Socio-economic status of rural women: selected part of Cooch Behar district, West Bengal, India
Rural economy of India is characterised by a massive presence of merely paid women workers. Rural women workforce plays a significant role in the economy who participated in large number of economic activity in agriculture and allied sector. Equitable access to more and better jobs in rural areas enable rural women to become effective economic actors and engines of growth. In India female participation in labour market has increased due to increasing rate of employment opportunities. The entry of women in labour market has fundamentally changed the status of women in the family as well as in the society. Today, indigenous women are increasingly entering the formal and informal labour market, as self-employed workers or wage earners. However women are facing new challenges regarding their social status which varies from rural to urban areas and various families in one area. Gender inequality, limited access to credit, health care and education has posed a number of challenges for rural women in all states of India. They also face many domestic and social problems. For the work, primary data was obtaining through field survey. Again, secondary data were collected from various sources and analyzed with suitable statistical and cartographic techniques. Present research study has tried to explore the status of rural working women of Tufanganj Block-I and their distribution in different sector. Most of the women workers of the study area belong to poor economic condition which is the main reason of their work. In conclusion part proper suggestions are incorporated to arrest the problem.
Analyse the level of potato productivity in Hooghly district of West Bengal during the time span of 2007-08
West Bengal ranks second in terms of potato production in India (Department of Agriculture Cooperation, Govt. of India). Hooghly district is one of the leading potato producing districts of West Bengal. The paper attempts to analyse the level of potato productivity in Hooghly district of West Bengal during the time span of 2007-08. The present study is entirely based on the secondary data which have been collected mainly from the District Statistical Handbook, 2008. Crop yield and concentration indices ranking coefficient of Singh (1976) has been used to demarcate the blocks of Hooghly district in terms of potato productivity. The paper reveals that the highest yield index of potato is found in Pursurah block (133.05) and the lowest in Khanakul- II (20.37). The highest concentration index of potato has been recorded in Pursurah (151.05) and the lowest as 22.02 in Serampur-Uttarpara block. The highest level of potato productivity has been found in Pursurah block and the lowest in Balagarh block. To minimise the disparity in potato productivity across the blocks of Hooghly district, special emphasis should be given to the efficient use of modern technological inputs and allocation of fertile alluvial tracts with better use of irrigation.
Status of living of Rickshaw Pullers in Malda town of West Bengal
The main objective of the study is to analyze the socio-economic condition of rickshaw pullers in Malda town of West Bengal. The study is based on the primary sources of data collected through field survey 2012-13. Rickshaw pullers are those people who drive the rickshaws on the roads, lanes, bi-lanes, transporting people and commodities. These rickshaw pullers help in linkage process through its well networking system in Malda town. Rickshaw pullers are one of the poorest of the poor in the society. It is the most important source of earning for those people who are not working in the formal sectors. The reasons which forced them to pulled rickshaw are unemployment, poverty, low income, low educational status and large family size. Rickshaw pulling activity is an important occupation of the informal sector, where a million of poor not only serve the transportation needs of the society but also try to meet out their own economic and employment needs.
Educational development of Himachal Pradesh, 2011: A spatial perspective
Mr.Baidya Nath Saha
Although, male and female constitutes the important segment of our population. Since from the inception of human life, the female got second preference than male in all activites. Education is not exceptional one. In present study, an attempt has been made to examine the gender disparity in overall literacy along with rural-urban areas of Himachal Pradesh at district level. The study is based on secondary sources of data. The data pertaining to all twelve districts of the state have been obtained from directorate of Census Operations, Shimla. The district constitutes the basic unit of observation. The Sopher disparity index (1974) modified by Kundu and Rao (1980) has been used to find out the gender disparity in overall literacy along with rural and urban areas. The spatial variations in literary at district level have been shown by maps and tables. It is evident from the study that significant improvement has been observed in male-female literacy and the gender gap has decreased from 22.96 per cent in 1971 to 13.06 per cent in 2011. As per 2011 Census, the gender disparity in literacy was lower (0.12) in study area as compare to national average of 0.15. However, there were notable spatial variations at district level. The gender disparity in literacy is two-fold higher in Chamba (0.20) which ranked at top place while Una district with 0.10 placed at bottom rank among all twelve districts. Furthermore, the variations of literacy among the male and female in the state become further clear when it is considered separately for rural and urban areas.
Wetlands and Sewage Problem of Kandi Town in Murshidabad District
Development means the growth of well being and sustainability of resources. Sewage problem is an increasing and contemporary problem in tropical regions. It has been recognised as a major environmental problem for some time (e.g. Banner 1974). Not only on aquatic life, has it had a great impact on terrestrial life and urban development especially of slum areas. In the period of Globalisation and in spite of being implemented “Swachh Bharat Abhiyan” we are habituated to live with our so called life style. Historically Kandi is an old and aristocrat town of Murshidabad. Near about 60 surrounding villages are depended on this town. The civilisation of this town was started based on Mayurakshi river (so called Kana Mayurakshi).With the increasing population the wastages are increasing gradually which creates threatening towards this civilisation. Few Measures have taken to get rid of this problem but it is not sufficient by the municipality. This paper is trying to present the of Garbage and sewage problem as the barrier of development for this municipality
Tourism industry of North Bengal - from Geographical point of view
Dr. Renu Jamwal
The term Tourism has been emerged as a major industry since World War II. This tourism industry is developed around a region of unique characteristics of natural, social, cultural, ethnic resource diversity and so on. North Bengal comprises of six districts namely Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, Coochbehar, Uttar Dinajpur, Dakshin Dinajpur, and Malda. Each of the above districts has unique characteristics in respect of natural, social, cultural, ethnic resources. The natural beauty of Darjeeling mountain, reserve forest of Terai and Dooars, heritage site of Malda and the folk culture of forest surrounded rural area in North Bengal are attracting tourists (both domestic and international) from all over the world. The Darjeeling hills are well known as Queen of Hills. The Darjeeling Tea and Darjeeling Himalayan Railway (DHR) are regarded as the heritage of Darjeeling Hills. The unique ethnic community of Totopara of Jalpaiguri district, Coochbehar Rajbari and Heritage site of Malda (Goura) district has a major interest of tourist worldwide. This industry emerged as an important segment of daily life of the people, strengthening their economy and also generates supplementary income for local in rural as well as urban areas. But today lack of proper management the tourism industry of North Bengal has been suffered a lot. This paper is an attempt to focus the present problem and planning to rejuvenate development of Tourism industry of the study area.
Utilization of Irrigation on agriculture in Uttar Dinajpur District, West Bengal, India
Irrigation is practised in those areas where rainfall is seasonal and the amount is not satisfactory for crop production. The monsoonal land having seasonal rainfall, require irrigation either from canal, tank or well so as to ensure agricultural production. In India rainfall is seasonal and the distribution of rainfall is uneven. India has the largest acreage of land under irrigation. In the high irrigated area the cropping intensity is found high and in the low irrigated area cropping intensity is found low. This article focussed on the present status of irrigation and cropping pattern on block basis in the Uttar Dinajpur district, in West Bengal, India. After applying different methods and technique (Pearson’s product moment correlation co-efficient, Regression line etc.). It has been concluded that the districts has a positive relation between two variables. Though the ground water utilisation is the main source of irrigation but other sources are also used to increase the cropping intensity in the region. Some blocks gets high irrigation facilities but the facilities is not well enough.
Mapping of land transformation Purba Medinipur district: using Remote sensing and GIS techniques
Mapping of land use / land cover (LULC) and change detection by using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System method specially its anthropogenic relationship is an area of interest that has been attracting attention. It is an important factor for planning and managing activities concerning the use of land surface on the earth. Remote sensing techniques have improved mapping and interpretation of data as a means of understanding and effectively managing the present resources for sustainable development. This paper is an attempt to assess the changing pattern in land use / land cover in Egra-I block of Purba Medinipur district, West Bengal on during the period from 1990 to 2011 and to explore their contemporary economic significances. In the present study Landsat 4, 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data is used. The TM sensor collects surface reflectance data in the visible and near infrared (bands 1-5, 7), and the thermal infrared (band 6) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Spatial resolution of the TM data is 30 meters per pixel. This study to assessed land use change with descries of the study area 1831.97 hectors (7.77%) is the surface agricultural fallow land. The results of this research are going to provide reference for trend of land use change and management in this area. Present highlights the changing pattern of land use and land cover by the remote sensing and GIS techniques in apprehending the position in the region.
A statistical analysis among the intensity of cropping with other parameters of Jalpaiguri districts West Bengal
The main objective of this study are to analyses the extent of intensification of agriculture in Terai-Doors region of Jalpaiguri district, to find out the extent of agriculture and find out the factors responsible for increasing the intensity of cropping. The analysis reveals that there is a block wise variation in the intensity of cropping and it is high where density of population is high, but a whole it is found to be low in the whole region. Therefore, all kinds of efforts should be made to increase the intensity of cropping in the region in order to achieve higher level of agricultural production and productivity.
Socio-economic impact of Alipurduar town on its surrounding villages
Alipurduar is a district municipal town of West Bengal and is located at the eastern end of the State. Alipurduar town is surrounding by few number of backward villages. There are many parameters of this study; this study is only analyzing the impact of Alipurduar town in case of education and occupation sectors. So this paper the Socio- economic impact of Alipurduar town in the educational, occupational development aspects has been evaluated on its neighboring villages.