict in Tigray is affecting the economic activities such as agriculture and trade. Furthermore, the study concluded that the security impact of conflict in Tigray remains volatile with a gradual improvement in some areas in the Eastern and Western Zones of Tigray. In general, the study concluded that the conflict created between Tigray regional government and federal government is impacting the political institutional capacity of the Ethiopia to respond to the conflicts in the region as well as in the country. Finally, the researcher recommended to the regional government of Tigray and federal government of Ethiopia
Students self-belief about their mathematics capability and achievement in mathematics
Onoshakpokaiye, E. Odiri
Self-belief in someone’s capability is an important component in learning. Someone who doubts his/her capability or ability may not succeed in accomplishing a given task. Mathematics has been regarded as a difficult subject by many students, and so they try by all means to avoid it. Many students doubt their ability or capability in learning and carrying out mathematics task because they believed that they could not succeed, and this has caused lots of problems and discouragement to the students in learning the subject. This study looked at the students’ self-belief about their capability in learning mathematics, sources that enhance students’ self-beliefs about their mathematics capability, students’ self-belief in their mathematics ability and their achievement. The study uses a correlation. One hundred and forty students of the diploma year two students of a tertiary institution were selected as a sample through random sampling. Two research questions and two hypotheses were stated and used for the study. Instruments for data collection was the questionnaire which was analyzed using the SPSS. The study revealed that i) students’ self-beliefs about their capability in mathematicsinfluence their Ability ii) students’ self-beliefs about their capability in mathematicsinfluence students’ achievement in mathematics.
The role of marketing strategies on sales performance of commercial bank of Ethiopia
Minda Yirga Beyene Shimelis Zewude
The purpose of the study was to determine the role of marketing strategies on sales performance of commercial bank of Ethiopia.The researchers employed both quantitative and qualitative (Mixed) research approaches. Commercial Bank of Ethiopia is operating in 15 districts and it has more than 1600 branches throughout the country and branches in South Sudan and Djibouti.Both probability and non-probability sampling methods were adopted in this study. Non- probability or judgmental sampling technique was used to select four districts among fifteen districts of commercial bank of Ethiopia and Proportional Stratified Probability sampling techniques was used to select appropriate sample size from each stratum (districts) finally the researchers used simple random sampling to select each respondent using lottery method. The total theoretical populations are 34,879 whereas; the accessible populations are 301 and sample size from these accessible populations is 172. The analysis was done by the help of SPSS version 20 and presented using descriptive statistics. Tables and pie charts were used to provide information on the variables. Interpretation is made on the mean, frequency, and percentage of the data. The results are investigated in terms of descriptive statistics followed by inferential statistics on the variables.The result of regression analysis revealed that 65% of sales performance of the bank could be explained by seven service marketing strategy considered in this study. The prediction ability of independent variables is considerable enough to improve sales performance of the bank. From this result, the researcher concluded that using all seven-service marketing mix strategy interactively facilitate higher sales performance of the bank. This research indicated that service marketing mix strategy directly affect the sales performance of the bank. Bankers should understand the benefit of each service marketing mix strategy and choose the best marketing mix strategy which enhances higher sales performance of the bank.
Customer satisfaction measurement on services which provided by telecommunications companies in Baghdad: Analytical Study about Consumers opinions sample from Baghdad
Alaa Nabeel Al-Heali
The research aims to measure customer satisfaction with the services provided by telecommunications companies in Baghdad, by taking the opinions of a sample of consumers of these services in the city of Baghdad and providing the companies ’management with the necessary information to improve the level of their services. Also, find out which telecom companies are the most satisfying to consumers. To achieve the objectives of the research, a questionnaire consisting of two axes was used, the first includes the personal data of the sample (gender, age, academic achievement, monthly income level, type of service subscription, name of the company with which the customer subscribes, average monthly use value), while the second axis includes a measure of satisfaction Customers reported the services of telecommunications companies in Baghdad, and the validity of the tool was verified using the validity of the arbitrators, and the data was analyzed using the Excel statistical program, and the research reached a set of results, including: high prices of telecommunications companies’ services in the city of Baghdad, the inadequate financial fees to obtain subscriptions, call tariffs and Internet service with customers’ monthly income. Research recommendations, companies need to prepare programs to measure customer satisfaction continuously to monitor the extent of customer satisfaction with their services, analyze the reasons for dissatisfaction, and follow up the rate of customer loss, as it indicate that these companies fail to satisfy their customers.
Determinants of firm profitability: in the case of selected Ethiopian tannery companies
Dereje Lemma Lalisho
The general objective of this study is to investigate the determinants of profitability in the case of selected Ethiopian Tannery Companies. Methodology- The study employed an explanatory research design with a quantitative approach to assess the relationship between profitability and its determinant factors. The study had a population size of 29 Tannery Companies in Ethiopia. To undertake this research paper, the researcher used non-probabilistic sampling specifically the judgmental sampling method was used to select eight (8) sample Tannery Companies. Balanced panel data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, correlation, and Multiple Linear regression analysis. Ordinary Least square model in the form of multiple regression analysis was applied to analyze the annual data generated from the financial statements of the selected Tannery Companies covering a period from 2008 - 2017 G.C. In this study, ROA was used as the measure of profitability. Findings- The paper includes tangibility, firm size, liquidity, leverage, growth rate, and inventory turnover as independent factors that determine the profitability of Tannery Companies in Ethiopia. The result from the empirical examination found that only Tangibility, Inventory Turnover, and Firm growth rate have a statistically significant effect on the companies (ROA), whereas Liquidity, Leverage, and Firms size have a statistically insignificant effect on the profitability of Ethiopian Tannery Companies. Conclusion- Besides, the study suggested for the companies that give more attention to the statistically significant variables of the sectors such as firm growth rate, inventory turnover, and tangibility. While the results may not be generalizable to all Ethiopian Tannery Companies found in the country, the findings should provide valuable information to managers for developing their strategies with regard to firm-specific determinants.
Determinant of nonperforming loan in development bank of Ethiopia
Mr. Dereje Lemma Lalisho
This study aimed at examining the determinant of non-performing loans on the development bank of Ethiopia. Other objectives included determining bank-specific and macroeconomic factors for default loan performance. Based on DBE reports from 1990-2019 there was an increase in NPLs between the studied period. Due to this the performance of the bank highly affected and the bank leads to insolvency. The thesis aimed to determine determinants of non-performing loans in DBE by determining theoretical and empirical evidence that help answer the research objective. The study used an explanatory design and a mixed research approach. The primary data by interviewing the staff of DBE those who were senior credit officers and team managers. And the secondary data was obtained from the bank’s annual financial performance report and National Bank's annual report of thirty consecutive fiscal periods from 1990 up to 2019. This study used an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model or Bound Testing approach to co-integration. Non-performing loan ratio was taken as the dependent variable while Return on asset (earning capacity), liquidity, capital adequacy, bank size, exchange rate, lending rate (interest rate), inflation, and GDP have been taken as independent variables. The study found out that there was a significant negative relationship between earning ability (ROA), Interest rate, Gross domestic products, inflation rate, and nonperforming loans of development banks of Ethiopia. The relationship between bank size and liquidity with non-performing loans was found to be positive. In addition to bank-specific factors and macroeconomic variables related to with variables such Bank lends by the project itself as collateral with small lending rate relatively other commercial banks of the country, a long delay on implantation, poor known your customer assessment, political and social instability, inadequate coordination among stakeholder, governance, and structure, excessive external intervention The implications of the study suggest that Development Bank of Ethiopia should modified business model, bank credit policy-related issue such as appropriateness, timelines risk management and alignment with the current political macroeconomic realities, the bank should regulating interference of government bodies on loan approval, processes, and implementation, the bank should reduce project delays.
Contribution of Traditional Agroforestry Practices for Woody Species Diversity in Libo Kemkem District, South Gondar Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia
Understanding the role of traditional agroforestry practices for woody species composition and diversity is crucial to enhance agricultural productivity and ensure sustainable development. The aim of this paper was to assess woody species composition and diversity of traditional agroforestry practices in Libo Kemkem district, South Gondar zone, Amhara region, Ethiopia. For this study, three sample kebeles namely Mander Maraym and Asta Maryam from high land, Derta from mid land, and Shehoch Tara from low land kebeles were selected based on existing agroforestry practices and agro-ecological zone. Reconnaissance survey, field observation, and field inventory were carried out from on-site farm woody species. For socio-economic data collection, household survey was randomly administered on 112 respondents by using semi-structured questionnaires. Vegetable data were analyzed by using Shannon diversity index. The result revealed that farmers were planted and intentionally maintained diverse types of tree and shrub species on their farmland as farmland tree/shrub resources. The diverse traditional agroforestry practices across different agro-ecological zones of the inventoried sites have hosted a large number of indigenous (63) and exotic (11) woody species. A total of 74 woody species representing 35 families were recorded in the various traditional agroforestry practices across the three assessed agro-ecological zones. Among the 74 woody species recorded, 35 species were from the highland, 65 were from the mid-altitude and 27 from the lowland zone. Hence, traditional agroforestry practices provide a significant contribution for maintaining biodiversity in agro-ecosystems through preserving native and non-native woody species. The species diversity of agroforestry practices must be further augmented with both indigenous and useful non-invasive exotic woody species so as to improve its biodiversity conservation role in the agro-ecosystems.
Exploring the effectiveness of radio lessons among rural primary school learners in Zimbabwe: during COVID-19 era
The advent of Covid-19 negatively affected rural primary school learners in Zimbabwe and beyond. Consequently, face to face teaching and learning were affected due to need to maintain social distance to avoid the spread of Covid-19 virus among learners and teachers. The Ministry of Primary and Secondary Schools in Zimbabwe in partnership with UNICEF launched primary school radio lessons from 16th June 2020 as an alternative method of promoting effective and quality teaching and learning. A closer analysis of the focus of many studies conducted on teaching and learning methods in Zimbabwean rural primary schools show the existence of gap in relation to radio lessons. Current studies have focused on use of online platforms such as WhatsApp, computers among others. Hence there is need to engage in this study. This is a qualitative article with a bias towards an exploratory study. Purposive sampling technique was used in this study. A sample of twenty-two participants, focus group discussions and observations were used as data generation technique. The generated data was thematically analyzed. The article found that, radio lessons are ineffective teaching and learning method because there are no constant radio frequencies and majority of learners do not have radios in Zimbabwe rural areas. To this end, the participants recommend that Government and other stakeholders should urgently put radio infrastructure in rural areas and freely provide small radios to all rural learners in Zimbabwe.
The state and press freedom in Nigeria: concepts, precepts, and prospects
The state and press freedom in Nigeria: concepts, precepts, and prospects
The mass media is seen as an integral part of state machinery. In fact the power of the media is equated to the three arms of government- the Executive, Legislature and Judiciary. But much as this trio enjoys relative independence and freedom, the media, in view of its arrogated role as the Fourth Estate of the society does not. Professionally and scholarly, media freedom in Nigeria has remained a discourse in antiquity. The fight for the freedom of the press is said to be as old as the history of the press and the Nigerian nation state itself. This paper takes a critical look at the relationship between the media and the workings of state power with a view to analyze issues, trends, and challenges as well as recommend better ways of institutionalizing press freedom as a sine qua non condition for press operation in Nigeria.
Innovative Pedagogical Methods: Effect of Jigsaw With Respect to Rural urban disparity in students scholarly performance in upper basic social studies
The study examined jigsaw innovative pedagogical method,with respect to rural-urban disparity in students’ scholarly performance in Upper Basic Social Studies. The design for the study was a quasi-experimental pretest posttest control group design. The sample of 120 students was drawn from four upper basic schools. Social Studies Scholarly Performance Test (SSSPT) was used as the instrument for measuring students’ scholarly performance. The study’s research question was answered using mean, standard deviation and the hypotheses were tested using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). The study revealed that jigsaw innovative pedagogical methodhad significant effects on Upper Basic students’ scholarly performance in Social Studies; urban-ruraldisparity does not affect Upper Basic students’ scholarly performance in Social Studies. It was suggested thatteachers should adopt the jigsaw innovative pedagogical method in schools’ lessons and classrooms to boost students’ scholarly performance in social studies;workshops and seminars should be organised for Social studies teachers by the Ministry of Education on usingJigsaw innovative pedagogical method in the social studies classrooms; jigsaw innovative pedagogical method should be engaged in the teaching of Social Studies, and while doing this, no special attention should be attached to urban and rural location of the students concerned.
Influence of mass media health interventions on prevention and control of Cholera in selected States of South-East, Nigeria
Luke Ifeanyi Anorue, 2 Stanley. U Ugboaja, 3 Joseph U. Anedo
The study investigated the influence of mass media health interventions on the prevention and control of cholera in selected states of South-east, Nigeria. Survey research method was adopted for the study with the questionnaire as the instrument for data collection. A sample size of 384 was arrived at using Cochran (1977) sample size formula. Findings revealed that there is a high level of awareness on communication interventions on cholera prevention and control among the respondents. Also, majority (n=104, 27.3%) got to know about these interventions chiefly through interpersonal communication channels like family and friends. This was followed by (n=70, 19.2%) of the respondents who got to know through the radio. Consequently, the researchers concluded among other things, that respondents are very much aware of the cholera danger signs health communication interventions, just as they showed awareness of other health campaigns brought to their locality. Thus, it was recommended that campaigns on cholera danger signs should be process-oriented and not event-based; that such campaigns in the rural and urban areas should embrace more of interpersonal channels with strategies that are driven down to the community levels, alongside the mass media such as Television, Radio, Newspapers among others.
Rural teachers perceptions on challenges and solutions of inclusive education in Zimbabwe rural primary schools
Munyaradzi Chidarikire (PhD) Prof. Dipane Hlalele
This article interrogated the phenomenon of rural teachers’ perceptions towards challenges and solutions of inclusive education in Zimbabwe rural primary schools. Ubuntuism/ Unhuism theoretical lens was used to interrogate rural teachers’ perceptions on challenges and solutions of inclusive education in rural primary schools. Furthermore, this is a qualitative study located in the broader space of transformative paradigm. We used Participatory Action Research to generate data from the participants. A purposive sample comprising ten primary school teachers from Gutu rural district in Zimbabwe were selected for this study. Data were generated through focus group discussions as participants responded to two questions: what are the challenges facing inclusive education in Zimbabwean rural primary schools? and how can inclusive education be enhanced in rural primary schools? Then generated data was divided into two themes and analysed through Critical Discourse Analysis’s three levels namely: textual, discursive and social practice. This paper found that lack of resources such as lack of qualified inclusive education teachers militate against success of inclusive education in rural primary schools. Consequently, this article recommended that, the Ministry of Primary and Secondary schools should deploy competent and qualified inclusive education teachers in rural schools
Business Educators Perception of Innovative Teaching Strategies For Delivery of Business Education Programme in Tertiary Institutions in Enugu State, Nigeria
Anorue, Honesta. C., Babalulu, Madu Saba. , Ekuma, John. E
The sustainability of tertiary institutions in this contemporary era will increasingly rely on diverse forms of digital delivery and transmission. The application of innovative teaching strategies is required to promote teaching and learning in an effective manner. The study sought to examine Business Educators’ perception of innovative teaching strategies for effective delivery of Business Education programme in tertiary institutions in Enugu State. To achieve these objectives, two research questions guided the study. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. A total of 57 respondents were drawn from three public tertiary institutions from Department of Business Education in Enugu state, which represents the sample for the study due to its manageability. The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation, while the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using ANOVA. Based on the findings it was concluded that the application of innovative teaching strategies in teaching and learning of Business Education will go a long way in improving students’ performance more than the conventional lecture methods. It was therefore, recommended that Business Educators should continue to utilize innovative teaching strategies, methods and techniques, such as; virtual reality, e- learning, moodle, jigsaw among others in order to facilitate and promote effective teaching and learning. Also Business Educators need to constantly update their skills and knowledge so as to keep abreast with the new technologies.
E-Learning Facilities Social Studies Laboratory and Students Academic Performance in Colleges of Education
Ogheneakoke Edore Clifford 1 Akpotor Uhririnoghene 2
The study examined E-learning facilities,Social Studies laboratory students’ academic performance. The study was an Ex-post-facto study. The sample consisted of 315 students drawn through the purposive sampling technique using the multi-stage procedure. The instrument for data collection was the questionnaire. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation was applied to answer research questions, and ANOVA statistic was used to test the hypotheses at a 0.05 level of significance. The study demonstrated that a significant relationship between social studies laboratory and academic performance showed a relationship between E-learning facilities and students’ academic performance; a significant relationship existed between the use of projectors and academic performance. It wassuggested that the National Commission for Colleges Education (NCCE) ensure that there are equipped laboratory and E-learning facilities before accreditation is given to any Department.
The impact of corporate culture on employee's commitments At Vietnamese commercial banks
Tran Minh Hieu , Huynh Thanh Tu , Ly Thanh Binh
This study applies the research model of Jung et al. to measure the factors of corporate culture that impact the employee’s engagement at commercial banks in Vietnam. The study used Cronbach’s Alpha reliability test method and discovery factor analysis (EFA) to test and evaluate the scale. The results show that the factors of Teamwork, Training and Development, Rewards and Recognition, and CorporateCommunication affectthe employee’s engagement at Vietnamese commercial banks. The research results will be the basis for the management of commercial banks to improve the employee's commitment. In addition, the study also proposes to enhance the employee’s engagement at commercial banks in the future.
Economic Determinants of Military Expenditure in Ethiopia during 2011 2019: A Panel Analysis
Mr. Minda Yirga Beyene Dr. S. Srinivasan Dr. Venkatesh Andavar
Ethiopia’s military expenditure is increasing from time to time which detrimentally distracts the actual follow of the economy. The country needs to build a virtuous protection and henceforth, it will do reduction of expenses for growth. Ethiopia is in a prerequisite of to do stability the both. Methods: This paper objective to evaluate the economic determinants of military expenditure in Ethiopia during the period 2011 – 2019. Linear Regression analysis has been applied with military expenditure and export, GDP, gross capital formation, urban population and foreign direct investment. Findings: Ethiopia’s military expenditure has significantly influenced export of Ethiopia which is articulated in the regression analysis and the coefficient is -1.37, R-square is 0.74 and t-statistics is -3.90. GDP increased in the country which is highly significant influence in the increased military expenses and expressed in the regression analysis that coefficient is -5.68, R-square is 0.94 and t-statistics is -11.65. And also, the capital formation of Ethiopia is significantly increased the military expenditure of the country. The urban population of Ethiopia has significantly influenced the military expenses which is clearly elucidated in the regression analysis where coefficient is -9.89, R-square is 0.94 and t-statistics is -10.92 and military expense is significant influence with the FDI of Ethiopia which is clarified as coefficient is -0.40 and t-statistics is -19.60 and there are meager influences of the military expenses by FDI, so R-square is 0.83. Conclusions: Ethiopia’s military expenditure has increased significantly from 2011 to 2019. It has significant relationship between export, GDP, gross capital formation, urban population and foreign direct investment, hence, Ethiopia faces internal and external threads, so it is always surging the outlay for military due to purchase new weapons and import arm equipment. Furthermore, the government policy should focus on GDP, capital formation and FDI to development of the country.
Determinants of internal audit effectiveness: A case study in Hadiya zone public finance and economic development sector offices
Endalkachew Nigusse 1 Dr.Nageswara Rao Thadvuai 2 Dr.Anitha Lourdu James 3
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the determinants of internal audit effectiveness in the Hadiya zone’s public finance and economic development sector offices (in SNNPR, Ethiopia). The management teams and the internal auditors from all the public finance and economic development sector office are the sources for the required data to the researcher through the questionnaires administered.. In addition, the findings of this study are to show the direct relation and effects of: management support, management perception, organizational independence of internal auditors and adequate and competent internal auditor’s staff with the internal audit effectiveness on the public finance and economic development sector management. According to the regression output, the management support and the existence of adequate and competent internal audit staff were contributed for the internal audit effectiveness in the public finance and economic development sector significantly and positively. The remaining two variables; the management's perception for the internal audit value and the organizational independent of internal auditors were positively related with the internal audit effectiveness but their contribution for the internal audit effectiveness was statistically not significant. All of these four independent variables are making 55.10% of the contributions to internal audit effectiveness in the public finance and economic development sector offices. The public finance and economic development sector offices should understand that the contributions of these variables were collectively significant to identify any non-compliance activities in their office and to add values for the internal audit effectiveness in the public finance and economic development sector offices.
Assessment of Students Reading Comprehension Status: The Instance of Grade Eight Students at MangudoPrimary School
Assessment of Students Reading Comprehension Status: The Instance of Grade Eight Students at MangudoPrimary School Yonas Yohannes Koyra Ammanuel BerhanuJarssa
The purpose of this study was to assess students’ reading comprehension status in Mangudo primary school with a reference to grade eight which has 211 students within five sections.It particularly treats students’ reading comprehension skills initiatives and practices for checking their reading comprehension status. It has employed a survey descriptive research design with 70 simple random sampled students. The result revealed that there isremarkable and solid progress after the intervention of consecutive reading strategies-based instructions. Almost all of the students have improved their reading comprehension skills status through reading comprehension strategies that help them to tackle the problem like lack of basic and inadequate knowledge of English which results in serious errors in reading comprehension. Some of them achieved complete realization of reading comprehension while the majority remain non-basic and not many errors.
Nostalgic Narratives on Indigenous Medicines and Medication Systems among Traditional Healers in Guji People, Southern Ethiopia
Gemeda Odo Roba
This article investigates the nostalgic narratives about accessibility, usability and sustainability of indigenous medicines and medication systems among Guji people traditional healers in Ethiopia. The methods of data production like in-depth interview, key informants interview and focus group discussions were conducted to produce data from local elders and traditional healers. According to the findings the nostalgic narratives widely recounted by local elders and traditional healers indicate that indigenous medicinal knowledge and medication systems have been highly eroded due to endangerment of medicinal knowledge, declining of medicinal values, degradation of medicinal plants and waning of healers reputation particularly following changes in usability, accessibility and sustainability of medicinal knowledge. These changes have resulted in nostalgic narratives whereby local healers and community elders idyllically recount about gradual losses and degradations of medicinal knowledge and medication systems sustainability. The nostalgic narratives point up that there are significant changes in usability, accessibility and sustainability of indigenous medicine and medication system. Therefore, the researchers, local healers, governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations and local people need to work in collaboration to preserve the indigenous medicinal knowledge for socio-economic benefit of current as well as coming generations.